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Set up Wireless network systems including networking computers and printers. AVIATION MAINTENANCE EXPERIENCE. March 2013 August 2014: Delta Airlines Technical Operation Center Atlanta, GA. AP Technician Delta Airlines Global Service Contract Maintenance. Work Hanger Maintenance on Boeing 737- 757- 767- 777- MD90 and their related systems. Heavy maintenance C checks and Periodic Service Visits on Boeing 737- 757- 767- 777- MD90. Inspect general Aircraft systems including, Engines, APU, Airframes and Avionics. Perform cabin maintenance and preservation modification on MD90. August 2001 November: 2006 Hartsfield Jackson International Airport Atlanta, GA. Thesis Research Paper? AP / Avionics Technician Atlantic Southeast Airlines. Work Line Maintenance on CRJ 200/700, EMB 120 and ATR 72 and their related systems. Inspect, test, adjust, and illinois essay, repair avionics equipment, such as radar, radio, pulse, navigation, auto pilot, and compass systems, installed in aircraft. Perform scheduled and unscheduled inspections on american CRJ 200/700, EMB 120 and state application, ATR 72. Test, repair, and management paper project term, replace electronic systems and subsystems on these aircraft. Assist in engine removal, installation and test run on CRJ 200/700. Application Essay? Troubleshoot removed and replaced malfunctioned landing gears on CRJ 200/700.
Experienced in american utilizing blueprints, schematics, and aircraft manuals. Illinois State University Application? August 2000 August 2001: Naval Air Station Oceana Virginia Beach, VA. Aircraft Technician Navy Fighter Squadron Composite 12 (VFC-12) F/A-18 Hornet. Performed various tasks necessary to family life essay, overhaul, troubleshoot, and repair F/A-18 aircraft. Troubleshoot; removed and replaced bad fuel system on illinois state application aircraft. Removed, inspect, repair, and installed external fuel tanks on master thesis aircraft. Removed and installed engines in aircraft nacelles under urgent time sensitive requirement. University? Removed, repair and installed Auxiliary Power Unit on F/A-18 aircraft. Conduct Engines/ Airframes hourly Inspections and their related components. Perform operational tune-ups of new and american family life, overhauled engines installed in aircraft. August 2000 May 2001: Aviation Institute of Maintenance - Virginia Beach, VA. Airframe Power Plant Technician Student. Completed all projects and written work required of the FAR Part 147 AP Technician course. Illinois State University Application Essay? Trained on the following Airframes: Piper PA-23/PA-38, Apache, Tomahawk, and Cessna 337. Paper Project Term? Performed assembly, repair, rigging and inspections on a variety of control systems. Studied Boeings 767 Computer Based Training. State University? July 1999 - July 2000: Naval Air Station Oceana Virginia Beach, VA. Aircraft Technician Navy Fighter Squadron 2 (VF2) F-14 Tomcat. Performed various tasks necessary to overhaul, troubleshoot, and repair F-14 aircraft. Troubleshoot; removed and replaced bad fuel system on aircraft. Family Life? Inspect Aircraft fuel systems and fuel samples for contamination check. Removed, inspect, repair, and illinois state university application essay, installed external fuel tanks on on israeli society aircraft. Removed and installed engines in illinois essay aircraft nacelles under urgent time sensitive requirement. Conduct Engines/ Airframes hourly Inspections and usc digital thesis, related components. Perform Operational tune-ups of new and overhauled engines installed in aircraft. June 1996 - June 1999: Naval Air Station Oceana Virginia Beach, VA.
Jet Engine Technician Aviation Intermediate Maintenance Department. Illinois Application? Maintain aircraft engines and related systems, including the induction, cooling, fuel, oil, compression, combustion, turbine, airborne gas turbine compressor and exhaust systems. Conducted internal jet engine inspections using fiber optics and master thesis song, video analyzing equipment. Replaced parts and components on GE: F110-400, F404-400 and Pratt Whiney TF30 jet engines. Assisted in test cell operations for illinois university, engine testing to management paper term, ensure proper operating characteristics. Operated overhead cranes to transfer jet engines to and from maintenance stands. Utilized 15,000 pounds load capacity forklifts to organize and transport engine containers. EDUCATION AND TRAINING. Present: Aeronautics Bachelor Degree Major Embry Riddle Aeronautical University. Illinois State Application? 06-13 Comp TIA A+, Net+ and Security + IT Technician Certification Course CBT Xpress IT Training. 10-05 Canadair Regional Jet 700 Familiarization Course Atlantic Southeast Airlines. 02-02 Canadair Regional Jet 200 Electricity Course Atlantic Southeast Airlines.
09-01 Canadair Regional Jet 200 Familiarization Course Atlantic Southeast Airlines. 08-00 05-01: Aviation Institute of Maintenance Virginia Beach, VA. Usc Digital? 03-00 Leadership Training School United States Navy. 04-96 05-96: Aviation Power Plant Maintenance School United States Navy. 09-91 06-95: Electronic Installation and Practice Training Transit Tech High School. Illinois State Application Essay? 02-05 Present: IT Technician Bomanis IT Service Consultation. 12-11 01-13: Administrative Assistant Lord Dominion Investments Management Services. 12-07 01-09: Technical Support Representative Warranty Corporation of life America.
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My Daughters Homework Is Killing Me. What happens when a father, alarmed by his 13-year-old daughter's nightly workload, tries to do her homework for a week. The Things People Say Right Before They Leave the Trump Administration. Trump's Puerto Rico Visit Is a Political Disaster. When Do We Get to Call Someone a Terrorist? Memorization, not rationalization.
That is the advice of my 13-year-old daughter, Esmee, as I struggle to university application essay make sense of a paragraph of notes for an upcoming Earth Science test on minerals. Life Essay! Minerals have crystal systems which are defined by the # of axis and the length of the axis that intersect the crystal faces. Thats how the notes start, and they only illinois state application get murkier after that. When I ask Esmee what this actually means, she gives me her homework credo. Esmee is in management, the eighth grade at the NYC Lab Middle School for state essay, Collaborative Studies, a selective public school in essays on israeli religion and government, the Chelsea neighborhood of Manhattan. Illinois University Application Essay! My wife and I have noticed since she started there in February of last year that she has a lot of homework. Usc Digital Thesis! We moved from Pacific Palisades, California, where Esmee also had a great deal of homework at Paul Revere Charter Middle School in Brentwood. I have found, at both schools, that whenever I bring up the homework issue with teachers or administrators, their response is that they are required by university application, the state to cover a certain amount of material. There are standardized tests, and everyonestudents, teachers, schoolsis being evaluated on those tests. Im not interested in the debates over teaching to the test or No Child Left Behind.
What I am interested in is what my daughter is doing during those nightly hours between 8 oclock and midnight, when she finally gets to bed. During the school week, she averages three to four hours of homework a night and six and a half hours of thesis, sleep. Some evenings, when we force her to go to application bed, she will pretend to research go to university essay sleep and then get back up and continue to do homework for another hour. The following mornings are awful, my daughter teary-eyed and exhausted but still trudging to school. I wonder: What is the gantry religion, exact nature of the work that is illinois application essay turning her into paper project, a sleep-deprived teen zombie so many mornings?
I decide to essay do my daughters homework for on israeli society religion, one typical week. By late afternoon, I am tired after filing a magazine article on deadline. Illinois Essay! Im not looking forward to homework. When I arrive home, a few minutes ahead of Esmee, I consider delaying my week of homework, but then I realize that Esmee can never put off her week of homework. So I am relieved when she tells me she doesnt have much tonight. We have 11 algebra equations. (Esmees algebra class is doing a section on statements research, polynomials, a word I havent heard in decades.) We also have to read 79 pages of Angelas Ashes and find three important and powerful quotes from the section with 12 sentence analyses of its [ sic ] significance. There is also the essay, Earth Science test tomorrow on paper project, minerals.
I am surprised by the amount of reading. Reading and writing is what I do for a living, but in my middle age, Ive slowed down. So a good day of reading for me, assuming I like the book and Im not looking for quotable passages, is between 50 and illinois university 100 pages. Seventy-nine pages while scanning for essay, usable materialfor a magazine essay or for homeworkseems like at illinois application essay, least two hours of thesis song, reading. But the math is easier than I thought. We are simplifying equations, which involves reducing (18m 2 n) 2 ? ((1/6)mn 2 ) to 54m 5 n 4 , which I get the hang of again after Esmees good instructions. State! I breeze through those 11 equations in about 40 minutes and even correct Esmee when she gets one wrong. (I think. I may be overconfident.) I then start reading Angelas Ashes while Esmee studies for Earth Science. Gantry Religion! We have only one copy of the book, so we decide it will be more efficient to stagger our work.
Ive never read Angelas Ashes , and its easy to see the appeal. Frank McCourt, whom I once saw give a beautiful tribute to Peter Matthiessen at a Paris Review Revel, is illinois university application essay engaging and funny. But after 30 minutes I am only about 16 pages in, and Esmee has finished studying for Earth Science and needs the book. So we switch. It is now time for me to struggle with Earth Science. The textbook Esmees class is using is simply called Earth Science and was written by Edward J. Tarbuck and Frederick K. Lutgens. The term synergistic applies to the combined efforts of Tarbuck and Lutgens, says the biographical note at thesis, the beginning. Early in their careers, they shared frustrations with the state university application, limited availability of textbooks designed for thesis for arumentative paper, non-majors. So they rolled up their sleeves and wrote their own textbook, which reads exactly like every other textbook. University! If you look again at Table 1, begins the section on silicates, you can see that the song, two most abundant elements in Earths crust are silicon and oxygen. I spend the state university application, next five minutes looking for Table 1, which is 12 pages earlier in gantry religion, the book.
Then come carbonates, oxides, the sulfates and sulfides, halides, andI am asleep after about 20 minutes. When I wake up, I go out to find Esmee in the living room, where she is buried in Angelas Ashes. I struggle with Earth Science for another half hour, attempting to illinois state application memorize rather than understand, before I give up and decide I have to get my reading done. Since Esmee is using our copy of Angelas Ashes , I figure I will just read another 63 pages of the novel Mr. Penumbras 24-Hour Bookstore , which I started yesterday. I dont make it. Im asleep for good after about 15 pages.
Esmee stays up until a little after midnight to thesis statements for arumentative finish her reading. I dont remember how much homework was assigned to me in eighth grade. I do know that I didnt do very much of it and state application that what little I did, I did badly. My study habits were atrocious. After school I often went to friends houses, where I sometimes smoked marijuana, and master then I returned home for dinner; after lying to my parents about not having homework that night, I might have caught an hour or two of television. In Southern California in university essay, the late 70s, it was totally plausible that an eighth grader would have no homework at critical essays religion and government, all. If my daughter came home and said she had no homework, I would know she was lying. It is inconceivable that her teachers wouldnt assign any. What has changed? It seems that while there has been widespread panic about American students falling behind their peers in state application, Singapore, Shanghai, Helsinki, and everywhere else in science and mathematics, the length of the thesis song, school day is about the same.
The school year hasnt been extended. Student-teacher ratios dont seem to university application have changed much. No, our children are going to catch up with those East Asian kids on their own damn time. Every parent I know in New York City comments on how much homework their children have. These lamentations are a ritual whenever we are gathered around kitchen islands talking about our kids schools. Well, imagine if after putting in management paper project term, a full day at illinois university application, the officeand school is pretty much what our children do for song, a jobyou had to come home and do another four or so hours of office work. Monday through Friday. Plus Esmee gets homework every weekend. If your job required that kind of work after work, how long would you last? My younger daughter, Lola, 11, is a little jealous that I am spending my evenings doing homework with her sister. I tell her she should be happy she doesnt have so much homework that I find it worth investigating.
She agrees with this, but still makes me feel so guilty about it that I let her watch Pretty Little Liars , her favorite show. The co-op board meetsand over my objections makes me secretarybefore I can start on illinois university, Esmees homework. Tonight we have 12 more algebra equations, 45 more pages of Angelas Ashes , and a Humanities project for which we have to write one to two pages in the style of The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time Indian , the project term, young-adult novel by illinois, Sherman Alexie. There is also a Spanish test tomorrow on irregular verbs. The algebra is gantry essay fast becoming my favorite part of this project. Illinois! I may have picked an easy week, but something about combining like terms, inverting negative exponents, and master thesis song then simplifying equations causes a tingle in university essay, a part of my brain that is usually dormant. Also, the work is usc digital thesis finite: just 12 equations. The Spanish, however, presents a completely different challenge. Here, Esmee shows me that we have to memorize the university application essay, conjugations of the future tense of regular and irregular verbs, and she slides me a sheet with tener , tendre , tendras , tendra , tendremos , etc., multiplied by dozens of verbs.
My daughter has done a commendable job memorizing the conjugations. But when I ask her what the verb tener means (to have, if I recall), she repeats, Memorization, not rationalization. She doesnt know what the words mean. I spend a few minutes looking over the material, attempting to memorize the list of verbs and gantry religion essay conjugations. Then it takes me about state application, half an for arumentative research paper hour to memorize the three most common conjugation patterns. I decide to skip the irregular verbs. Esmee already worked on essay, her Spanish this afternoon, so she goes right to the Humanities project, which she has been looking forward to. American Life Essay! She calls her project The Ten Secrets to Being the Only Sane Person in Your Family. No. 6: Dont Listen to Anything Your Father Says.
I decide that the diary I am keeping about doing homework will be my Humanities project. Soon its 11 p.m., and I start bugging Esmee to go to bed. She takes a shower, then reads in bed for a few minutes before nodding off at about 11:40. I sneak in and grab her copy of university essay, Angelas Ashes and catch up on my reading, getting all the way to page 120. The hardship of statements research, too much homework pales in comparison with the McCourt familys travails. Still, because we are sharing our copy of Angelas Ashes , I end up going to bed an hour after Esmee. One evening when Esmee was in sixth grade, I walked into illinois application essay, her room at 1:30 a.m. to on israeli religion find her red-eyed, exhausted, and starting on her third hour of math.
This was partially her fault, as she had let a couple of days worth of illinois state university application, worksheets pile up, but it was also the nature of the work itself. One assignment had her calculating the area and perimeter of a series of shapes so complex that my wife, who trained as an thesis song architect in the Netherlands, spent half an hour on it before coming up with the right answers. The problem was not the state essay, complexity of the for arumentative research paper, work, it was the amount of calculating required. The measurements included numbers like 78 13/64, and state application essay all this multiplying and dividing was to library be done without a calculator. Another exercise required Esmee to find the distance from Sacramentowe were living in Californiato every other state capital in America, in miles and kilometers. This last one caused me to question the value of the homework. What possible purpose could this serve?, I asked her teacher in state application essay, a meeting. She explained that this sort of cross-disciplinary learningstate capitals in a math classwas now popular. She added that by now, Esmee should know all her state capitals. She went on to say that in class, when the students had been asked to name the capital of Texas, Esmee answered Texas City. But this is a math class, I said.
I dont even know the thesis song, state capitals. The teacher was unmoved, saying that she felt the illinois state application essay, homework load was reasonable. Usc Digital Thesis! If Esmee was struggling with the work, then perhaps she should be moved to a remedial class. That night, in an e-mail chain started by the class parent to state seek chaperones for a field trip, I removed the teachers name, changed the subject line, and then asked the other parents in usc digital thesis, the class whether their children found the homework load onerous. After a few minutes, replies started coming in from parents along the illinois application, lines of Thank God, we thought we were the only ones, Our son has been up until 2 a.m. crying, and so forth. Half the classs parents responded that they thought too much homework was an issue. Since then, Ive been wary of Esmees workload, and Ive often suspected that teachers dont have any idea about the cumulative amount of homework the kids are assigned when they are taking five academic classes. Elmer! There is little to state application essay no coordination among teachers in gantry religion essay, most schools when it comes to assignments and test dates. This morning, we attended Lolas class celebration of the Revolutionary War.
The class had prepared dioramas of the role women played in the Revolution, the Boston Massacre, the illinois university essay, Battle of Yorktown, and other signal events of the period. In hand-drawn murals explaining the causes of the conflict, the main theme was that excessive and unfair taxation had caused the elmer gantry essay, colonies to rebel. The British had run up massive debts in illinois application essay, the French and Indian War and elmer gantry essay wanted the colonists to repay them. The colonies also wanted, several children added, freedom. When pressed as to what that meant, they seemed unsure, until one boy came up with Freedom to do what they want! I came home and took a nap.
My older daughters homework load this evening is just seven algebra equations, studying for a Humanities test on industrialization, and more Earth Science. This algebra unit, on polynomials, seems to be a matter of remembering a few tricks. Though I struggle with converting from standard notationfor example, converting 0.00009621 to scientific notation is illinois university essay tricky (its 9.621 ? 10 ?5 , which makes no intuitive sense to me)it is pleasing that at some point I arrive at an answer, right or wrong, and my work is done and the teacher will give me credit for doing my homework. Earth Science is something else. Ive been dreading returning to Tarbuck and Lutgens since our first meeting. And tonight, the chapter starts in the familiar dispiriting monotone. American Family Essay! Rocks are any solid mass of mineral or mineral-like matter occurring naturally as part of our planet. But I am pleasantly surprised when TL take a turn into the rock cycle, laying out the differences between igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rock in terms that are easy to understand and visualize. The accompanying charts are helpful, and university application as I keep reading into religion essay, the chapter on igneous rocks, the differences between intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks make clear sense.
The upcoming test in Humanities will focus on John D. Rockefeller, Andrew Carnegie, monopolies and trusts, laissez-faire capitalism, the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, the foundation of labor unions, the imposition of state university application, factory safety standards, and the populist response to the grim conditions of the working man during the Industrial Revolution. My daughter has a study guide she is paper project ready to illinois state application essay print out. But our printer has just broken. We end up borrowing our neighbors printer. Management Paper Term! The logistics of picking up the state university, printer, bringing it over to our apartment, downloading the software, and then printing take about half an hour. The study guide covers a wide range of topics, from how Rockefeller gained control of the oil industry, to the rise of essays and government, monopolies and trusts, to state university essay the Sherman Antitrust Act, to the Triangle Shirtwaist fire. Esmee and I have a pretty long talk about the causes of the tragedythe locked doors that prevented the young girls from taking breaks, stealing merchandise, or escaping the flames; the flammable waste material that had been allowed to library accumulatethat leads to a discussion about illinois university application essay, trade unionism and american family then about application essay, capitalism in general. This is, I realize, a logical continuation of the conversation in my younger daughters class this morning, which started with unwieldy dioramas and implausible impersonations of King George. Freedom, in the form of unfettered capitalism, also has its downside. I tell her my view: laborers have to organize into unions, because otherwise those who control the capital have all the power.
Thats why its called capitalism, Esmee says, not laborism. She falls asleep reading Angelas Ashes . My daughter has the critical on israeli religion and government, misfortune of living through a period of peak homework. It turns out that there is state essay no correlation between homework and achievement. According to management paper term a 2005 study by the Penn State professors Gerald K. LeTendre and application David P. Baker, some of the countries that score higher than the master thesis song, U.S. on testing in the Trends in International Mathematics and Science StudyJapan and Denmark, for examplegive less homework, while some of those scoring lower, including Thailand and Greece, assign more. Why pile on the homework if it doesnt make even a testable difference, and in fact may be harmful? Its a response to this whole globalized, competitive process, says Richard Walker, a co-author of the book Reforming Homework . You get parents demanding their children get more homework because their children are competing against the whole world. The irony is that some countries where the school systems are held up as models for state university essay, our schools have been going in the opposite direction of the U.S., giving less homework and thesis for arumentative research implementing narrower curricula built to state encourage deeper understanding rather than broader coverage. In the U.S., or at least in the schools my daughters have attended, there has been no sign of teachers letting up on library, homework. State University Application Essay! According to a University of Michigan study, the average time spent weekly on homework increased from two hours and 38 minutes in 1981 to three hours and 58 minutes in religion essay, 2004.
Data from a 2007 National Center for state university application essay, Education Statistics survey showed American students between grades nine and 12 doing an average of 6.8 hours of homework a weekwhich sounds pretty reasonable compared with what my daughter is assignedand 42 percent of students saying they have homework five or more days a week. Esmee has hours of homework every night. She would be jealous of her Finnish counterparts, who average only 30 minutes a night. Attitudes toward homework swing in essays on israeli society, cycles of roughly 30 years, according to Harris Cooper, a professor of illinois state essay, education at critical essays religion and government, Duke University and the author of The Battle Over Homework . State Application! We went from piling on the homework because of fears of a science gap brought on by Sputnik in library, the late 1950s, to backing off in the Woodstock generation of the 70s amid worries about illinois state, overstressing kids, to management term the 90s fears of falling behind East Asian students. The current backlash against homework has been under way so longexpressed in state application essay, books like 2006s The Case Against Homework , by Sara Bennett and Nancy Kalish, and in the 2009 documentary film Race to Nowhere that we may now be living through a backlash against the backlash, at least in elite schools. For Arumentative Research Paper! Were in a heavy-homework part of the illinois university, cycle, Cooper says. The increasing competition for elite high schools and gantry colleges has parents demanding more homework. Back in California, when I raised the issue of illinois university application essay, too much homework on usc digital, that e?mail chain, about half the parents were pleased that someone had brought this up, and many had already spoken to the math teacher about it. Others were eager to approach school officials. University Application! But at least one parent didnt agree, and essays society forwarded the whole exchange to the teacher in question. As the person who instigated the conversation, I was called in to the vice principals office and accused of cyberbullying. I suggested that parents meeting to discuss their childrens education was generally a positive thing; we merely chose to have our meeting in cyberspace instead of the school cafeteria. He disagreed, saying the teacher felt threatened.
And he added that students werent allowed to cyberbully, so parents should be held to the same standard. I explained that we never intended for the teacher to read those notes. This was a forum where we were airing our concerns. What was frustrating me was that the underlying issue of ridiculous amounts of busywork was getting buried beneath the supposed method we had used to illinois state university application essay discuss the issue. Even when I showed the vice principal examples of the homework assignments, he didnt see them as outside the usual in terms of content or time commitment. I left believing I hadnt solved the problem. Yet something did change. Over the next few months, the math teacher assigned a more manageable workload.
My daughter now went to bed before 10 oclock most nights. Parent-teacher conferences at the Lab School are similar to what I imagine speed dating to be like. Each conference is three minutes, and parents can attend an afternoon or evening session. My wife and I choose the afternoon. The conferences are strictly first come, first served. At noon, my wife and I sit in master song, chairs outside each classroom waiting our turn, sometimes for state essay, as long as 45 minutes. A student is supposed to be timing each conference, but the students often wander off, and library the teachers ignore the parents knocking after three minutes. In each conference, I urge the teachers to give less homework.
A problem often arises, I explain, in the total lack of coordination among classes. A Humanities assignment requiring the state university, kids to render in words, pictures, or both a scene from Angelas Ashes , say, can take an hour or two, yet most teachers dont seem to consider anything creative to be homework. The creative stuff, like drawing or writing a short story or preparing a scene from elmer gantry essay, a play, is all extra, to be completed in addition to the hours of humanities, math, science, and Spanish. The teachers usually respond in one of two ways. They nod sympathetically and agree that the kids do have a lot of work, as if they have nothing to do with the assigning of it. Or they say that time management is one of the illinois state application, skills that a successful high-school student will need, and if my daughter wants to perform in statements paper, an elite high school, she had better learn that in illinois state essay, middle school.
Both answers amount to essentially the same argument: the vast amounts of homework are somehow handed down from on high, and mere teachers can do nothing to tamper with the ordained quantities. Because I happen to be in the middle of my week of homework when this years parent-teacher conferences take place, I am uniquely equipped to usc digital discuss the work Esmee is doing. Illinois State University Application Essay! And over the years, I have noticed that the amount of management paper project, homework does let up, slightly, after the state application, conferencesif enough parents complain. However, there is always a clique of parents who are happy with the amount of homework. In fact, they would prefer more . I tend not to get along with that type of parent. At a meeting with Esmees Earth Science teacher, I find out elmer gantry that my daughter has in fact not been giving me all the work. There is a worksheet, for example, requiring a reinterpretation and essay annotation of the rock cycle that Esmee never handed over. The teacher finds an master thesis extra copy for me. So I have another date with Tarbuck and Lutgens. When I get home, Esmee tells me she got a C on her math homework from the night before because she hadnt made an answer column.
Her correct answers were there, at the end of each neatly written-out equation, yet they werent segregated into a separate column on the right side of illinois university, each page. Paper Project! Im amazed that the pettiness of this doesnt seem to bother her. State! School is training her well for the inanities of adult life. Our math homework this evening is practicing multiplying a polynomial by a monomial, and essays on israeli society we breeze through it in about half an state application essay hour. Then we have to translate some song lyrics from Spanish to English. Esmees Spanish teacher already told my wife and me in our conference this afternoon that she can tell when the kids use Google Translatewhich is all the time.
Its a wonder: simply type in life, the lyrics, copy down the translation, and then, in an attempt to throw off the illinois application, teacher, add a few mistakes. So Si te quedas a mi lado, si te subes en el tren , which Google renders as If you stay by my side, if you get on thesis, the train, becomes If you stay by my side, if you go up on the train. And, at illinois application, last, more Angelas Ashes . The more immersed I become in Esmees homework, the more reassured I am that the teachers, principals, and school-board members who are coming up with this curriculum are earnest about their work. Elmer! They are making difficult decisions about illinois, what to teach or not teach in the limited class time they have. The overall education being imparted is secular, humanistic, multicultural, and statements paper intensely quantitative. The math Esmee is illinois state doing at 13, for example, is beyond what I was doing at that age. Of course, there are gapsso far as I can tell, Esmee has spent her entire life studying American history, with several years on Native Americans, and absolutely nothing on, say, China, Japan, India, England post-1776, France after Lafayette, Germany, Russia, etc. Like many parents, I wish there was more emphasis on creative work, on critical on israeli society religion, writing assignments that didnt require Esmee to use eight transition words and seven metaphors. Application! This school has clearly made choicesthese kids are going to get very good at algebra and maybe a little less good at paper project, creative writing. I cant say I fault them in this, though I know what I would prefer to spend my days doing.
If Esmee masters the illinois state essay, material covered in elmer religion, her classes, she will emerge as a well-rounded, socially aware citizen, a serious reader with good reasoning capabilities and a decent knowledge of the universe she lives in. What more can I ask of her school? But are these many hours of homework the only way to achieve this metamorphosis of child into virtuous citizen? According to my daughters teachers, principals, and administrators, the answer is an emphatic yes. Certainly, they have told me, all the illinois university application, homework does no harm. As I watch my daughter struggle through school days on american family, too little sleep and feel almost guilty if she wants to watch an hour of television instead of advancing a few yards in the trench warfare of her weekly homework routine, I have my doubts. When would she ever have time to, say, read a book for pleasure? Or write a story or paint a picture or play the illinois university application, guitar?
I cant imagine there will be a magical reduction in homework assignments anytime soon. But what I will continue to do at every opportunity is remind teachers that if each is assigning an hour of homework a night, and the average kid is elmer religion essay taking four or five academic classes, then that is state university simply an unrealistic cumulative workload. Give the kids a break. Once in religion essay, a while. I dont expect teachers to drastically curtail their assignments, just to illinois state university occasionally lighten the load.
Of course, I may just be balancing the scales against those parents asking for extra assignments for their child. Has this worked? Well, it did in Brentwood, even if it took parental pressure. And though I cant draw a causal line between my day of american family life, speed datingI mean, going to parent-teacher conferencesat the Lab School and a reduction in homework assignments, it did seem to me that in the months afterward, Esmee was able to get more sleep. At least a couple of minutes worth. Esmee just started high school. Illinois State University Application! She has told me she feels that the many hours of usc digital thesis, homework in middle school have prepared her well. There is no way they can give me more homework, she reasons. I have my doubts. As for Lola: When it came time to select a middle school, she took the admissions test for Lab and listed it as her first choice, despite my telling her that in illinois university application essay, my view, the school is too rigidly focused on academics and assigns too much homework. Lola, always competitive with her older sister, replies that she is good at homework. Shes going to need to be.
She was accepted at Lab. Lola is sleeping over at a friends house. Esmee hasnt started her weekend homework yet. Instead, shes watching episodes of Portlandia on her computer. The weekend homework includes another 15 algebra equations, studying for a Spanish test on Monday, and, of course, more Angelas Ashes . She also has an master algebra midterm on Tuesday.
I tell Esmee that this seems strangedidnt she just have an algebra midterm? She says that in her class, they have more than one midterm every term. My wife and I decide to go out to illinois application dinner, and on our way up Hudson Street, we run into another couple we are close friends with. This couples oldest daughter also goes to Lab. Shes at home doing homework. We stand on the sidewalk for elmer gantry, a few minutes, chatting. The husband is application essay smoking a joint, and he hands it over. Statements For Arumentative Research Paper! I havent smoked in a few months, but its Friday night and Ive been doing homework all week. I take a few tokes. We part ways, and my wife and I go to a Japanese restaurant, where, as soon as I am seated, I regret smoking. Its going to be hell trying to do algebra tonight with the head I have on right now.
Nonetheless, when Im home, I sit at the dining table and attempt to work my way through the polynomial worksheet. I am immediately lost in university application, all the 2x(3y5+ 3x2)6s. The numbers that were so familiar and usc digital library reassuring just yesterday have become repellent. I realize, sitting there, failing to solve my algebra homework, that I have inadvertently yet perfectly re-created my own eighth-grade homework conditions: getting stoned, attempting math, and failing at it. I consider my daughter, who to my knowledge has never smoked marijuana. Thats a good thing, I think in my hazy state.
I wouldnt wish this conditionattempting algebra when highon anyone. One of the reasons I believe my daughter hasnt yet tried marijuana is because she simply doesnt have the university essay, time. I decide to thesis give up on state university, algebra for american essay, the night. Its only Friday, and I have until Monday to finish my homework. Mass Shootings in the United States: 'This Is Who We Are' In the wake of Las Vegas, only one thing is illinois state certain, according to James Fallows: it will happen again. The Things People Say Right Before They Leave the Trump Administration.
The secretary of library, state denied he was close to quitting, but did not explicitly reject a news report that said he called President Trump a moron. Rex Tillersons forceful defense of President Trump, after an illinois university application essay NBC News report said the secretary of state had called the commander-in-chief a moron and elmer essay seriously considered quitting his job, offered few clues about his eventual fate. From Sean Spicer to Steve Bannon and Reince Priebus, its not uncommon for Trumps aides to defend the presidentright before being shown the door. Tillerson, the illinois university application essay, top U.S. Paper! diplomat, may be in a category by himselfbut as he reminded everyone on Wednesday: He serves at the pleasure of the president. The vice president has never had to persuade me to state university remain as secretary of state, because I have never considered leaving this post, Tillerson said in an unscheduled appearance before the media at the State Department, referring to the NBC report. A small group of programmers wants to change how we codebefore catastrophe strikes.
T here were six hours during the night of April 10, 2014, when the entire population of Washington State had no 911 service. People who called for help got a busy signal. One Seattle woman dialed 911 at essay, least 37 times while a stranger was trying to break into her house. When he finally crawled into her living room through a window, she picked up a kitchen knife. Illinois State University Application Essay! The man fled. The 911 outage, at the time the management, largest ever reported, was traced to state university essay software running on a server in Englewood, Colorado. Operated by a systems provider named Intrado, the server kept a running counter of how many calls it had routed to essays society religion 911 dispatchers around the country. Intrado programmers had set a threshold for how high the counter could go. They picked a number in university application, the millions. Trump's Puerto Rico Visit Is a Political Disaster.
The president told residents to be very proud they hadnt endured a real catastrophe like Katrina, doing little to erase the impression that he sees hurricane relief more as a political story than a human one. Making his first appearance in hurricane-ravaged Puerto Rico since Marias landfall, President Trump offered a hearty round of congratulations to paper federal relief efforts and thanked the islands governor. But the illinois university application essay, president also suggested Maria was not a real catastrophe, made an religion odd and misleading comparison to the death toll from Hurricane Katrina, and joked about illinois state essay, how the hurricane would affect the federal budget. It was a typically strange, disjointed appearance by usc digital thesis, the president, and it came just days after Trump spent much of the weekend picking fights with the university essay, mayor of San Juan and insisting that, against all evidence, the on israeli society religion, recovery effort had largely responded to Puerto Ricos needs. Illinois State University Essay! At Muniz Air Force Base, Trump was eager to praise the work of federal agencies, including FEMA, the Air Force, the family life essay, Navy, and the Coast Guard, amid a chorus of criticism that Washingtons response has been too slow and too small.
But that praise led him in illinois state university application essay, strange directions. Her music inspires a deep sense of intimacy, yet her fierce privacy is the key to her genius. From certain angles, it seems entirely remarkable that Joni Mitchellone of the on israeli religion, most cerebral songwriters in state university application essay, modern pop and essay a woman whose relationship to illinois state university application essay the spotlight has always been deeply ambivalentever became a massive star. From other angles, her ascension seems inevitable. She was so precociously talented that she composed hits in spite of herself, first gaining renown when Both Sides Now became a top-10 single for Judy Collins in 1968. Mitchell, who was 25 years old, had only elmer gantry essay just released her first record. Two years later, her third album, Ladies of the illinois state university application essay, Canyon , closed with the usc digital, troika of Big Yellow Taxi, Woodstock, and The Circle Game, three of the most iconic songs of a generation, rattled off almost as an afterthought. University Essay! The following year brought Blue , now recognized by many as her masterpiece. This summeralmost half a century later Blue topped NPR Musics list of The 150 Greatest Albums Made by Women, compiled by american family life, a panel of nearly 50 contributors.
When Do We Get to Call Someone a Terrorist? Theres a compulsion to illinois state university application essay keep mental ledgers of the jihadists and non-jihadists. American Family Essay! But what can these statistics really tell us? Police say the state, Las Vegas killer was a white American named Steve. Two days later, we still know almost nothing else about him. But for some, those facts answer the most important questions: race, nationality, likely religion. For some, those are the most important questions about anyone.
The top priority, as soon as blood spills, is to master thesis song open the ledger, and see whether to add to the column of white rampage killers with names like Steve or Curtis, or the column of olive-hued foreigners with names like Omar or Abd al-Rahman. Ah hell, who am I kidding? When I heard the killers name, I mentally sorted him into one category and not the other. Maybe you didnt. Illinois State Application Essay! But I bet you did. The compulsion to keep these mental ledgers should embarrass us, since all bigotry starts as an unhealthy accounting exercise. Management Paper Project! (The young Martin Amis asked his father Kingsley, What is it like to illinois state application be mildly anti-Semitic? Kingsley replied: Very mild, as you say. . If Im watching television I might notice the Jewish names the credits and think, Ah, theres one! Theres another one!) But worse than keeping a ledger is keeping one without knowing it, and worst of all is essay keeping a crooked set of books. The foundation of application essay, Donald Trumps presidency is the negation of Barack Obamas legacy. It is insufficient to state the american family life, obvious of Donald Trump: that he is a white man who would not be president were it not for this fact. With one immediate exception, Trumps predecessors made their way to high office through the passive power of whitenessthat bloody heirloom which cannot ensure mastery of all events but can conjure a tailwind for most of them.
Land theft and human plunder cleared the grounds for Trumps forefathers and barred others from it. Once upon the field, these men became soldiers, statesmen, and scholars; held court in Paris; presided at Princeton; advanced into the Wilderness and then into the White House. Their individual triumphs made this exclusive party seem above Americas founding sins, and state university it was forgotten that the former was in fact bound to the latter, that all their victories had transpired on cleared grounds. No such elegant detachment can be attributed to Donald Trumpa president who, more than any other, has made the awful inheritance explicit. Do Cultural Differences Change What Depression Feels Like?
The contrasting ways Chinese people and Westerners express symptoms could point to distinct experiences of the same disorder. Just after lunchtime, on a blistering summer day in Washington, D.C., cultural psychologist Yulia Chentsova-Dutton is showing me the thesis statements, stars. Theyre on her computer screen at Georgetown University, and labeled disturbingly: insomnia, anhedonia, headache, social withdrawal, chronic pain, and more. Each star represents a somatic or emotional sensation linked to depression. Chentsova-Duttons father was an astronomer.
Shes found a way to use what he studied, the illinois university application essay, night sky, to understand her own research: how culture can influence the way we feel and express emotion. Usc Digital Thesis! If you look up, there are thousands of stars, she says. You cant possibly take them all in. So, each culture has invented schemas to remember them by, constellations. She pushes a button, and illinois state application several of the depression stars are connected by a thin yellow line. The Problem With Trump's Madman Theory. It didnt work for Nixon. Critical Essays Religion! Its even less likely to work now. Last weekend, President Donald Trump reportedly told the illinois university application essay, U.S. Management! trade representative to scare South Korean negotiators by state university essay, telling them he was a madman. Thesis! You tell [the South Koreans] if they don't give the concessions now, this crazy guy will pull out of the illinois state application essay, deal, he said, referring to the U.S.-Korea free trade agreement. That report came at the end of a day in management, which the presidents tweets about university, another issue on the Korean peninsula evoked comparisons to the Nixon-era madman theory that you can scare an opponent into paper project term, concessions by cultivating an illinois university essay image of thesis for arumentative research, recklessness. University Application! I told Rex Tillerson, our wonderful Secretary of State, that he is wasting his time trying to negotiate with Little Rocket Man, the president wrote. American Essay! Save your energy Rex, well do what needs to be done!
How did Josh Tetricks vegan-mayo company become a Silicon Valley darlingand what is state university essay he really selling? O n a recent Friday morning, Josh Tetrick, the 37-year-old CEO and co-founder of Hampton Creek, fixed his unblinking blue eyes on a job candidate. The pair was sitting at life, a workstation near the university application, entrance to the companys warehouselike San Francisco headquarters, where Tetrick frequently holds meetings in plain view of the companys more than 130 employees. Around Tetricka muscular ex-linebacker in jeans and gantry a T-shirtwas even more Tetrick: a poster of state university, him watching Bill Gates eat a muffin, a framed photograph of him with a golden retriever, an employees T-shirt emblazoned with What would you attempt if you knew you could not fail?one of Tetricks many slogans. (Others include What would it look like if we just started over? and Be gorilla.) When Working From Home Doesnt Work. IBM pioneered telecommuting.
Now it wants people back in critical essays on israeli society and government, the office. I n 1979, IBM was putting its stamp on the American landscape. For 20 years, it had been hiring the greats of modernism to erect buildings where scientists and salespeople could work shoulder-to-shoulder commanding the burgeoning computer industry. But that year, one of its new facilitiesthe Santa Teresa Laboratory, in university essay, Silicon Valleytried an experiment. To ease a logjam at the office mainframe, it installed boxy, green-screened terminals in the homes of five employees, allowing them to work from gantry religion, home. The idea of telecommuting was still a novelty. But this little solution seemed effective. By 1983, about 2,000 IBMers were working remotely. The corporation eventually realized that it could save millions by selling its signature buildings and institutionalizing distance work; the number of remote workers ballooned.
In 2009, an IBM report boasted that 40 percent of illinois university essay, IBMs some 386,000 employees in 173 countries have no office at all. More than 58 million square feet of office space had been unloaded, at a gain of nearly $2 billion. IBM, moreover, wanted to library thesis help other corporations reap the same officeless efficiencies through its consulting services. Leading by example was good marketing. What If Everyone Ate Beans Instead of illinois state university application essay, Beef? What can an individual do about climate change?
The easiest answer: make this one dietary switch. Depression, anxiety, overeating, addiction, and american family life essay all other mental disorders share a common mechanism. Research shows that using curse words can persuade everyone from illinois state university application essay, voters to your co-workers. Get 10 issues a year and save 65% off the cover price.
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papad business plan E veryone enjoys 'rags to illinois state essay, riches' stories and thesis statements, everyone likes tales of stupendous success achieved through sheer determination. The story of Shri Mahila Griha Udyog Lijjat Papad is all that and much more. Today, Lijjat is more than just a household name for 'papad' (India's most popular crispy bread). Started with a modest loan of Rs 80, the cooperative now has annual sales exceeding Rs 301 crore (Rs 3.1 billion). What's more stunning than its stupendous success is its striking simplicity. And perhaps that is the most interesting lesson managers can pick up from Shri Mahila Griha Udyog Lijjat Papad. Sticking to application essay, its core values for the past forty years, Lijjat has ensured that every process runs smoothly, members earn a comfortable profit, agents get their due share, consumers get the assurance of thesis song quality at a good price, and society benefits from its donations to various causes. How has all this been possible?
Its story shows how an organisation can infuse Gandhian simplicity in illinois state essay, all its activities. Here we look at its distribution cycle. Every morning a group of women goes to the Lijjat branch to paper project term, knead dough, which is then collected by other women who roll it into papads. When these women come in to collect the dough, they also give in the previous day's production, which is tested for quality. Yet another team packs the tested papads. Every member gets her share of illinois application essay vanai (rolling charge) every day for the work she does and critical society and government, this is possible only because the rest of the system is geared to support it. Jyoti Naik , President, Shri Mahila Griha Udyog Lijjat Papad explains how the system works.
T he entire cycle starts with a simple recruitment process. Any woman who pledges to adopt the state university application, institution's values and master song, who has respect for illinois state university, quality can become a member and co-owner of the organisation. In addition to that, those involved in the rolling of the papads also need to have a clean house and space to dry the papads they roll every day. Gantry! Those who do not have this facility can take up any other responsibilities, like kneading dough or packaging or testing for state application essay, quality. Packed papads are sealed into a box (each box holds 13.6 kg) and the production from each centre is transported to the depot for that area. Mumbai alone has sixteen branches and six depots. Each depot stocks production from the nearby three to four branches -- roughly about usc digital library, 400 boxes.
In some smaller towns or villages, the branch itself serves as the depot. The depots are our storage areas as well as pick up points for illinois university application essay, distributors. Our distributors pick up the quantity of papad they require and elmer gantry, pay cash on delivery because we pay our bens (members are called bens , or sisters) every day. Since we have an illinois state university essay estimate of the quantity each distributor takes, we produce accordingly. This ensures that we neither stock inventory nor pay heavily for storage. We have about 32 distributors in Mumbai. Each distributor picks up an average of 100 boxes per day from the depot. This is where our job ends. We are not involved in how and where a distributor delivers as long as he stays within the area we have marked for him. Generally each distributor has his three-wheeler and thesis statements for arumentative paper, about eight to application essay, ten salesmen to deliver to retail outlets within his territory. To select a distributor, we first give an advertisement in newspapers for the areas we have marked.
Members from our marketing division personally go and american, check the godown facilities and only on their approval do we appoint distributors. A distributor pays us Rs150,000 as deposit. We make it clear to them that they must pay on delivery if they want our distributorship. This system is followed all over India and it works well for state application essay, us. When we discover that there is demand in a particular place, we open a new branch, like the management, recently opened one in Jammu and illinois state university, Kashmir. Management Paper Term! Whether or not we have a centre in an area, our goods reach there. For example, we do not have any centre in Goa, but we have appointed a distributor for that area to ensure that Lijjat papads reach Goa. Our communication with distributors is regular through monthly meetings where we discuss their problems and application, also the american family, issues that we may have about quality, price, reach, etc. We do not have individual door-to-door salesmen or women selling from homes -- only the state essay, appointed distributor for the area.
The same system is religion followed for other products, but we may have different distributors and depots for university application essay, different products. Our exports alone account for Rs 10 crore (Rs 100 million). We are not directly involved in exporting, but recognised professional merchant exporters (who also export other food products) place an export order. Only on elmer gantry religion receiving the full advance through a cheque do we begin production. Because all exports are done from Mumbai, the supply also comes from here. University Application! Export production is of the same quality as daily production. In fact, we send some of the daily production for export. Again with exporters, our responsibility ends with delivery. They are, both, expected and encouraged to check the goods on collection.
After that, where and how they export is their call. At present, 30 per research, cent to 35 per cent of the production of state application Lijjat Papad is being exported, mainly to countries like the religion, United States, the United Kingdom, the Middle East, Singapore, Hong Kong and illinois state application, Holland. We have accountants in every branch and every centre to maintain daily accounts. Profit (or loss, if any) is critical on israeli religion and government shared among all the members of that branch. We have a committee of 21 that decides how the profits are to be distributed. We generally buy gold coins -- 5gm or 10 gm, depending on the profit. Everyone gets an equal share of profit, irrespective of who does what work, irrespective of seniority or responsibility.
Even a ben who has recently joined gets the same share as others who have been with us longer. Each branch calculates its profit and illinois university application essay, divides it equally among all its members. Mumbai has 12,000 members, the rest of Maharashtra has 22,000, and Gujarat has between 5,000 and 7,000 members. In two words -- decentralisation works. We, at thesis statements Lijjat, have never shied away from sharing power in all our activities. Application! The Sarvodaya philosophy has always been our ideal. All sister members of the master song, institution are the owners. As I mentioned earlier, all profit or loss is shared. Only we have the authority to decide the manner in which profit or loss should be apportioned among ourselves.
The committee of 21 members manages the affairs of the institution. Illinois State University Application! There are also Sanchalikas, or supervisors, for usc digital, each centre to look after the daily affairs of a centre. But the university essay, work of the institution is such that each and every member can take any initiative or any decision. At the same time, each and elmer religion, every member has the veto power. All decisions, major or minor, are based on consensus among members. Any single member's objection can nullify a decision.
Another important fact about the institution is that no male can become a member and state application essay, no male employee whether working or honorary or on salary basis has voting rights. Other than following this philosophy for our institutional set up, we have try to avoid the usual 'management nightmares.' For instance, production is carried out not in one central location but in hundreds and thousands of individual homes. The branch system ensures that every activity happens within its own ambit. Testing for quality and packaging are done at thesis every branch. Imagine if all the production from university essay all over India were to be gathered at one central office where it would be checked for american, quality, packed, transported to state university, various depots and distributors, if collection were to elmer, be centralised and if distribution of vanai and profits too were centralised. State University Application Essay! Wouldn't it be a logistical nightmare?
Our solution is simple. Let the critical on israeli religion and government, branch be responsible for essay, all activities from production to packaging to collection and distribution of vanai and profit for family life, its particular geographical region. In following this simple system, we don't solve management problems, but avoid them. Certain activities, however, are centralised. For one, all raw materials are purchased in illinois essay, Mumbai and then distributed to the 62 branches to ensure consistent quality of Lijjat Papad. Given the vastness of India, every region produces different quality of urad, rice, spices, et cetera. If procured locally, the final product would never be consistent in quality and Lijjat would have no USP (unique selling proposition) in the market.
The other centralised process is the grinding of flour. We own two grinding mills, one in Vashi (Navi Mumbai) and one in Nashik (in Maharashtra). Since the raw material is purchased in Mumbai, grinding the flour at our own mills helps reduce costs. Pricing of the products is also done at the head office. Lijjat papads all over India cost Rs 16.25 a kg. This price factors in thesis statements for arumentative research paper, the cost of raw materials, transport, taxes, distributors commission, profit percentage and so on.
Driven by illinois state application essay, values. Every member who joins in paper project, pledges, . . Application Essay! . Management Paper Project Term! we will make all-round effort to ensure that the bens get real fruit of their labour and we will not allow to happen any type of economic loss to illinois essay, the Institution knowingly, unknowingly, directly or indirectly. We are aware that it is usc digital thesis one of the very important traditions of our Institution that neither sister-member nor employees take away wrongfully any money or material from the Institution. Those who take away money or materials wrongfully from the Institution are either beggars receiving alms from the bens or thugs and robbers extricating bread from a sister's mouth. Among others, the chief value that holds the institution firmly is a sense of self-dignity and respect. We discourage any kind of class distinction and do not declare ourselves as an organisation for state university, poor or needy women.
Our thinking is straight. Project Term! Ours is a business like any other even if the structure is different. There is no place for feelings of pity, sympathy or charity among members. We also do not accept donation or charity of any kind, even if voluntarily offered. I do believe that this has helped the organisation retain independence and brought quick growth. It has given us a clear vision of the path of progress. Maintaining proper accounts has always been on illinois state application our agenda. When we started out, Chhagan Bapa, our mentor had advised us to maintain accounts daily. Even today, every branch closes the account book every day. We do not want to get into monetary hassles because of badly managed accounts. There is no place for prejudice on american life essay the basis of caste or religion, and democracy in illinois university application, its truest form is encouraged.
Following these values ensures that we are run and perceived as a serious business, not a charity organisation. This cooperative organisation was started by master, seven women on a terrace of a building in Girgaum in Mumbai. Although only one of those seven survives today, the organisation has not given up on illinois application the ideals they started with. Every member at Lijjat works with a sense of pride in her work. And this pride comes not only from the fact that we produce a good quality product but also because we have stuck to our core values. That, in turn has led to a sense of american family life essay shared destiny in our institution. Every woman earns according to the labour she puts in illinois state, but the for arumentative, profits we make as a collective effort are shared equally. In spirit, we are a nation unto ourselves, almost like a mini-India. We share the same values, are a democratic set up and, like India, have members from every community, every religion, every language within our fold. We work together and dream together for a better tomorrow.
Our beginnings were modest. Seven women with no special skills but a strong determination to illinois essay, earn dignity as individuals went ahead to make a successful business, doing what they knew best -- rolling papads. They leveraged their basic skill and turned it into a weapon because they believed in themselves and in each other. And that's how we function even today. Family Life Essay! We believe in illinois state university application essay, each other, in each other's ability and commitment to take the institution towards progress. It is this belief that has been the basis of our business model as well.
We understand the family, time and social pressures women face every day. What we have done is simply to turn these into an advantage and not an excuse. It serves everyone. Lijjat helps these women who are not encouraged to essays on israeli society religion, work outside their homes, to contribute to the family income. Our bens take dough home and illinois state application, roll them into thesis song papads when they are free from their domestic chores.
At the same time it is not prudent for the organisation to invest in office property for so many members. The perfect fit for application, both is using the members' homes for the rolling and essays society religion, drying of papads. No additional overhead costs, no investment either. Valuing people and university essay, under-standing their problems has created for Lijjat a sound and sustainable business model. However, though it would make business sense to adopt modern technology for mass production or use machines for packaging, etc, we haven't done so because it would defeat the very purpose of our existence, which is to provide a source of thesis song livelihood and dignity to illinois application, women through self-employment. In addition, we have one vehicle per branch, which, at fixed times, brings the bens and rolled papads to the branch and also drops them back. This is done for religion essay, all the bens -- those who mix the dough, do the vanai (rolling), testing, packaging, etc. We proudly claim 'consistently good quality' to be our USP. From the moment a new member joins, she is repeatedly told to make quality her mantra. At the illinois university essay, training session, bens are taught to make the paper term, 'perfect' Lijjat papad. And every member has absorbed the concept totally.
It is evident in state university application essay, the fact that even without modern machines, every consumer of Lijjat papad, wherever she is, gets the same consistent quality of papad. How? Because every ben rolls the papad to the same specification and every lot of usc digital library thesis papad goes through testing. If we find any ben becoming careless about quality, we do not tolerate it. State University Application Essay! We give her a warning, then the option to take up any other work like packaging, testing, etc. and if she still displays a lack of for arumentative research concern for quality, we ask her to leave the university essay, organisation. Out of one kg dough, we must get at least 800 gm (accounting for song, loss due to moisture, etc), otherwise we cut pay.
We get papads for testing from all centres everyday and if we find any deviation from our quality, for example, if the application essay, salt is family less or more, etc, we immediately intimate that particular centre to destroy the entire lot, even if amounts to a million rupees worth of production. Out of this strong belief in quality delivered at an affordable price comes our act of ignoring competitors. Lots of companies selling papads have come and gone. We don't consider them, we only do our own thing. We do not take into consideration what the competition is doing. We know that if our quality is good, consumers will buy. Our quality does not differ whether it is for illinois university application, exports or for the local market. There is just one quality. And that's good quality. Again and again and again!
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competence essay Copyright © 2001 Eric S. Raymond. As editor of the Jargon File and illinois university, author of family life a few other well-known documents of similar nature, I often get email requests from state university essay enthusiastic network newbies asking (in effect) how can I learn to be a wizardly hacker?. Back in 1996 I noticed that there didn't seem to be any other FAQs or web documents that addressed this vital question, so I started this one. A lot of hackers now consider it definitive, and I suppose that means it is. Still, I don't claim to be the exclusive authority on this topic; if you don't like what you read here, write your own. If you are reading a snapshot of this document offline, the current version lives at http://catb.org/ Note: there is a list of Frequently Asked Questions at the end of thesis for arumentative research this document. Please read thesetwicebefore mailing me any questions about this document. The five-dots-in-nine-squares diagram that decorates this document is called a glider . Application Essay. It is master a simple pattern with some surprising properties in a mathematical simulation called Life that has fascinated hackers for many years. I think it makes a good visual emblem for what hackers are like abstract, at first a bit mysterious-seeming, but a gateway to a whole world with an intricate logic of university application essay its own.
Read more about the glider emblem here. If you find this document valuable, please support me on Patreon. And consider also supporting other hackers who have produced code that you use and value. Lots of small but continuing donations add up quickly, and can free the people who have given you gifts of critical and government their labor to create more value. The Jargon File contains a bunch of definitions of the term hacker, most having to do with technical adeptness and a delight in state essay solving problems and overcoming limits. If you want to know how to become a hacker, though, only two are really relevant. There is a community, a shared culture, of expert programmers and usc digital library thesis, networking wizards that traces its history back through decades to the first time-sharing minicomputers and university, the earliest ARPAnet experiments.
The members of this culture originated the term hacker. Hackers built the Internet. Management Project Term. Hackers made the Unix operating system what it is state university application essay today. Hackers make the World Wide Web work. If you are part of this culture, if you have contributed to it and other people in elmer religion essay it know who you are and call you a hacker, you're a hacker. The hacker mind-set is state university essay not confined to this software-hacker culture. There are people who apply the hacker attitude to other things, like electronics or music actually, you can find it at thesis statements research paper, the highest levels of any science or art. Software hackers recognize these kindred spirits elsewhere and may call them hackers too and some claim that the hacker nature is illinois application essay really independent of the particular medium the hacker works in.
But in the rest of this document we will focus on thesis statements for arumentative research paper the skills and attitudes of software hackers, and the traditions of the shared culture that originated the term hacker. There is another group of people who loudly call themselves hackers, but aren't. These are people (mainly adolescent males) who get a kick out of breaking into state university computers and paper term, phreaking the phone system. Real hackers call these people crackers and want nothing to do with them. Real hackers mostly think crackers are lazy, irresponsible, and not very bright, and object that being able to illinois university application essay break security doesn't make you a hacker any more than being able to hotwire cars makes you an automotive engineer.
Unfortunately, many journalists and writers have been fooled into using the word hacker to management paper describe crackers; this irritates real hackers no end. The basic difference is this: hackers build things, crackers break them. If you want to be a hacker, keep reading. If you want to be a cracker, go read the alt.2600 newsgroup and application, get ready to do five to critical essays on israeli society religion ten in the slammer after finding out you aren't as smart as you think you are. And that's all I'm going to say about crackers. Hackers solve problems and build things, and they believe in freedom and voluntary mutual help. To be accepted as a hacker, you have to illinois state university application behave as though you have this kind of attitude yourself. And to term behave as though you have the illinois state university, attitude, you have to really believe the attitude.
But if you think of cultivating hacker attitudes as just a way to thesis research paper gain acceptance in the culture, you'll miss the illinois state application essay, point. Becoming the for arumentative research, kind of person who believes these things is important for you for illinois university helping you learn and keeping you motivated. As with all creative arts, the most effective way to master thesis become a master is to imitate the application, mind-set of masters not just intellectually but emotionally as well. Or, as the following modern Zen poem has it: To follow the path: look to project term the master, follow the master, walk with the master, see through the illinois state application essay, master, become the master. So, if you want to american life essay be a hacker, repeat the illinois essay, following things until you believe them: 1. Thesis. The world is full of fascinating problems waiting to be solved. Being a hacker is lots of fun, but it's a kind of fun that takes lots of effort. Illinois University Application. The effort takes motivation.
Successful athletes get their motivation from a kind of master song physical delight in making their bodies perform, in illinois university application pushing themselves past their own physical limits. Master Song. Similarly, to be a hacker you have to get a basic thrill from solving problems, sharpening your skills, and exercising your intelligence. If you aren't the kind of person that feels this way naturally, you'll need to become one in order to make it as a hacker. Otherwise you'll find your hacking energy is sapped by distractions like sex, money, and social approval. (You also have to develop a kind of faith in your own learning capacity a belief that even though you may not know all of what you need to illinois university essay solve a problem, if you tackle just a piece of it and learn from that, you'll learn enough to thesis solve the next piece and so on, until you're done.)
2. No problem should ever have to be solved twice. Creative brains are a valuable, limited resource. Illinois State University Application Essay. They shouldn't be wasted on re-inventing the wheel when there are so many fascinating new problems waiting out there. To behave like a hacker, you have to believe that the song, thinking time of other hackers is precious so much so that it's almost a moral duty for you to share information, solve problems and then give the essay, solutions away just so other hackers can solve new problems instead of having to thesis perpetually re-address old ones. Note, however, that No problem should ever have to be solved twice. does not imply that you have to consider all existing solutions sacred, or that there is state only one right solution to any given problem. Often, we learn a lot about the problem that we didn't know before by studying the first cut at a solution. It's OK, and usc digital thesis, often necessary, to decide that we can do better.
What's not OK is artificial technical, legal, or institutional barriers (like closed-source code) that prevent a good solution from being re-used and force people to re-invent wheels. (You don't have to illinois application essay believe that you're obligated to give all your creative product away, though the hackers that do are the ones that get most respect from and government other hackers. It's consistent with hacker values to sell enough of it to keep you in food and illinois application, rent and master song, computers. It's fine to use your hacking skills to support a family or even get rich, as long as you don't forget your loyalty to your art and illinois essay, your fellow hackers while doing it.) Hackers (and creative people in general) should never be bored or have to drudge at stupid repetitive work, because when this happens it means they aren't doing what only they can do solve new problems. This wastefulness hurts everybody. Statements For Arumentative Research. Therefore boredom and illinois university application essay, drudgery are not just unpleasant but actually evil. To behave like a hacker, you have to believe this enough to want to automate away the management paper project term, boring bits as much as possible, not just for yourself but for essay everybody else (especially other hackers). (There is one apparent exception to this.
Hackers will sometimes do things that may seem repetitive or boring to an observer as a mind-clearing exercise, or in order to acquire a skill or have some particular kind of experience you can't have otherwise. Essays Society Religion And Government. But this is by choice nobody who can think should ever be forced into illinois state university application essay a situation that bores them.) Hackers are naturally anti-authoritarian. Anyone who can give you orders can stop you from solving whatever problem you're being fascinated by usc digital thesis, and, given the way authoritarian minds work, will generally find some appallingly stupid reason to illinois university essay do so. Master Thesis Song. So the authoritarian attitude has to be fought wherever you find it, lest it smother you and other hackers.
(This isn't the illinois state essay, same as fighting all authority. Children need to american family essay be guided and criminals restrained. A hacker may agree to accept some kinds of authority in order to get something he wants more than the state essay, time he spends following orders. But that's a limited, conscious bargain; the kind of personal surrender authoritarians want is not on critical essays and government offer.) Authoritarians thrive on illinois state application essay censorship and secrecy. And they distrust voluntary cooperation and information-sharing they only like cooperation that they control. So to behave like a hacker, you have to develop an instinctive hostility to censorship, secrecy, and usc digital thesis, the use of force or deception to compel responsible adults. State. And you have to be willing to act on that belief.
5. Attitude is no substitute for competence. To be a hacker, you have to develop some of american essay these attitudes. But copping an attitude alone won't make you a hacker, any more than it will make you a champion athlete or a rock star. Becoming a hacker will take intelligence, practice, dedication, and hard work. Therefore, you have to learn to distrust attitude and university application essay, respect competence of every kind. Hackers won't let posers waste their time, but they worship competence especially competence at hacking, but competence at anything is valued. Usc Digital Thesis. Competence at demanding skills that few can master is especially good, and competence at state application essay, demanding skills that involve mental acuteness, craft, and concentration is best. If you revere competence, you'll enjoy developing it in yourself the hard work and dedication will become a kind of intense play rather than drudgery. That attitude is vital to becoming a hacker.
The hacker attitude is vital, but skills are even more vital. Attitude is no substitute for competence, and there's a certain basic toolkit of skills which you have to critical on israeli have before any hacker will dream of calling you one. This toolkit changes slowly over time as technology creates new skills and makes old ones obsolete. For example, it used to include programming in machine language, and didn't until recently involve HTML. But right now it pretty clearly includes the following: This, of course, is the illinois university essay, fundamental hacking skill. Master Thesis Song. If you don't know any computer languages, I recommend starting with Python. It is illinois state university essay cleanly designed, well documented, and relatively kind to beginners. Thesis For Arumentative Paper. Despite being a good first language, it is not just a toy; it is very powerful and state university application, flexible and term, well suited for large projects.
I have written a more detailed evaluation of Python. Good tutorials are available at the Python web site; there's an excellent third-party one at Computer Science Circles. I used to illinois university recommend Java as a good language to learn early, but this critique has changed my mind (search for The Pitfalls of Java as a First Programming Language within it). A hacker cannot, as they devastatingly put it approach problem-solving like a plumber in a hardware store ; you have to know what the components actually do . Critical Religion And Government. Now I think it is probably best to learn C and Lisp first, then Java. There is perhaps a more general point here. Illinois State University Application Essay. If a language does too much for you, it may be simultaneously a good tool for production and a bad one for learning. Usc Digital Library Thesis. It's not only languages that have this problem; web application frameworks like RubyOnRails, CakePHP, Django may make it too easy to illinois state university application reach a superficial sort of understanding that will leave you without resources when you have to tackle a hard problem, or even just debug the solution to an easy one.
If you get into serious programming, you will have to learn C, the core language of essays society religion and government Unix. C++ is very closely related to illinois state C; if you know one, learning the other will not be difficult. Neither language is statements paper a good one to illinois state application try learning as your first, however. And, actually, the more you can avoid programming in C the more productive you will be. C is thesis song very efficient, and very sparing of your machine's resources. Unfortunately, C gets that efficiency by requiring you to do a lot of low-level management of university application essay resources (like memory) by hand. All that low-level code is complex and critical essays on israeli and government, bug-prone, and will soak up huge amounts of your time on application debugging. Usc Digital Thesis. With today's machines as powerful as they are, this is usually a bad tradeoff it's smarter to use a language that uses the machine's time less efficiently, but your time much more efficiently.
Thus, Python. Other languages of particular importance to hackers include Perl and university essay, LISP. Perl is research paper worth learning for illinois state essay practical reasons; it's very widely used for critical on israeli religion and government active web pages and system administration, so that even if you never write Perl you should learn to read it. Many people use Perl in the way I suggest you should use Python, to avoid C programming on jobs that don't require C's machine efficiency. Application Essay. You will need to be able to american essay understand their code. LISP is illinois state essay worth learning for a different reason the usc digital library thesis, profound enlightenment experience you will have when you finally get it.
That experience will make you a better programmer for the rest of your days, even if you never actually use LISP itself a lot. (You can get some beginning experience with LISP fairly easily by writing and modifying editing modes for illinois state application essay the Emacs text editor, or Script-Fu plugins for the GIMP.) It's best, actually, to elmer essay learn all five of Python, C/C++, Java, Perl, and LISP. Besides being the illinois state application essay, most important hacking languages, they represent very different approaches to programming, and thesis, each will educate you in valuable ways. But be aware that you won't reach the skill level of a hacker or even merely a programmer simply by accumulating languages you need to learn how to university application essay think about programming problems in a general way, independent of any one language. To be a real hacker, you need to gantry religion get to the point where you can learn a new language in days by illinois state university essay, relating what's in the manual to what you already know. This means you should learn several very different languages. I can't give complete instructions on how to learn to essay program here it's a complex skill. But I can tell you that books and courses won't do it many, maybe most of the best hackers are self-taught. You can learn language features bits of knowledge from illinois state university application essay books, but the mind-set that makes that knowledge into living skill can be learned only by management term, practice and illinois state university application, apprenticeship.
What will do it is (a) reading code and (b) writing code . Peter Norvig, who is one of Google's top hackers and the co-author of the most widely used textbook on AI, has written an excellent essay called Teach Yourself Programming in Ten Years. His recipe for programming success is worth careful attention. Learning to program is like learning to essay write good natural language. The best way to state essay do it is to research paper read some stuff written by masters of the form, write some things yourself, read a lot more, write a little more, read a lot more, write some more . and repeat until your writing begins to develop the kind of strength and economy you see in your models. I have had more to say about this learning process in How To Learn Hacking. It's a simple set of instructions, but not an easy one. Finding good code to read used to be hard, because there were few large programs available in source for fledgeling hackers to read and illinois state essay, tinker with. Library Thesis. This has changed dramatically; open-source software, programming tools, and operating systems (all built by hackers) are now widely available. University. Which brings me neatly to our next topic.
2. Get one of the open-source Unixes and statements paper, learn to state application use and run it. I'll assume you have a personal computer or can get access to one. (Take a moment to appreciate how much that means. The hacker culture originally evolved back when computers were so expensive that individuals could not own them.) The single most important step any newbie can take toward acquiring hacker skills is to get a copy of elmer gantry Linux or one of the BSD-Unixes, install it on illinois university a personal machine, and run it. Yes, there are other operating systems in the world besides Unix. But they're distributed in binary you can't read the code, and you can't modify it.
Trying to learn to hack on a Microsoft Windows machine or under any other closed-source system is like trying to learn to dance while wearing a body cast. Under Mac OS X it's possible, but only usc digital thesis part of the system is open source you're likely to hit a lot of walls, and you have to application be careful not to develop the bad habit of depending on Apple's proprietary code. If you concentrate on the Unix under the hood you can learn some useful things. Unix is the operating system of the Internet. While you can learn to management term use the Internet without knowing Unix, you can't be an Internet hacker without understanding Unix. For this reason, the hacker culture today is pretty strongly Unix-centered. (This wasn't always true, and state application, some old-time hackers still aren't happy about it, but the symbiosis between Unix and the Internet has become strong enough that even Microsoft's muscle doesn't seem able to seriously dent it.) So, bring up a Unix I like Linux myself but there are other ways (and yes, you can run both Linux and religion, Microsoft Windows on the same machine). Learn it.
Run it. Tinker with it. Talk to the Internet with it. Read the code. Modify the code. University Application Essay. You'll get better programming tools (including C, LISP, Python, and religion essay, Perl) than any Microsoft operating system can dream of illinois state application hosting, you'll have fun, and management paper project, you'll soak up more knowledge than you realize you're learning until you look back on it as a master hacker.
For more about learning Unix, see The Loginataka. You might also want to have a look at The Art Of Unix Programming. The blog Let's Go Larval! is a window on illinois university application the learning process of a new Linux user that I think is elmer unusually lucid and helpful. Illinois Application. The post How I Learned Linux makes a good starting point. To get your hands on a Linux, see the Linux Online! site; you can download from there or (better idea) find a local Linux user group to help you with installation.
During the first ten years of this HOWTO's life, I reported that from a new user's point of view, all Linux distributions are almost equivalent. But in 2006-2007, an actual best choice emerged: Ubuntu. While other distros have their own areas of strength, Ubuntu is master far and away the most accessible to Linux newbies. Beware, though, of the hideous and nigh-unusable Unity desktop interface that Ubuntu introduced as a default a few years later; the Xubuntu or Kubuntu variants are better. You can find BSD Unix help and illinois state university application, resources at www.bsd.org. A good way to religion essay dip your toes in the water is to boot up what Linux fans call a live CD, a distribution that runs entirely off a CD or USB stick without having to modify your hard disk. This may be slow, because CDs are slow, but it's a way to get a look at the possibilities without having to do anything drastic. I used to state university application recommend against installing either Linux or BSD as a solo project if you're a newbie. Nowadays the installers have gotten good enough that doing it entirely on your own is possible, even for a newbie.
Nevertheless, I still recommend making contact with your local Linux user's group and asking for usc digital library help. It can't hurt, and may smooth the process. 3. Learn how to use the World Wide Web and write HTML. Most of the things the hacker culture has built do their work out of sight, helping run factories and offices and universities without any obvious impact on how non-hackers live. Illinois Essay. The Web is the one big exception, the huge shiny hacker toy that even politicians admit has changed the world. For this reason alone (and a lot of other good ones as well) you need to learn how to work the Web. This doesn't just mean learning how to religion drive a browser (anyone can do that), but learning how to write HTML, the Web's markup language. State Application Essay. If you don't know how to program, writing HTML will teach you some mental habits that will help you learn. So build a home page. But just having a home page isn't anywhere near good enough to make you a hacker.
The Web is full of home pages. Most of them are pointless, zero-content sludge very snazzy-looking sludge, mind you, but sludge all the same (for more on paper this see The HTML Hell Page). To be worthwhile, your page must have content it must be interesting and/or useful to other hackers. And that brings us to the next topic. 4. If you don't have functional English, learn it. As an American and native English-speaker myself, I have previously been reluctant to suggest this, lest it be taken as a sort of cultural imperialism. But several native speakers of other languages have urged me to state university application essay point out that English is the working language of the hacker culture and the Internet, and that you will need to know it to function in the hacker community. Back around 1991 I learned that many hackers who have English as a second language use it in technical discussions even when they share a birth tongue; it was reported to for arumentative research paper me at the time that English has a richer technical vocabulary than any other language and is therefore simply a better tool for the job.
For similar reasons, translations of technical books written in English are often unsatisfactory (when they get done at illinois, all). Linus Torvalds, a Finn, comments his code in English (it apparently never occurred to him to do otherwise). His fluency in English has been an important factor in his ability to recruit a worldwide community of developers for Linux. Thesis Song. It's an example worth following. Being a native English-speaker does not guarantee that you have language skills good enough to state university function as a hacker. If your writing is semi-literate, ungrammatical, and thesis paper, riddled with misspellings, many hackers (including myself) will tend to ignore you. While sloppy writing does not invariably mean sloppy thinking, we've generally found the correlation to be strong and we have no use for sloppy thinkers. If you can't yet write competently, learn to. Like most cultures without a money economy, hackerdom runs on reputation.
You're trying to solve interesting problems, but how interesting they are, and whether your solutions are really good, is something that only your technical peers or superiors are normally equipped to illinois state judge. Accordingly, when you play the hacker game, you learn to statements paper keep score primarily by what other hackers think of your skill (this is why you aren't really a hacker until other hackers consistently call you one). This fact is obscured by application essay, the image of hacking as solitary work; also by a hacker-cultural taboo (gradually decaying since the late 1990s but still potent) against paper term admitting that ego or external validation are involved in university application one's motivation at all. Specifically, hackerdom is what anthropologists call a gift culture . You gain status and critical essays society, reputation in it not by university application essay, dominating other people, nor by being beautiful, nor by having things other people want, but rather by giving things away. Specifically, by thesis statements, giving away your time, your creativity, and the results of your skill.
There are basically five kinds of things you can do to be respected by hackers: The first (the most central and most traditional) is to write programs that other hackers think are fun or useful, and give the program sources away to the whole hacker culture to use. (We used to illinois state application call these works free software, but this confused too many people who weren't sure exactly what free was supposed to mean. Paper Project. Most of us now prefer the university, term open-source software). Hackerdom's most revered demigods are people who have written large, capable programs that met a widespread need and management paper project term, given them away, so that now everyone uses them. But there's a bit of a fine historical point here. While hackers have always looked up to illinois state university essay the open-source developers among them as our community's hardest core, before the library, mid-1990s most hackers most of the illinois state university, time worked on closed source. Master Song. This was still true when I wrote the first version of this HOWTO in 1996; it took the mainstreaming of illinois university open-source software after 1997 to essays on israeli society religion change things.
Today, the hacker community and open-source developers are two descriptions for what is essentially the illinois essay, same culture and population but it is worth remembering that this was not always so. (For more on this, see the elmer religion, section called Historical Note: Hacking, Open Source, and Free Software.) 2. Help test and debug open-source software. They also serve who stand and debug open-source software. In this imperfect world, we will inevitably spend most of state application essay our software development time in the debugging phase. Essay. That's why any open-source author who's thinking will tell you that good beta-testers (who know how to describe symptoms clearly, localize problems well, can tolerate bugs in a quickie release, and are willing to apply a few simple diagnostic routines) are worth their weight in illinois application essay rubies. Even one of thesis these can make the difference between a debugging phase that's a protracted, exhausting nightmare and illinois university essay, one that's merely a salutary nuisance. If you're a newbie, try to find a program under development that you're interested in and be a good beta-tester. Management Paper Project. There's a natural progression from helping test programs to helping debug them to helping modify them. You'll learn a lot this way, and generate good karma with people who will help you later on. Another good thing is to collect and filter useful and interesting information into web pages or documents like Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) lists, and make those generally available.
Maintainers of major technical FAQs get almost as much respect as open-source authors. 4. Help keep the infrastructure working. The hacker culture (and the university, engineering development of the Internet, for that matter) is master song run by illinois state university, volunteers. There's a lot of necessary but unglamorous work that needs done to keep it going administering mailing lists, moderating newsgroups, maintaining large software archive sites, developing RFCs and other technical standards. People who do this sort of master song thing well get a lot of respect, because everybody knows these jobs are huge time sinks and not as much fun as playing with code. State University Essay. Doing them shows dedication. 5. Serve the hacker culture itself.
Finally, you can serve and propagate the culture itself (by, for example, writing an master song, accurate primer on how to become a hacker :-)). This is not something you'll be positioned to do until you've been around for while and illinois university essay, become well-known for one of the first four things. The hacker culture doesn't have leaders, exactly, but it does have culture heroes and society and government, tribal elders and historians and spokespeople. When you've been in illinois university application the trenches long enough, you may grow into library thesis one of these. Beware: hackers distrust blatant ego in their tribal elders, so visibly reaching for this kind of fame is dangerous. Rather than striving for it, you have to sort of position yourself so it drops in your lap, and then be modest and illinois, gracious about your status. Contrary to popular myth, you don't have to be a nerd to be a hacker. It does help, however, and thesis song, many hackers are in fact nerds.
Being something of university application a social outcast helps you stay concentrated on the really important things, like thinking and hacking. For this reason, many hackers have adopted the label geek as a badge of pride it's a way of paper project term declaring their independence from normal social expectations (as well as a fondness for other things like science fiction and strategy games that often go with being a hacker). The term 'nerd' used to illinois state be used this way back in the 1990s, back when 'nerd' was a mild pejorative and 'geek' a rather harsher one; sometime after 2000 they switched places, at master song, least in U.S. popular culture, and there is now even a significant geek-pride culture among people who aren't techies. If you can manage to concentrate enough on hacking to illinois state university application be good at it and still have a life, that's fine. This is a lot easier today than it was when I was a newbie in the 1970s; mainstream culture is much friendlier to techno-nerds now.
There are even growing numbers of people who realize that hackers are often high-quality lover and american, spouse material. If you're attracted to hacking because you don't have a life, that's OK too at least you won't have trouble concentrating. Maybe you'll get a life later on. Again, to be a hacker, you have to enter the hacker mindset. There are some things you can do when you're not at a computer that seem to state help. They're not substitutes for hacking (nothing is) but many hackers do them, and feel that they connect in master thesis song some basic way with the essence of hacking. Learn to write your native language well. Though it's a common stereotype that programmers can't write, a surprising number of hackers (including all the illinois, most accomplished ones I know of) are very able writers. Read science fiction. Go to science fiction conventions (a good way to meet hackers and family life essay, proto-hackers).
Join a hackerspace and make things (another good way to meet hackers and proto-hackers). Train in a martial-arts form. The kind of mental discipline required for martial arts seems to be similar in important ways to what hackers do. Illinois State University Essay. The most popular forms among hackers are definitely Asian empty-hand arts such as Tae Kwon Do, various forms of usc digital thesis Karate, Kung Fu, Aikido, or Ju Jitsu. Illinois Essay. Western fencing and Asian sword arts also have visible followings. In places where it's legal, pistol shooting has been rising in popularity since the thesis paper, late 1990s.
The most hackerly martial arts are those which emphasize mental discipline, relaxed awareness, and precise control, rather than raw strength, athleticism, or physical toughness. Study an actual meditation discipline. The perennial favorite among hackers is state university essay Zen (importantly, it is possible to benefit from Zen without acquiring a religion or discarding one you already have). Other styles may work as well, but be careful to choose one that doesn't require you to believe crazy things. Develop an analytical ear for music. Learn to appreciate peculiar kinds of music. For Arumentative. Learn to play some musical instrument well, or how to sing.
Develop your appreciation of illinois state university puns and wordplay. The more of these things you already do, the more likely it is family life that you are natural hacker material. Why these things in particular is not completely clear, but they're connected with a mix of left- and right-brain skills that seems to university essay be important; hackers need to be able to both reason logically and step outside the apparent logic of a problem at a moment's notice. Work as intensely as you play and play as intensely as you work. For true hackers, the boundaries between play, work, science and art all tend to disappear, or to merge into a high-level creative playfulness.
Also, don't be content with a narrow range of skills. Though most hackers self-describe as programmers, they are very likely to be more than competent in several related skills system administration, web design, and PC hardware troubleshooting are common ones. A hacker who's a system administrator, on the other hand, is thesis for arumentative paper likely to be quite skilled at script programming and web design. State. Hackers don't do things by halves; if they invest in management term a skill at all, they tend to get very good at it. Finally, a few things not to do.
Don't use a silly, grandiose user ID or screen name. Don't get in flame wars on Usenet (or anywhere else). Don't call yourself a cyberpunk, and don't waste your time on anybody who does. Don't post or email writing that's full of spelling errors and essay, bad grammar. The only reputation you'll make doing any of these things is as a twit. Hackers have long memories it could take you years to live your early blunders down enough to be accepted. The problem with screen names or handles deserves some amplification. Concealing your identity behind a handle is a juvenile and silly behavior characteristic of crackers, warez d00dz, and master thesis song, other lower life forms. Hackers don't do this; they're proud of what they do and want it associated with their real names. So if you have a handle, drop it.
In the hacker culture it will only mark you as a loser. Historical Note: Hacking, Open Source, and Free Software. When I originally wrote this how-to in late 1996, some of the conditions around it were very different from the way they look today. A few words about these changes may help clarify matters for people who are confused about the illinois state university application, relationship of open source, free software, and Linux to usc digital thesis the hacker community. If you are not curious about state university application essay, this, you can skip straight to the FAQ and bibliography from here. The hacker ethos and community as I have described it here long predates the family, emergence of Linux after 1990; I first became involved with it around 1976, and, its roots are readily traceable back to the early 1960s. University Application Essay. But before Linux, most hacking was done on either proprietary operating systems or a handful of quasi-experimental homegrown systems like MIT's ITS that were never deployed outside of their original academic niches. While there had been some earlier (pre-Linux) attempts to change this situation, their impact was at usc digital library thesis, best very marginal and state university, confined to communities of critical society religion dedicated true believers which were tiny minorities even within the hacker community, let alone with respect to the larger world of software in general.
What is now called open source goes back as far as the hacker community does, but until 1985 it was an unnamed folk practice rather than a conscious movement with theories and manifestos attached to it. This prehistory ended when, in 1985, arch-hacker Richard Stallman (RMS) tried to give it a name free software. But his act of naming was also an act of claiming; he attached ideological baggage to the free software label which much of the existing hacker community never accepted. As a result, the state, free software label was loudly rejected by a substantial minority of the hacker community (especially among those associated with BSD Unix), and used with serious but silent reservations by a majority of the critical on israeli and government, remainder (including myself). Despite these reservations, RMS's claim to define and state application essay, lead the hacker community under the free software banner broadly held until the american, mid-1990s. It was seriously challenged only by the rise of Linux. Linux gave open-source development a natural home. Many projects issued under terms we would now call open-source migrated from proprietary Unixes to Linux. Illinois Essay. The community around Linux grew explosively, becoming far larger and more heterogenous than the pre-Linux hacker culture. RMS determinedly attempted to thesis statements for arumentative research co-opt all this activity into his free software movement, but was thwarted by both the state university application, exploding diversity of the Linux community and usc digital library, the public skepticism of its founder, Linus Torvalds. Illinois Application Essay. Torvalds continued to use the term free software for lack of any alternative, but publicly rejected RMS's ideological baggage.
Many younger hackers followed suit. In 1996, when I first published this Hacker HOWTO, the hacker community was rapidly reorganizing around Linux and a handful of american life other open-source operating systems (notably those descended from BSD Unix). Community memory of the fact that most of us had spent decades developing closed-source software on closed-source operating systems had not yet begun to fade, but that fact was already beginning to university application essay seem like part of a dead past; hackers were, increasingly, defining themselves as hackers by their attachments to statements paper open-source projects such as Linux or Apache. The term open source, however, had not yet emerged; it would not do so until early 1998. Illinois University Application Essay. When it did, most of the hacker community adopted it within the following six months; the exceptions were a minority ideologically attached to the term free software. Since 1998, and especially after about 2003, the identification of usc digital 'hacking' with 'open-source (and free software) development' has become extremely close. Today there is little point in university application essay attempting to distinguish between these categories, and it seems unlikely that will change in the future.
It is worth remembering, however, that this was not always so. Paul Graham has written an thesis paper, essay called Great Hackers, and another on Undergraduation, in which he speaks much wisdom. Younger hackers might find Things Every Hacker Once Knew interesting and useful. I have written a paper, The Cathedral and the Bazaar , which explains a lot about how the Linux and illinois university application, open-source cultures work. I have addressed this topic even more directly in its sequel Homesteading the Noosphere . Rick Moen has written an excellent document on how to run a Linux user group. Rick Moen and I have collaborated on another document on How To Ask Smart Questions. This will help you seek assistance in a way that makes it more likely that you will actually get it. If you need instruction in the basics of how personal computers, Unix, and the Internet work, see The Unix and Internet Fundamentals HOWTO. When you release software or write patches for software, try to follow the guidelines in the Software Release Practice HOWTO.
How do I tell if I am already a hacker? Ask yourself the following three questions: Do you speak code, fluently? Do you identify with the goals and critical society religion, values of the hacker community? Has a well-established member of the hacker community ever called you a hacker? If you can answer yes to all three of state university these questions, you are already a hacker.
No two alone are sufficient. The first test is paper project term about skills. You probably pass it if you have the minimum technical skills described earlier in state university application this document. Critical On Israeli Society Religion And Government. You blow right through it if you have had a substantial amount of code accepted by an open-source development project. The second test is about attitude.
If the five principles of the hacker mindset seemed obvious to you, more like a description of the way you already live than anything novel, you are already halfway to passing it. That's the inward half; the other, outward half is the degree to which you identify with the illinois application essay, hacker community's long-term projects. Here is an incomplete but indicative list of family some of those projects: Does it matter to you that Linux improve and spread? Are you passionate about illinois state, software freedom? Hostile to monopolies? Do you act on the belief that computers can be instruments of empowerment that make the critical essays society, world a richer and more humane place? But a note of caution is in order here. The hacker community has some specific, primarily defensive political interests two of them are defending free-speech rights and fending off intellectual-property power grabs that would make open source illegal. University Application. Some of those long-term projects are civil-liberties organizations like the Electronic Frontier Foundation, and research paper, the outward attitude properly includes support of them.
But beyond that, most hackers view attempts to systematize the illinois, hacker attitude into an explicit political program with suspicion; we've learned, the hard way, that these attempts are divisive and critical essays on israeli society religion, distracting. Illinois. If someone tries to recruit you to paper march on your capitol in the name of the hacker attitude, they've missed the point. The right response is probably Shut up and show them the code. Illinois Application. . The third test has a tricky element of elmer gantry religion recursiveness about application essay, it. I observed in the section called What Is a Hacker? that being a hacker is partly a matter of usc digital thesis belonging to a particular subculture or social network with a shared history, an inside and an outside.
In the far past, hackers were a much less cohesive and self-aware group than they are today. But the importance of the illinois university essay, social-network aspect has increased over the last thirty years as the Internet has made connections with the research paper, core of the hacker subculture easier to develop and maintain. Illinois State Application. One easy behavioral index of the change is that, in this century, we have our own T-shirts. Sociologists, who study networks like those of the hacker culture under the general rubric of thesis statements research paper invisible colleges, have noted that one characteristic of such networks is illinois essay that they have gatekeepers core members with the social authority to endorse new members into the network. Because the invisible college that is hacker culture is a loose and informal one, the role of usc digital library thesis gatekeeper is illinois state essay informal too. But one thing that all hackers understand in their bones is that not every hacker is a gatekeeper.
Gatekeepers have to management paper have a certain degree of seniority and illinois state essay, accomplishment before they can bestow the master thesis song, title. How much is hard to quantify, but every hacker knows it when they see it. Will you teach me how to hack? Since first publishing this page, I've gotten several requests a week (often several a day) from people to illinois university application essay teach me all about hacking. Unfortunately, I don't have the time or energy to do this; my own hacking projects, and working as an open-source advocate, take up 110% of usc digital library my time. Even if I did, hacking is an attitude and illinois university application, skill you basically have to teach yourself. Usc Digital Library. You'll find that while real hackers want to help you, they won't respect you if you beg to be spoon-fed everything they know. Learn a few things first. Show that you're trying, that you're capable of learning on your own. Then go to the hackers you meet with specific questions. If you do email a hacker asking for state university essay advice, here are two things to know up front.
First, we've found that people who are lazy or careless in their writing are usually too lazy and thesis, careless in their thinking to make good hackers so take care to spell correctly, and illinois state university application essay, use good grammar and punctuation, otherwise you'll probably be ignored. Secondly, don't dare ask for a reply to on israeli society an ISP account that's different from the account you're sending from; we find people who do that are usually thieves using stolen accounts, and we have no interest in rewarding or assisting thievery. How can I get started, then? The best way for you to get started would probably be to go to a LUG (Linux user group) meeting. You can find such groups on the LDP General Linux Information Page; there is probably one near you, possibly associated with a college or university. LUG members will probably give you a Linux if you ask, and will certainly help you install one and illinois state essay, get started. Your next step (and your first step if you can't find a LUG nearby) should be to find an open-source project that interests you.
Start reading code and reviewing bugs. Learn to for arumentative paper contribute, and university application, work your way in. The only way in is by working to improve your skills. If you ask me personally for advice on how to get started, I will tell you these exact same things, because I don't have any magic shortcuts for management paper project you. I will also mentally write you off as a probable loser - because if you lacked the stamina to read this FAQ and the intelligence to understand from illinois state university application it that the management term, only way in university essay is by working to improve your skills , you're hopeless.
Another interesting possibility is to go visit a hackerspace. There is a burgeoning movement of people creating physical locations - maker's clubs - where they can hang out to on israeli and government work on illinois state university application essay hardware and software projects together, or work solo in a cogenial atmosphere. Hackerspaces often collect tools and specialized equipment that would be too expensive or logistically inconvenient for individuals to own. Hackerspaces are easy to find on the Internet; one may be located near you. When do you have to start? Is it too late for me to for arumentative paper learn?
Any age at which you are motivated to start is a good age. Most people seem to get interested between ages 15 and illinois state application, 20, but I know of exceptions in both directions. How long will it take me to learn to hack? That depends on how talented you are and paper project, how hard you work at it. State University Essay. Most people who try can acquire a respectable skill set in eighteen months to two years, if they concentrate. Don't think it ends there, though; in hacking (as in paper many other fields) it takes about illinois university, ten years to achieve mastery.
And if you are a real hacker, you will spend the paper, rest of your life learning and illinois application, perfecting your craft. Is Visual Basic a good language to start with? If you're asking this question, it almost certainly means you're thinking about trying to hack under Microsoft Windows. This is a bad idea in research paper itself. When I compared trying to learn to state university essay hack under Windows to trying to learn to dance while wearing a body cast, I wasn't kidding. American Family Life Essay. Don't go there. Illinois State University Essay. It's ugly, and it never stops being ugly.
There is a specific problem with Visual Basic; mainly that it's not portable. Though there is a prototype open-source implementations of Visual Basic, the applicable ECMA standards don't cover more than a small set of its programming interfaces. On Windows most of its library support is proprietary to a single vendor (Microsoft); if you aren't extremely careful about which features you use more careful than any newbie is really capable of being you'll end up locked into only those platforms Microsoft chooses to family essay support. If you're starting on a Unix, much better languages with better libraries are available. Python, for example. Also, like other Basics, Visual Basic is a poorly-designed language that will teach you bad programming habits.
No, don't ask me to describe them in detail; that explanation would fill a book. Learn a well-designed language instead. One of illinois university application those bad habits is becoming dependent on a single vendor's libraries, widgets, and development tools. In general, any language that isn't fully supported under at least Linux or one of the BSDs, and/or at thesis, least three different vendors' operating systems, is a poor one to learn to state hack in. Would you help me to crack a system, or teach me how to crack? No. Anyone who can still ask such a question after reading this FAQ is too stupid to song be educable even if I had the state university essay, time for tutoring. Any emailed requests of this kind that I get will be ignored or answered with extreme rudeness. How can I get the password for management project someone else's account? This is university application essay cracking. Term. Go away, idiot.
How can I break into/read/monitor someone else's email? This is cracking. Illinois University. Get lost, moron. How can I steal channel op privileges on IRC? This is cracking. Begone, cretin. I've been cracked. American Life Essay. Will you help me fend off further attacks? No. Every time I've been asked this question so far, it's been from some poor sap running Microsoft Windows. State Application. It is thesis not possible to effectively secure Windows systems against crack attacks; the code and architecture simply have too many flaws, which makes securing Windows like trying to bail out a boat with a sieve.
The only reliable prevention starts with switching to Linux or some other operating system that is designed to at least be capable of security. I'm having problems with my Windows software. Illinois University Essay. Will you help me? Yes. Go to a DOS prompt and type format c:. Any problems you are experiencing will cease within a few minutes. Where can I find some real hackers to life essay talk with?
The best way is to find a Unix or Linux user's group local to you and illinois university essay, go to critical on israeli their meetings (you can find links to several lists of user groups on the LDP site at ibiblio). (I used to say here that you wouldn't find any real hackers on IRC, but I'm given to illinois understand this is changing. For Arumentative Research. Apparently some real hacker communities, attached to things like GIMP and illinois state university application, Perl, have IRC channels now.) Can you recommend useful books about hacking-related subjects? I maintain a Linux Reading List HOWTO that you may find helpful. The Loginataka may also be interesting.
For an critical essays on israeli society and government, introduction to Python, see the tutorial on the Python site. Do I need to illinois state essay be good at math to become a hacker? No. Hacking uses very little formal mathematics or arithmetic. In particular, you won't usually need trigonometry, calculus or analysis (there are exceptions to this in a handful of specific application areas like 3-D computer graphics).
Knowing some formal logic and Boolean algebra is good. Some grounding in finite mathematics (including finite-set theory, combinatorics, and critical essays on israeli society and government, graph theory) can be helpful. Much more importantly: you need to be able to think logically and follow chains of exact reasoning, the way mathematicians do. While the content of most mathematics won't help you, you will need the discipline and intelligence to handle mathematics. Illinois State Application Essay. If you lack the intelligence, there is family little hope for university essay you as a hacker; if you lack the discipline, you'd better grow it. I think a good way to find out if you have what it takes is to pick up a copy of management paper project Raymond Smullyan's book What Is The Name Of This Book? . Smullyan's playful logical conundrums are very much in illinois state application essay the hacker spirit. Management Paper. Being able to illinois university essay solve them is master song a good sign; enjoying solving them is an even better one. What language should I learn first?
HTML if you don't already know it. There are a lot of illinois state glossy, hype-intensive bad HTML books out there, and distressingly few good ones. The one I like best is for arumentative research paper HTML: The Definitive Guide . But HTML is not a full programming language. When you're ready to start programming, I would recommend starting with Python. You will hear a lot of people recommending Perl, but it's harder to learn and state university essay, (in my opinion) less well designed. C is really important, but it's also much more difficult than either Python or Perl.
Don't try to learn it first. Windows users, do not settle for Visual Basic. It will teach you bad habits, and gantry religion, it's not portable off Windows. Avoid. What kind of hardware do I need? It used to be that personal computers were rather underpowered and application, memory-poor, enough so that they placed artificial limits on a hacker's learning process. This stopped being true in the mid-1990s; any machine from an Intel 486DX50 up is more than powerful enough for development work, X, and Internet communications, and the smallest disks you can buy today are plenty big enough. The important thing in choosing a machine on which to learn is whether its hardware is Linux-compatible (or BSD-compatible, should you choose to go that route). Again, this will be true for almost all modern machines.
The only really sticky areas are modems and statements for arumentative research, wireless cards; some machines have Windows-specific hardware that won't work with Linux. There's a FAQ on hardware compatibility; the application essay, latest version is here. I want to contribute. Can you help me pick a problem to work on? No, because I don't know your talents or interests. You have to be self-motivated or you won't stick, which is essay why having other people choose your direction almost never works.
Do I need to hate and bash Microsoft? No, you don't. Not that Microsoft isn't loathsome, but there was a hacker culture long before Microsoft and there will still be one long after Microsoft is history. Any energy you spend hating Microsoft would be better spent on loving your craft. Application Essay. Write good code that will bash Microsoft quite sufficiently without polluting your karma. But won't open-source software leave programmers unable to make a living? This seems unlikely so far, the open-source software industry seems to american life be creating jobs rather than taking them away. State Application Essay. If having a program written is a net economic gain over not having it written, a programmer will get paid whether or not the program is going to be open-source after it's done. And, no matter how much free software gets written, there always seems to be more demand for new and customized applications. For Arumentative. I've written more about this at the Open Source pages. Where can I get a free Unix?
If you don't have a Unix installed on your machine yet, elsewhere on this page I include pointers to where to state university application essay get the most commonly used free Unix. To be a hacker you need motivation and initiative and the ability to educate yourself. Start now.
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