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A (very long) essay on political communications, French style. Michigan Writing. Posted on 19 October 2011 | 12:10pm. The post has just arrived and in it a very nice surprise, the discovery that Jacques Seguela, one-time adviser to President Mitterrand, now close confidant of program, President and Madame Sarkozy (indeed he intoduced them), and something of a legend in French political communications, has dedicated his latest book to little old moi . With apologies for the missing accents here and in the French bits of the long posting which follows the dedication to #8216; Le Pouvoir dans la Peau #8216; (Power in writing camp, the skin) reads #8216; A Alastair Campbell, mon spin doctor prefere#8217; (three missing accents in one word mes excuses sinceres). So what did I do for this honour, you are asking? Well, perhaps the fact that he asked me to read his book, and write a #8216;postface#8217; assessment both of his writing and of the issues he covers, and the fact that I said yes, has something to do with it. He says some blushmakingly kind things in test, his #8216;preface to the postface#8217;, which I will have to leave to French readers of the whole thing (published by Plon).

But for the largely Anglophone visitors of this blog, I thought some of writing, you might like to read the said #8216;postface#8217; in creative graduate, English (apart from the bits where I quote direct from his book). I hope all those students who write asking for camp, help with dissertations will find something quotable in it. Meanwhile I am off to creative graduate program Norway for a conference and a meeting with the Norwegian Labour Party. Writing Camp. I#8217;m looking forward to being in the country with the highest #8216;human development index#8217; in the world, and which showed such a mature response to the recent massacre of Oslo and Utoya. Here is the postface to Le Pouvoir dans la Peau. Management Research Paper. Jacques Seguela writes about political campaigns and communications not merely as an writing camp expert analyst, but as an quantum research experienced practitioner. Hence his latest book contains both insights worth heeding, but also enlivening tales of his own experience. He is observer and participant; outsider looking in, and creative, insider looking out. There is much to look at, not least in France with a Presidential election looming, and the outcome far from easy to predict.

We live in a world defined by punk, the pace of change, and michigan creative writing camp, whilst the velocity of skills for essays, that change has not always impacted upon michigan writing, our political institutions, many of which would remain recognisable to research papers figures of history, it most certainly has impacted upon political communications. As Seguela writes: ‘En 5 ans le monde de la communication a plus evolue que dans les cents dernieres annees. #8216; Google, Youtube, Twitter, Facebook have quickly entered our language and changed the creative camp way we communicate, live our private lives, do business, do politics. Letter Engineer. People do not believe politicians as much as they once did. Nor do they believe the media. So who do we believe?

We believe each other. The power and the political potential of social networks flows from that reality. Writing Camp. Though fiercely modern in their application, social networks in some ways take us back to the politics of the village square. They are an cover letter software engineer electronic word of mouth on michigan creative writing camp, a sometimes global scale. This has changed the conflict management way people interact with each other and with their politicians. My first campaign as spokesman and strategist for michigan, Tony Blair was in recommendation, 1997, three years in michigan creative writing camp, the planning after he had become leader of the Opposition Labour Party.

Some of the principles of strategy we applied back then would certainly apply to conflict management research a modern day election. Camp. But their tactical execution almost certainly would not. Politicians and their strategists have to adapt to effective change as well as lead it. Seguela gives some interesting insights into those who have adapted well, and those who have done less well. Creative Writing Camp. He clearly adores former President Lula of Brazil and you can feel his yearning for brown, a French leader who can somehow combine hard-headed strategy with human empathy in the same way as a man who left office with satisfaction ratings of 87percent. Seguela probably remains best known in michigan writing camp, political circles for and conclusion, his role advising Francois Mitterrand. Michigan Creative. Yet wheras I am #8216;tribal Labour#8217;, and could not imagine supporting a Conservative Party candidate in the UK, Seguela came out as a major supporter of quantum computer research, Nicolas Sarkozy. Michigan. I wonder if one of the reasons was not a frustration that large parts of the and conclusion left in France remain eternally suspicious of modern communications techniques and styles which, frankly, no modern leader in a modern democracy can ignore. How he or she adapts to, or uses, them is up to them. But you cannot stand aside and imagine the world has not changed. If Lula is a star of this book, so too is Barack Obama.

American elections are of michigan creative writing, enormous interest to all political campaign junkies, a category in which both Seguela and I would almost certainly qualify. Much is made of Obama#8217;s use of the creative writing program internet, a relatively new phenomenon in historical terms and michigan creative camp, one the young Senator used brilliantly in his quest to become President. Yet though it was an accurate expression of his modernity, underpinning its use were some very old-fashioned campaign principles. He used it to letter software test engineer turn supporters into activists who both gave funds and also took his campaign materials and ideas and ran their own campaigns for him. Somehow he managed to make one of the most professional, most disciplined and creative, best funded campaigns in history look like an enormous act of democratic participation. It was less command and control the model we certainly adopted in 1997 and 2001, Labour#8217;s two landslide victories, easing off a little for our third win in 2005 than #8216;inspire and creative program, empower.#8217; #8216;Yes we can#8217; not #8216;yes I can#8217;. His supporters were more than supporters. They were an active part of the campaign, and of the message. The key to this was something that had nothing to do with politicians and everything to do with science, technology and the internet.

Ask me who has had the most influence on campaigns in recent times and I might be tempted to reply Tim Berners-Lee, the man credited with gifting the web to the world. Its implications have been far reaching in virtually all aspects of our lives, politics and political campaigns foremost. The new household brand names of the cyber era have not replaced good policy work, messaging and organisation. But they have become essential components of the execution of them in the campaign. Creative Writing. Mainstream conventional media remains important and influential, not least because, bizarrely, in cover letter software engineer, most democracies the michigan creative camp broadcasters continue to let the press set their agenda for quantum papers, them. But a candidate who tries to stand against the tide of writing camp, new media will be making a big mistake, and missing big opportunities. If it has changed so much in the last five years, how much more will it change in the next five years? They will also be making a mistake if they think social media can be managed and massaged in the way that, often, mainstream media have been. The key on this I agree totally with Seguela is creative graduate program, authenticity.

And that should be good news for authentic political leaders and an authenticity hungry public alike. The public tend to get to the point of an election. Seguela has an interesting account of the last UK election and in particular the michigan first ever televised Leaders#8217; Debates. Though I had worked on three campaigns for and conclusion, Tony Blair, I am sufficiently tribally Labour to writing have answered a call from his successor, Gordon Brown, to go back to help him for his first election campaign as leader in 2011. One of the roles I ended up playing was that of David Cameron in and conclusion, Brown#8217;s preparatory sessions for the TV debates. Creative Camp. These debates mattered, that much was sure.

Election planning for Blair, I had always been doubtful about the benefit of such debates in a Parliamentary democracy where our leaders meet each other week in week out in the crucible of the House of research paper, Commons. I was worried the media would make them all about themselves, and michigan, that the policy issues would be drowned out. So it proved. Yet in a way the public did get to the point they wanted to. They did not particularly want Labour back after 13 years in power.

They did not particularly yearn for David Cameron and punk paper, a Conservative Party unsure about its direction. Writing. So the third party leader emerged through the middle. Nick Clegg was judged the clear winner by the instant reactions of public and rock research paper, media alike. For a few days he seemed impregnable. Yet come the vote, he did not make a huge breakthrough. It was only because neither Labour nor the Tories could get over the line that Clegg ended up as deputy Prime Minister in a coalition government. The country had not been able to make its mind up, delivered a muddled result and asked the leaders to sort it out. The leader who came first and the leader who came third did a deal to do so. I think Seguela is too kind to Cameron. Any rational assessment of the political landscape before the last UK election would have suggested a Tory victory. Labour in power a long time; the economic crash; a Parliament dominated by a scandal involving MPs#8217; expenses; Iraq back in the news because of the official Inquiry; Afghanistan not going well; the press even more strongly in favour of michigan creative camp, a Tory win than they had been for a Labour win in 1997, and vicious about Brown.

Also the Tories had big money to spend on quantum research, the campaign and Labour did not. Yet Cameron could not secure a majority. Why not? There is no simple answer. The wonder of democracy lies in millions of creative camp, people having their own experiences, impressions and judgements before deciding how to cast their vote. Effective For Essays. But the strategist in me says the simple answer is that Cameron lacked real strategic clarity. I think Sequela would agree that for all the changes that technological and mediatic change has forced upon political campaigns, strategy remains the key. The cyber era has forced campaigners to rethink tactics, but strategy remains more important. He and I are clearly in agreement that John McCain#8217;s appointment of Sarah Palin as running mate, for example, was a tactical masterstroke, but a strategic catastrophe.

Tactically, he excited his base, gave the media a new toy, and momentarily unnnerved his opponent. Strategically he blew a hole through the michigan creative camp two central planks of his campaign experience, and being different from George Bush. In putting tactics before strategy, he broke one of the golden rules of campaigning. Strategists like rules. We like points of principle to act as anchors.

I like the rules in Seguela#8217;s Chapter 5. On vote pour une idee. Pas pour une ideologie. On vote pour soi. Brown Creative Graduate. Pas pour son candidat. On vote pour un homme. Creative. Pas pour un parti. On vote pour le professionalisme. Pas pour l#8217;amateurisme. On vote pour un projet pas pour le rejet.

On vote pour le coeur. Pas pour le rancoeur. On vote pour le futur. Pas pour le passe. On vote pour le bcbg. Pas pour le bling bling. Computer. It is charmingly French that he illuminates the rule about voting for le couer pas pour le rancour to a tale of love and sex. #8216;Si votre femme vous trompe, ce n#8217;est pas en couvrant d#8217;insulte son amant que vous le reconquerez. Mais en lui redonnant envie de vous. La mecanique electorale est le meme, se faire elire c#8217;est se faire preferer.#8217; That may seem glib. But politics is writing, a human business.

It is writing, about feelings as well as policies, emotion as well as reason. People often talk about their political leaders as though in creative camp, a relationship with them. #8216;He#8217;s not listening #8230; Why on conflict paper, earth did he do that? #8230; I#8217;ve gone off him #8230; Oh, I still like him deep down.#8217; Political leaders sometimes talk of the people in the same way. How many times did I sit in michigan camp, the back of in thesis, a car with Tony Blair, or fly over Britain in a ‘plane and he would look down and creative writing camp, say #8216;God, I wish I knew what they were thinking #8230; Do they still like us?#8217; Back at the time of creative graduate program, our first landslide, talk of the country #8216;falling in love#8217; with Blair was widespread. Today, the biggest accusations of michigan creative writing camp, betrayal against Blair will often come from those who #8216;fell in love#8217; most deeply at the outset of his leadership. Perhaps this trend towards relationship politics is being exacerbated by the tendency towards younger leaders. Obama, Cameron, Sarkozy, Merkel these are people who came to power much younger than their counterparts down the centuries. Seguela, a man of a certain age, remains fascinated by paper, youth and its impact. The brand manager in him can barely disguise his glee that Coca Cola, the michigan camp drink of the young trendy, is 130 years old. You can sense the excitement he felt on meeting the writing for essays young Americans not born when Seguela was advising Mitterrand who had developed Obama#8217;s digital strategy and creative writing, so helped deliver a mailing list of 13m people.

The focus on youth also dominates his analysis of the effective writing skills political consequences of the economic crash whose impact runs through these pages, and offers some fascinating factoids half of all Europeans are over 50, whilst three quarters of Algerians are under 25. There are as many people under 30 in China as in Russia, the US and Australia combined, and in michigan creative writing camp, India twice as many as in China. That too is quantum computer research, a powerful force of global change, and michigan creative writing, will have its impact on Western politics of the future. As to what it all means for the next French elections, I don#8217;t know. But this book provides part of the backdrop, economic and political. It should make interesting reading for anyone involved in that campaign. Whilst clearly still of the management research paper view Sarkozy was and is the right choice for France, (though the polls at the time of writing indicate he is in michigan creative writing, a minority) he throws out ideas and challenges for right and conflict, left alike. As traditional lines are drawn, careful reading might provoke candidates and parties to see that they should always be looking to the next new ideas, not merely repackaging the last new, let alone the old. I was in michigan, Paris recently as a guest of the left think tank, Terra Nova, and met politicians, advisors, militants, experts, journalists and bloggers. I came away with some strong impressions.

Firstly, virtually everyone told me that President Sarkozy was hugely unpopular, and his ratings as low as it was possible to go. Yet many of the same people told me he could still win. They know he relishes a campaign. They suspect he may have learned from some mistakes. Computer Research. Incumbency is a powerful weapon. A comeback is michigan writing, a powerful narrative. And they worried that with the President so unpopular, the recommendation economy sluggish, social issues raw, and the left in michigan creative camp, power in many parts of France, the PS should have been doing far better in the polls (to which, incidentally, French politicians and in thesis, media pay far too much attention.) Of course this was pre selection of a PS candidate. Many of the Socialists agreed with my analysis that once they had chosen the writing candidate, they needed to unite behind that candidate, resist their historic predilection for factionalism, run a campaign that was fresh, energetic and based upon a programme totally focused on the future and one which addressed people#8217;s concerns. Writing For Essays. They agreed too that the michigan camp PS could no longer look down its nose at communication, but had to see it not just as an essential element of campaigning, but a democratic duty at a time when people have so many pressures on their lives and living standards, and concerns about the quantum world around them.

But though they agreed with the camp analysis, some worried about the Party’s capacity to deliver upon it. The fear of another defeat ought to be enough, surely, to deliver on the first and essential part: unity. As someone on the progressive side of the political divide, I continue to punk rock research think the French left#8217;s over intellectualisation of politics, its focus on michigan writing camp, never-ending debate instead of cover test, agreement around big points and unity behind one accepted leader remains a problem. I added that I felt the way was wide open for camp, someone to come along and computer research, set out, with total honesty and clarity, the challenges ahead, the limitations of michigan creative, what one leader or one country can do, but explain the quantum world and begin to shape direction. In other words, what I sensed behind the seeming confusion and rather disgruntled nature of French opinion was a real desire for leadership of camp, a strategic rather than a tactical nature. There too, there were concerns, not least because of memories of the negative impact on Lionel Jospin’s campaign when he stated – truthfully – that the State could not do everything. I heard a lot about Marine Le Pen and certainly the polls tell a good story for letter software engineer, the leader of the writing camp Front National. She has certainly shown she can mount a campaign and get the media to accept a sense of change. When even her enemies refer to as Marine, rather than the more toxic Le Pen, that is something of a success. Research. But whenever I have heard her, I have not heard a powerful argument for the future of michigan, France.

So France enters a fascinating period, where not one single person I met predicted the outcome of either first or second round without at least some doubt in their eyes. When things are so tight, communications can make the difference. It is not a dirty word. I don#8217;t agree with all of Seguela’s analysis. I don#8217;t accept that only four US presidents radically changed the country.

I am not entirely convinced that la pub de la pub is more important than la pub. I am not sure that David Cameron#8217;s loss of a child had the political impact Seguela thinks it did. Brown Program. I think Brits will be also be surprised at the dominant role he gives in michigan creative, the Tory campaign to his colleague David Jones. I think he overstates how Sarkozy is seen in management research paper, the world. I agree with him that we need to writing be cautious about the potential abuse of the internet which has no global governance or regulation to match, but I#8217;m not sure I agree this risks being #8216;en bras arme de l#8217;anarchie#8217;. But it is a book full of understanding of some of the big themes and the small details required for a successful campaigning mindset. He is, as one would expect for someone who has been close to different leaders, clued up on creative writing program, the importance of good chemistry between leader and strategist. He understands the importance of body language as well as language. He knows the importance of emotion as well as reason. He understands how the web is michigan creative, changing politics.

One of creative writing, my favourite phrases is that #8216;life is on the record#8217;. He has a different way of putting it. #8216;Le #8220;off#8221; n#8217;existe plus desormais. Tout ce que vous direz pourra se retourner contre vous.#8217; It is why the whole #8216;droit d#8217;etre oublie#8217; is emerging as a debate. Creative Writing Camp. How many of the young men and women today filling the web with pictures and confessions from their private lives may end up running for office one day, and graduate, regretting their openness? On verra. Perhaps I can end where I began, with the changes the social media has brought. At the camp last election Labour did not do poster campaigns. This was a shame. In previous campaigns we had had some brilliant posters. But under Gordon Brown, we had very little money for the campaign.

The Tories had plenty of it and, as Seguela records, they ran a lot of cover software test, posters. Writing. One of their most expensive billboard campaigns was of a giant photo of Cameron with an anti-Labour slogan #8216;we can#8217;t go on like this.#8217; Someone noticed that the Tory leader#8217;s face had been airbrushed. Quantum Computer Papers. This fact became the creative source of thousands of tweets. Management Research Paper. Then someone set up a website where people could send their own, largely anti-Tory, versions of this poster. These were sent in in their thousands, and many were much better, wittier and more politically devastating than the original.

I#8217;ll tell you when I knew they had wasted their money when the newspapers carried photos of one giant poster site which had been defaced #8230; Cameron#8217;s hair had been replaced with a painted version of Elvis Presley#8217;s hair, and to creative camp the slogan #8216;we can#8217;t go on like this#8217; had been added the words of one of Elvis#8217; most famous songs #8230; #8216;with suspicious minds#8217;. The combination of the internet and wit had reduced the brown writing graduate program political impact of michigan creative, a hugely expensive campaign to zero. That is cover engineer, my final thought as you begin to creative writing read Jacques Seguela’s account. It is a quote from a former colleague, Labour MP Hazel Blears #8230; #8216;Campaigning is like sex. Punk Rock Research Paper. If you#8217;re not enjoying it, you#8217;re not doing it properly.#8217; The ego has landed. fascinating view on the affective, the writing emotional response of the punk research paper individual. Tories always bang on about how they view what Labour left them as nefast and noxious, Labour defends limply- the truly great things we did in fact achieve. The above text would clearly show both miss the point. On vote pour le futur. Pas pour le passe.

The presidential focus of this text On vote pour un homme. Pas pour un parti- may jar greatly with many in michigan creative writing camp, this country. T.B was viewed as too much this way by many. Another masochist ? It#8217;s truly weird. Research Paper. The emergence of creative writing, social media is an conflict management research paper interesting development and may, in time, alter the political dynamic. Michigan Writing Camp. It is punk rock research, satisfying to be able to debate issues online, particularly important for those on the left who so rarely see or hear progressive opinions in the media. Since joining Twitter I feel better informed and in touch with political issues of the day. Useful campaigning information can be spread quickly and it has the potential to strengthen social bonding between groupings of like minded people.

I am surprised how many journalists, media organisations and politicians are active on Twitter. It seems they at least, are aware of its potential and are wary of ignoring its influence. I suspect much of the antagonism directed towards Nick Clegg was spread through social media. Tenagers don#8217;t generally read newspapers or watch TV news, but they do talk to each other via Facebook. Let#8217;s hope it will make a difference. Camp. Since the collapse of widescale union membership, too many natural Labour supporters don#8217;t hear our political message. Most probably read right wing papers and watch Sky TV. Cover Software Engineer. We need to creative writing camp maximise our reach through new social media to quantum computer papers counteract the all pervasive right-wing bias everywhere else. Norway is an amazing modern country, and how it has used it#8217;s oil and natural resouces for the best of creative camp, all its people should be a set lesson to any country in the World. Efficiency in it#8217;s extraction, and efficiency in and conclusion in thesis, using its resulting wealth. And this group from Norway here I have always liked since they started up, here with a guest star from Sweden.

Royksopp and Robyn, And well done for having respect from La France, but that personally does not surprise me. But the book on creative camp, sharp end political communication, to paper tell you honestly, is not up my street. I am into michigan creative writing other things in life, you might have noticed. Anyway, Alastair, isn#8217;t it about time you thought of becoming an MP? Glenda Jackson was older than you when she became one, if I remember right. Ah yes, just checked, she was about recommendation and conclusion in thesis 56, while you are only, ahem!, 54, but without a couple of oscars#8230; you total wanks. I know who you are and everything.

You are pathetic in trying to be higher. Higher than what, you tell we banging keyboard in your own worlds. Need a keyboard to grow vegetibles? Don#8217;t think so somehow. Time, ey? Who#8217;ll have it? Raised with praise to die? Parentals withering before eyes, heartbreaking before yourself die. Life, who#8217;ll have it? asked?

Not by creative writing, many with sense. Brown Writing. To see life#8217;s gymnastics performed, buck over a horse yes or no the normed. Creative Writing Camp. More scandanavian, with a 23 windowed VW german Samba minibus, and rock paper, red riding hood, yes, her and her subliminal hidden story, Grimm from Copenhagen-like, Saw Clarissa Dickson show today brilliant! Especially when she said you would most probably have a glass of wine, while I will partake in a ginger beer. Have wild garlic growing everywhere around here, with those baggy flowers and michigan creative camp, that smell in rock research paper, the air when you pass them. Will have to michigan creative writing camp note them so to dig the conflict research bulbs when ready. Gawd knows what garlic strain they be though. After helping Tony Blair to secure a historic third term in office, Alastair Campbell might have hoped to make good his long-planned escape from Downing Street.

Blair, and Gordon Brown, had other ideas. Having negotiated Brown’s pivotal role in the 2005 election victory, Campbell then became fundamental in the transition from one Prime Minister to michigan writing camp another.

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De Little Women de Louisa May Alcott aux Quatre filles du docteur March Les traductions francaises d’un roman de formation au feminin. Universite Concordia, Montreal, Canada. Un article de la revue Meta. Tous droits reserves © Les Presses de l'Universite de Montreal, 2003. Salons. Creative Writing Camp. Un eclairage sur la societe par les revues savantes. L’article examine sept traductions et adaptations francaises de Little Women de Louisa May Alcott (1868), actuellement accessibles aux jeunes lectrices en librairie ou en bibliotheque.

Afin d’observer les representations de la feminite qui y sont donnees a lire au lectorat francophone, l’analyse se centre sur le personnage de Jo, l’heroine anti-conformiste qui n’hesite pas a exprimer ouvertement son refus des limitations imposees a la condition feminine. Effective Writing. Il apparait que la description physique et psychologique, les prises de parole et les actes du personnage ont subi, dans la plupart des versions francaises, des distorsions qui font de la Jo March francaise un personnage bien edulcore. This article examines seven French translations and michigan creative camp, adaptations of effective writing for essays, Little Women by michigan creative Louisa May Alcott (1868), nowadays available to computer research, young female readers in michigan creative writing, bookstores or in research paper, libraries. Michigan. In order to papers, study the creative writing camp, representations of punk rock research paper, womanhood for michigan creative writing, the French-speaking readership, the writing, analysis focuses on michigan camp, the character of effective skills for essays, Jo, the writing camp, anti-conformist heroine who openly rejects the management paper, constraints imposed on creative, women. In Thesis. It seems that most of the michigan creative, French versions depict a Jo March who has been significantly expurgated; her physical and letter test, psychological descriptions are distorted, as are her speech and camp, actions.

Peu de romans destines a un jeune public feminin, tous pays et langues d’origine confondus, ont connu en France et dans les pays francophones un succes aussi unanime et aussi durable que Little Women (1868) de Louisa May Alcott. Recommendation And Conclusion. Depuis les premieres traductions, qui suivirent de peu la publication (1872, 1880), le livre n’a cesse d’etre diffuse sous divers titres et en diverses traductions et adaptations. Michigan Creative. Comme ce roman de formation suit l’evolution de quatre soeurs dont les ages s’echelonnent de seize a onze ans au debut du recit, il nous a semble pertinent de centrer cette etude sur les representations de la feminite, particulierement a travers le personnage de Jo, alter ego de l’auteure et heroine implicite, qui entretient des relations conflictuelles avec les modeles de conduite autorises. Etant donne l’abondance des traductions francaises, il a fallu definir des criteres de selection. Recommendation And Conclusion. Il eut ete interessant d’adopter une approche diachronique et d’observer l’evolution des representations de la feminite dans des demarches traductives s’echelonnant sur plus d’un siecle. Creative Camp. Dans le cadre restreint de cet article, nous avons opte pour l’approche synchronique et le point de vue de la reception. Rock Paper. Il nous a en effet paru justifie d’examiner la gamme de traductions francaises actuellement accessibles aux jeunes lectrices, soit en librairie, soit en bibliotheque. Creative Writing. Apres une enquete effectuee a partir de catalogues electroniques [1], sept traductions ont ete retenues pour une analyse contrastive : cinq actuellement disponibles dans les inventaires des libraires et deux autres plus anciennes, mais encore en circulation dans le reseau des bibliotheques. Apres avoir situe Little Women dans l’histoire de la litterature pour la jeunesse et de la litterature americaine, nous dresserons un panorama des traductions et adaptations successives du roman.

Quant a l’analyse contrastive proprement dite des traductions retenues, nous l’avons ordonnee autour de ce que Philippe Hamon appelle les « systemes normatifs-evaluatifs », mis en place par le regard, la parole, les actes et gestes, les sensations et le sens esthetique, le savoir-vivre enfin des personnages (Hamon 1984 : 103-217). Rock Research. Comme l’anticonformisme est le trait principal du personnage de Jo dans le texte source, une grille d’analyse prenant en charge la question des valeurs et des hierarchies dans le texte litteraire s’imposait. Creative Writing Camp. L’hypothese etait que le personnage de garcon manque, du tomboy , the cover software, man of the creative, family, avec ses refus et ses ambitions, susciterait des resistances chez les traducteurs pour la jeunesse. Quantum Research. L’analyse a bel et bien corrobore que c’etait Jo qui inspirait les plus grands ecarts dans les traductions, qu’il s’agisse du portrait physique et psychologique, ou des actions et des prises de parole les plus importantes. Nee en 1832 en Pennsylvanie, Louisa est elevee dans une famille et un milieu peu ordinaires. Camp. Son pere Bronson Alcott, philosophe largement autodidacte et pedagogue admirateur de Pestalozzi, cotoie Henry David Thoreau et Ralph Waldo Emerson. Cover Letter. Durant l’enfance de l’auteure, il se lance dans diverses experiences communautaires.

Utopie fourieriste, philosophie transcendentaliste, ecole experimentale, l’enfant grandit dans ce climat intellectuel que l’on a pu appeler American Renaissance (Reynolds 1988). Writing Camp. Ce cercle cosmopolite est en contact avec les grands mouvements socio-politiques europeens. In Thesis. La mere, Abigail May, issue de l’ establishment bostonien et d’une famille influente de l’Eglise unitarienne, admire la militante feministe Margaret Fuller ( Woman in michigan creative, the Nineteenth Century , 1845). Research Paper. Selon la formule de Madeleine Stern, feminism was in creative writing camp, Louisa May Alcott’s genes (Stern 1996 : vii). Conflict Management Research. En outre, les Alcott sont des abolitionnistes convaincus. Creative Writing Camp. Avec l’aide de ses filles, Abigail May Alcott organise des ateliers d’alphabetisation pour les femmes noires (Barton 1996 : 152). Punk Rock. Pour Louisa May Alcott, que sa famille a placee au centre des grands debats de l’epoque, le feminisme est la reforme des reformes. Creative Writing Camp. La critique feministe americaine l’a bien compris, qui considere Little Women comme l’un des premiers Female Bildungsromane americains (Langland 1983). Des sa parution en 1868, Little Women, or Meg, Jo, Beth, and in thesis, Amy a ete un best-seller. Michigan Camp. Ecrit en deux mois, il est d’inspiration nettement autobiographique.

L’entree du journal de Louisa pour mai 1868 nous apprend que le roman est entrepris a la demande de son editeur, qui lui demande une girls’ story . Rock Research Paper. Ainsi Louisa May Alcott, qui avoue ne pas beaucoup connaitre et aimer les filles, a part ses soeurs, fait-elle partie du club select des ecrivains pour la jeunesse mandates par leurs editeurs [2] ! Little Women , qui assure instantanement la notoriete a la romanciere, n’est pas sa premiere oeuvre publiee. Camp. En 1854 etait paru un recueil de contes, Flower Fables , ecrit a l’origine pour la fille d’Emerson. Conflict. Mais il faut surtout mentionner les recits abolitionnistes et feministes qui precedent Little Women de quelques annees, parmi lesquels Moods (1864) et Hospital Sketches (1863) qui transpose son experience d’infirmiere a Washington pendant la Guerre de Secession. Michigan Creative. Devant le succes de Little Women , l’editeur lui demande une suite : Good Wives parait en 1869. Recommendation And Conclusion. Ce n’est que dans les annees 1880 que les deux volumes seront reunis. Michigan Creative. Au fil des annees, Louisa May Alcott poursuit l’histoire de la famille March : Little Men (1871), Jo’s Boys (1886). Cover Test. Pour la jeunesse, elle signe aussi Eight cousins (1875), Rose in michigan, Bloom (1876) [3] et Under the recommendation, Lilacs (1877), et elle assume, entre ses deux voyages en Europe, la direction du journal Merry’s Museum (1868-1869).

Bien que l’oeuvre de Louisa May Alcott comporte plusieurs tendances : romans gothiques, fictions engagees sur le racisme et le feminisme, c’est comme auteure de Little Women qu’elle s’est acquis une renommee internationale : The Children’s Friend donne lieu de nombreuses conferences et elle n’hesite pas a rencontrer son lectorat [4]. Writing. De son vivant, un million d’exemplaires du roman sont vendus. For Essays. Little Women et sa suite Good Wives figurent dans toutes les collections de chefs-d’oeuvre internationaux pour la jeunesse. Creative. Les auteurs de la recente Louisa May Alcott Encyclopedia soulignent le caractere resolument novateur du roman, particulierement en ce qui a trait aux representations feminines (Eiselein et Phillips 2001 : 181) et, globalement, sa valeur litteraire [5]. Rock Paper. En terminant, il peut etre interessant de rappeler que dans l’edition de 1948 des Children’s Illustrated Classics , une note de l’editeur fait pourtant allusion aux resistances que l’engagement nordiste de cette fiction pourrait susciter chez certains lecteurs. Michigan Camp. Laissant entendre que le livre n’est plus lu par les jeunes generations, ce paratexte encourage les lecteurs eventuels a aller au-dela de la lecon morale explicite [6]. Brown Creative Writing. A en juger par le nombre d’editions et de traductions recentes des Quatre filles du docteur March , il est clair que ce dernier aspect – le traumatisme de la guerre civile etant peu probable – n’a pas diminue l’interet des lectrices francophones ! Traductions et adaptations francaises. Ce qui frappe des qu’on aborde la reception de Little Women en milieu francophone, c’est le nombre et la constance des reeditions. Michigan. Une consultation du catalogue de la Bibliotheque nationale de France donne une idee precise des traductions et adaptations « nouvelles », des « adaptations abregees », des « abreges » proposes par les divers editeurs. Writing For Essays. Pour les annees 1990, pas moins de neuf de ces versions plus ou moins nouvelles ont ete deposees [7].

Puisque l’objectif n’est pas ici de faire l’histoire de la traduction francaise de Little Women , un survol des traductions successives suffira a eclairer notre propos. La premiere traduction remonte a 1872, soit quatre ans apres la publication de l’original ; publiee a Lausanne, elle est l’oeuvre de Madame Remy, connue egalement pour un manuel de francais [8]. Creative. La traductrice dit avoir « traduit librement de l’anglais avec l’autorisation de l’auteur ». Letter Test Engineer. Puis, en 1880, Pierre-Jules Hetzel, celebre editeur francais pour la jeunesse, publie sous le pseudonyme de P.-J. Michigan Creative Camp. Stahl, Les Quatre filles du docteur Marsch [sic] d’apres L.M. Cover Software Test. Alcott , pour son « Magasin d’education et de recreation », fonde en 1864. Creative Writing Camp. P.-J. Creative Graduate. Stahl a joue un role decisif dans la transmission de Little Women en domaine francophone. Creative Camp. Cette adaptation, plus ou moins retouchee par les editeurs et des adaptateurs anonymes, continue d’avoir cours et nous l’avons incluse dans le choix de traductions. Punk Rock Paper. Elle a impose au recit des distorsions qui n’ont pas ete rectifiees depuis. Ainsi c’est Stahl qui impose cette fiction du « docteur » March, en faisant jouer au pere dans l’armee nordiste, non pas le role d’un aumonier, mais celui d’un medecin [9]. Michigan Creative. Version plus acceptable dans une France republicaine ou s’affrontent les tenants du catholicisme ultramontain et de la laicite, peu receptive dans son ensemble au mariage des guides spirituels.

L’editeur estimait en effet que le livre « tel qu’il etait, n’aurait pu […] reussir en France [10] ». Effective Skills For Essays. Si les traductions recentes ont corrige l’erreur dans le texte, le titre demeure inchange, et les lectrices francophones continuent de croire que le pere des soeurs March est docteur en medecine. Michigan Creative Camp. Son absence dans le premier tome permet d’ailleurs de ne pas se poser trop de questions. Conflict Management Research Paper. La seconde modification substantielle apportee au texte est le gommage systematique de l’intertexte bunyanien. Michigan. Chez Stahl, la Morale familiere remplace le Pilgrim’s Progress . Research Papers. Or, ce texte cle de la spiritualite protestante (1678), evoque des le premier chapitre, imprime son mouvement au texte d’Alcott ; plusieurs titres de chapitres, completement modifies dans la traduction, y renvoient explicitement : « Playing Pilgrims » (ch. Michigan. 1), « Burdens » (ch. Brown Creative Writing Graduate Program. 4), « Jo meets Apollyon » (ch. Michigan Camp. 8), etc. For Essays. Enfin l’adaptateur, qui de son propre aveu ne connaissait pas le second tome, a imagine un denouement, dont s’inspirent quelques adaptations actuelles.

La maison Hachette, qui racheta le fonds Hetzel, a publie l’adaptation de Stahl, sensiblement remaniee, dans les collections « Ideal-Bibliotheque » et « Bibliotheque Verte » [11]. Writing Camp. L’editeur belge Casterman propose une reecriture anonyme basee sur cette adaptation, qui est dans l’ensemble plus fidele au texte de 1880 que ladite traduction de Stahl publiee par Hachette, comme nous le verrons plus loin. Management. On voit donc que les textes issus de l’adaptation de la fin du xix e siecle connaissent encore une importante diffusion. Dans les annees 1930 et 1940, Little Women a ete traduit et edite pour un public adulte [12]. Michigan Creative. Au cours des annees 1980, apparaissent, dans des collections destinees a la jeunesse, des textes plus conformes a l’ethique moderne de la traduction, qui ne se permettent pas de coupures ou d’ajouts. Paper. Nous en incluons deux dans le corpus, celle de Paulette Vielhomme-Callais pour Gallimard (Folio-Junior et Gallimard Jeunesse) et celle de Maud Godoc pour Castor-Poche/Flammarion. Quelques mots suffiront a presenter les six adaptations et traductions selectionnees pour l’analyse comparative, que nous classons par ordre chronologique : l’adaptation de P.-J. Creative Writing Camp. Stahl reeditee, avec diverses modifications, par Hachette dans « Ideal-Bibliotheque » ; la traduction anonyme [13] des editions G.P., collection « Rouge et Or » – ces deux ouvrages sont epuises mais connaissent encore une grande diffusion dans les bibliotheques scolaires et municipales qui n’ont pas toujours fait l’acquisition de nouvelles editions – ; l’adaptation anonyme de Casterman, basee sur celle de P.-J.

Stahl ; la traduction de Paulette Vielhomme-Callais pour Gallimard ; la traduction de Maud Godoc pour Castor-Poche ; enfin il nous a paru interessant d’inclure une adaptation recente, celle de Remi Simon pour Nathan. Research Paper. Nous avons egalement examine celle de Chantal Baligand pour les editions Hemma, mais nous n’avons pu l’utiliser dans une comparaison systematique, etant donne l’importance des coupures apportees au texte (14 chapitres sur 23). Michigan Creative. Dans les passages traduits, on research, peut observer une dependance a l’egard du texte de P.-J. Michigan Creative Writing Camp. Stahl. Creative. Nous nous y referons ponctuellement. Avant d’examiner les traductions sous l’angle particulier que nous avons choisi, quelques commentaires plus generaux s’imposent. Creative Camp. La traduction parue chez G.P. Engineer. s’avere dans l’ensemble la plus litterale ; elle n’a pas craint de restituer les references a Bunyan en les explicitant [14]. Creative. Le texte de Casterman, base sur P.-J. And Conclusion In Thesis. Stahl, comme le prouvent de nombreuses formulations identiques, notamment dans les titres de chapitres, comporte des omissions, mais conserve aussi de son modele certains ajouts de l’adaptateur qui ont ete supprimes chez Hachette.

Ainsi, au chapitre 3, quand Meg et Jo se rendent au bal, il precise que Madame March n’a pu les accompagner, car elle etait souffrante et qu’elle a demande a une amie de veiller sur ses filles [15]. Michigan Camp. Quand Jo rend visite a Laurie dans sa chambre, elle glose que le jeune voisin a ete malade et qu’il n’est qu’un « petit garcon » [16]. Management Research Paper. A la fin du chapitre 12, se trouve une longue addition sur les vertus de l’Amerique et l’independance des jeunes filles americaines [17]. Michigan Writing Camp. Par ailleurs, cette traduction a une nette tendance a la miniaturisation, designant regulierement les protagonistes comme des « petites » filles et des « petits » garcons [18]. Research. Dans l’ensemble, elle ennoblit le caractere de Jo, comme nous le verrons plus loin. Michigan Writing. L’adaptation de Remy Simon pour Nathan se permet des ajouts sur le ton et les gestes dans les phrases introductives du discours rapporte, modifiant imperceptiblement le caractere des personnages. Computer Papers. Ainsi, dans le chapitre 1, Meg regarde « d’un oeil critique » sa vieille robe « encore tres mettable », Jo siffle « d’un air meprisant ». Creative Writing. Amy est qualifiee d’« insupportable ». Brown Program. Quant a la servante, elle est regulierement appelee la « vieille » Hannah. Michigan. Enfin les traductions de Paulette Vielhomme-Callais pour Gallimard et de Maud Godoc pour Castor-Poche se sont attachees a rendre integralement et fidelement l’oeuvre d’Alcott. Punk. Nous examinerons leurs choix de traduction sur la question de la feminite. Une jeune feministe americaine en francais.

Comme il a ete dit plus haut, la « poetique du normatif » proposee par Philippe Hamon a servi de cadre theorique a notre analyse des textes source et cible. Creative. Nous avons concentre l’analyse des traductions sur les passages ou le personnage de Jo se definissait ou etait vue par les autres, sur ceux ou elle se distinguait par les actions ou l’expression des gouts et de la volonte : les « nexus normatifs » (Hamon 1984 : 220). Management Research Paper. Les travaux en linguistique de l’enonciation sur les marques de subjectivite nous ont aussi guides. Michigan Camp. Nous avons particulierement examine la traduction – et souvent la non-traduction – des phrases introductives du discours rapporte, porteuses d’indication sur les sentiments, la gestuelle, la voix des personnages. Writing Skills. Dans les portraits et les descriptions, une attention particuliere a ete accordee aux termes evaluatifs, particulierement les adjectifs (Kerbrat-Orecchioni 1980 : 83-100), dont la traduction donne lieu a des choix tres revelateurs. Creative Writing. Pour la brievete, nous refererons desormais aux traductions et traductions par les abreviations : H (Hachette), GP (G.P.), C (Casterman), N (Nathan), FJ (Folio Junior) et CP (Castor Poche), initiales de leurs editeurs respectifs, et a l’original par l’abreviation LW, toutes suivies du numero de page.

L’abreviation S est occasionnellement utilisee pour envoyer a l’adaptation de Stahl de 1880. Punk Rock Paper. Des tableaux presentes en annexe permettent de rendre l’analyse contrastive plus concise. a) Portrait physique et psychologique. Le premier chapitre comporte un portrait des quatre soeurs ; il est frappant de constater que c’est le portrait de Jo qui a ete le plus diversement traduit. Michigan Creative Writing Camp. Les divergences apparaissent notamment dans la traduction des nombreux adjectifs qui permettent aux lectrices de se representer l’heroine (tableau 1). Graduate. Les traducteurs francais tentent souvent d’attenuer ce qui dans l’apparence physique de l’heroine peut leur sembler outre ou disgracieux, en se conformant a leurs propres canons de la beaute feminine. Creative Writing. Ainsi le comical nose devient « retrousse » ou « petit », la bouche ( decided ) est « bien dessinee ». Punk Research Paper. Ces retouches, particulierement evidentes dans les versions derivees de l’adaptation de 1880, se retrouvent encore dans les plus recentes. Michigan Creative Writing Camp. Ainsi, dans CP (1995), Jo est « tres elancee ». Conflict Management. L’hesitation entre « mince » et « maigre » est egalement revelatrice.

Les ajouts de l’adaptation de N (1988) soulignent la difference de Jo en la comparant a son ainee Meg, explicitant ainsi ce qui n’est qu’esquisse dans le texte source [19] : la seconde est « nerveuse » et ses mains sont « quelque peu masculines ». Writing. Il est a noter que les portraits sont omis dans l’adaptation de C. A propos de l’adjectif tall , le premier evaluatif applique a Jo, il convient de remarquer que le meme adjectif est utilise par Alcott pour decrire Madame March lors de sa premiere apparition ( a tall, motherly lady , LW : 9). Quantum Computer Papers. Dans la suite du texte (chapitre 8), on michigan creative writing, apprendra que cette ressemblance physique se double d’une ressemblance morale, car Jo a herite du temperament impetueux de sa mere. Management Research Paper. Or, cet indice important a ete gomme dans quatre des six traductions analysees. Generalement decrits dans les phrases introductives du discours rapporte, le ton de voix, les expressions et la gestuelle de Jo ont ete dans une proportion importante effaces des traductions. Michigan Creative Writing Camp. Alcott fait un grand usage de ces segments textuels, que Gerald Prince appelle de facon eclairante le « discours attributif » (Prince 1978), caracterisant la voix, l’etat d’esprit du personnage, sa relation aux autres. Cover Software. La repetition de certains adverbes ou syntagmes prepositionnels en association avec la prise de parole de tel ou tel personnage a pour effet de fixer ses traits de caractere.

Ainsi, dans le cas de Meg : kindly, soothingly, graciously, with her sweet voice, mais aussi : with a complaining tone , petulantly , bitterly . Michigan Creative Writing. Les traductions effacent souvent ces termes au profit d’incises neutres, ou les modifient. And Conclusion In Thesis. Ces amputations et distorsions s’appliquent a l’ensemble des protagonistes, et on michigan creative, ne peut dire que le personnage de Jo ait subi un traitement particulier a cet egard. Writing For Essays. Il n’en demeure pas moins que les modalisateurs de la parole de Jo – briskly , impetuously, sharply, impatiently, fiercely – n’apparaissent que sporadiquement dans les textes francais. Au chapitre 2, dans la scene du matin de Noel ou les quatre soeurs decouvrent un exemplaire du Pilgrim’s Progress , l’instance narratoriale decrit Jo lisant, with the michigan creative camp, quiet expression so seldom seen on research papers, her restless face (LW : 16). Creative. Seule la traduction de FJ (27) a traduit restless (visage mobile). Brown Creative Writing Graduate Program. La gestuelle du « garcon de la famille » ou du « fils Jo » est egalement l’un des points nevralgiques de la traduction francaise. Michigan. Exemple caracteristique, dans le chapitre premier ou Amy reproche a sa soeur d’utiliser des termes argotiques, la phrase introductive du discours rapporte se lit : observed Amy, with a reproving look at quantum computer papers, the long figure stretched on creative camp, the rug (LW : 3).

Dans les quatre traductions qui ont conserve le dernier segment, on research paper, hesite entre l’elegant : une « longue silhouette etendue sur le tapis » (C : 9), la pointe de reproche : « longue silhouette etendue de tout son long… » (CP : 7), « grand corps etendu… » (GP : 11) et la nette reprobation, endossant ainsi le point de vue d’Amy : « a son ainee, toujours vautree sur le tapis » (FJ : 12) Un peu plus haut, l’une des paroles de Jo est suivie de l’indication : cried Jo, examining the michigan creative writing, heels of paper, her shoes in michigan, a gentlemanly manner (LW : 2). Recommendation In Thesis. Seules les deux traductions recentes l’ont prise en compte et rendue par « male assurance » (FJ :10) et « aplomb tout masculin » (CP : 6). Creative Writing. Les exemples pourraient etre multiplies. Letter Software Test. En voici un dernier des plus probants : au chapitre 3, l’heroine rajuste sa toilette avant de faire son entree a son premier bal. Creative Camp. La phrase introductive d’Alcott se lit : returned Jo, giving her collar a twitch, and effective, her head a hasty brush (LW : 34). Michigan Creative. Les traductions attenuent generalement la brusquerie des gestes de Jo, que l’on doit imaginer, « mettant sa collerette droite et donnant un dernier regard a sa coiffure » (H : 23-24 et C : 26), « donnant un coup de pouce a son col et un coup de brosse a ses cheveux » (GP : 36).

Seules les deux traductions recentes restituent cet aspect de la presence physique de l’heroine : « tirant sur son col d’un coup sec et rectifiant sa coiffure a la va-vite » (CP : 39), « qui passa vaguement la main sur son chignon et rajusta son col d’une pichenette » (FJ : 48). Le chapitre 20 comporte des notations decrivant precisement la gestuelle de Jo, qui ont ete soit gommees soit attenuees dans la traduction, comme le montrent les deux exemples qui suivent. Punk Rock Research. L’adolescente a une conversation orageuse avec sa mere a propos des amours naissantes de son ainee. Michigan Writing Camp. Dans le feu de la conversation, elle joue avec ses cheveux, objet semiotique particulierement important dans le texte ; en effet, le chapitre 1 les decrit comme sa seule beaute ( her one beauty , LW : 5) et elle vient de les sacrifier pour apporter une aide financiere a son pere malade (chapitre 15). Research Paper. L’indignation de Jo s’exprime dans la facon dont elle tire sur ses cheveux : And Jo pulled her hair again with a wrathful tweak (LW : 261).

La colere, trait constitutif du caractere de Jo, comme nous le verrons plus loin, a ete attenuee dans certaines traductions (tableau 2). Creative Camp. Une seulement (GP) traduit : « avec fureur », deux preferent le desespoir (H et C), deux l’adverbe « rageusement », dont le contenu semantique est nettement affaibli dans les emplois modernes et souvent associe aux manifestations enfantines. Punk Rock Research. Le geste meme de tirer est corrige dans certaines traductions : « se passer la main dans les cheveux » (H et C), « fourrager » (GP) et le diminutif « tortiller » (CP). Michigan Creative Camp. Chez H et C, la gestuelle est transposee a l’expression du visage. Research Papers. Plus loin, le mouvement de Jo se levant est compare a celui d’un pantin ( said Jo, unfolding herself, like an michigan creative writing animated puzzle , LW : 264) ; l’image percue comme peu feminine est gommee dans les versions francaises a l’exception des deux traductions recentes. Le registre linguistique de Jo est stigmatise des le premier chapitre.

Au fil du texte, sa mere et ses soeurs citent ses ecarts de langage, entre guillemets. Creative Graduate. Bien que la liberte verbale soit, avec le temperament impetueux, l’un des traits constitutifs de l’etiquette du personnage [20], les traductions ont souvent renonce a traduire son juron prefere, Christopher Colombus [21] ! (chapitres 12 et 17). Creative Writing Camp. C le tempere d’un « Priez pour nous ! » (75). Management Research. Curieusement, les traductions recentes proposent des equivalents : « Nom d’un petit bonhomme » (FJ : 203), « Sacre nom d’un pipe » (CP : 172), « Bon sang de bonsoir » (N : 94), traductions d’un ciblisme tres hexagonal sur la justesse desquelles on michigan writing camp, pourrait s’interroger. Pour le portrait psychologique de Jo, nous nous attarderons sur les traductions du chapitre 8 : Jo meets Apollyon, ou l’adolescente fait l’experience des consequences desastreuses de sa colere. And Conclusion In Thesis. Il faut rappeler que Little Women consacre un chapitre particulier a chacune des soeurs March et que celui qui est consacre a Jo est particulierement dramatique. Michigan Creative Writing. Or, ce chapitre donne lieu a des ecarts notables dans les traductions.

Rappelons brievement les evenements. Cover. Amy, furieuse que ses ainees ne l’aient pas emmenee au theatre et particulierement ulceree par les rebuffades de Jo, brule le cahier ou celle-ci avait soigneusement recopie des contes de fee qu’elle esperait voir publies un jour. Michigan Writing Camp. Le lendemain, Jo, toujours en colere, omet de mettre Amy en garde contre les dangers de la glace trop mince et sa jeune soeur manque de se noyer. Punk. Le chapitre est d’autant plus central que la perte du cahier touche aux ambitions les plus profondes de l’heroine. Michigan. Il peut se diviser en trois sequences : la colere de Jo en decouvrant la calamite ; l’accident d’Amy ; la conversation au cours de laquelle Madame March avoue a sa seconde fille ses propres faiblesses.

Le titre du chapitre, reference au Pilgrim’s Progress , a ete sensiblement modifie dans trois des traductions : « Double choc » (H et C), « Ou Jo se met en colere » (N) ou explicite « Jo rencontre le demon Apollyon » (GP et FJ). Punk Rock Research Paper. Le traducteur de G.P. Creative. fait oeuvre didactique en glosant her bosom enemy (LW : 96) : « son ennemi interieur, son Apollyon, comme le vieux Bunyan l’appelle dans le voyage du Pelerin » (GP : 75). Le caractere, les reactions, les motivations de Jo apparaissent sensiblement differentes selon les traductions. Writing Graduate Program. La troisieme partie varie beaucoup en importance. Creative Camp. Completement effacee chez C et N, elle est condensee tres allusivement dans la formule : « tout le monde a ses faiblesses » chez GP. Quantum Papers. H resume, mais conserve l’essentiel des confidences de la mere en deux paragraphes. Camp. Seuls F et C donnent le texte au complet, y compris l’aveu de madame March au sujet des sacrifices qu’elle a du consentir pour sa patrie.

L’existence d’un modele maternel fort, voire heroique – personnage dont la charge positive se communique a l’heroine qui lui ressemble – est donc gommee dans la plupart des textes francais actuellement offerts aux jeunes lectrices. Dans la premiere partie, la violente reaction de Jo a l’egard d’Amy est diversement traduite, et souvent temperee, comme le montrent les extraits compares (tableau 3). Computer Research Papers. Il faut cependant noter qu’il y a moins de suppressions, dans ce chapitre dont les traducteurs ont reconnu l’importance, que dans le reste du roman. Creative. Le tableau permet par ailleurs d’observer la parente de H et de C derives de Stahl. Effective Writing For Essays. La traduction de H est la plus edulcoree : Amy, secouee, perd la respiration et Jo s’en va « cacher » son chagrin. Michigan Creative Camp. Le geste final, le parting box , semble poser probleme a certains traducteurs. Recommendation And Conclusion In Thesis. Supprime chez Hachette, il reapparait sous forme de « tape » dans le texte de Casterman. Michigan Writing. Remi Simon (N) a arrete le bras de Jo. Cover Test Engineer. Ailleurs, on creative camp, parle de gifle, maitresse meme (GP) ou de taloche. Cover Letter. Curieusement, aucun des traducteurs et traductrices n’a juge utile de faire mention de l’oreille d’Amy.

On notera aussi qu’une seule traduction (FJ) mentionne la nature violente ( hot temper ) de l’heroine. Des traductions minimisent egalement la profondeur du desespoir de Jo, quand elle voit son oeuvre litteraire detruite. Creative Camp. Les ambitions personnelles du personnage sont nettement restreintes chez Hachette ou il s’agit de venir en aide a sa mere : « reve innocent ». Creative Graduate Program. Casterman rencherit avec la mention d’un journal pour bebes ! Plus loin dans le chapitre, quelques ajouts des traductions tendent a ennoblir le personnage de Jo. Camp. Dans l’adaptation de Stahl, Meg dit a Amy que Jo « est peut-etre la meilleure de nous toutes » (H : 62 ; C : 57). Letter Software Engineer. Remi Simon ajoute qu’elle n’est pas rancuniere (N : 79).

La scene centrale de l’accident sur la riviere gelee et le role de Jo donnent egalement lieu a des distorsions (tableau 4). Michigan Creative Writing. Seules les deux traductions recentes osent plonger dans les mauvais sentiments de l’heroine. Effective For Essays. Les paroles du petit demon sont diversement interpretees. Camp. La traduction de Casterman deculpabilise l’heroine. Brown Writing Program. Remi Simon (N) evacue l’idee du demon, et traduit dans un registre familier sa voix qu’il prete a l’heroine. Writing Camp. Dans l’ensemble, les traductions en disent plus sur les bons sentiments de Jo que l’original. Research. Strange feeling est traduit par « inquietude » par G.P. Writing Camp. et Nathan. Cover Software Test Engineer. Casterman precise : « inquiete sans vouloir le paraitre » et ajoute « son bon coeur l’emportant », « se retourna vivement pour avertir Amy ». Michigan Creative Camp. Ces extraits suffiront a montrer que la traduction resiste dans l’ensemble a exprimer la violence des sentiments de Jo.

Viennent completer le portrait de l’adolescente anti-conformiste les appreciations de son entourage : ses parents, ses soeurs, l’acariatre tante March, les voisins amis – M. Quantum Computer Research Papers. Laurence et son petit-fils Laurie ; ces jugements sont vehicules par la voix narratoriale ou par les personnages eux-memes. Creative Writing. Au chapitre 2, les soeurs qui vont porter leur dejeuner de Noel a une famille dans la misere sont comparees a des anges par l’heureuse beneficiaire. Cover Software Engineer. La voix narratoriale commente que le compliment fait particulierement plaisir a Jo qui s’est fait traiter de diable depuis sa naissance. Writing. Voila un point ou les traductions different. Management. Deux des traductions (GP, N) ont supprime cette remarque, deux autres (H : 18, C : 19) l’adoucissent : « mais surtout Jo qui avait merite maintes fois (souvent recu C) dans son enfance le sobriquet de “petit diable” ». Michigan Camp. Jo a su s’attirer l’affection de tante March qui l’a engagee comme dame de compagnie : Something in effective skills for essays, her comical face and michigan writing, blunt manners struck the effective writing, old lady’s fancy (LW : 47). Michigan Writing. L’adjectif se revele encore une fois l’un des points nevralgiques de la traduction du personnage de Jo : le syntagme comical face derange autant que le comical nose du chapitre 1. Punk Rock Research. Meme dans les traductions recentes, il est adouci par les hypocoristiques « frimousse » (FJ) ou « minois » (CP). Michigan Creative. P.-J. Quantum. Stahl (H) avait resume les deux caracteristiques par « originalite ». Creative Camp. Remi Simon (N) a rendu comical face par « visage franc ». Creative Writing. Le chapitre est supprime chez Casterman. Michigan. La traduction de G.P. And Conclusion. est comme dans bien des cas la plus litterale (tableau 5).

Les manieres originales de Jo plaisent aussi a leur voisin Laurie des la premiere rencontre, manieres que les traductions ont hesite a qualifier : Jo’s gentlemanly demeanour (LW : 37) est omis par H et N, C (29) traduit « son air gentleman », les autres optent pour les manieres garconnieres (GP : 38, FJ : 53) ou l’attitude garconne (CP : 43). Michigan Creative. Enfin l’un des jugements les plus significatifs portes sur Jo est celui d’une jeune Anglaise visitant l’Amerique (chapitre 12). Creative Writing. Le passage vaut d’etre examine en detail (tableau 6). Creative Writing. Il est curieux qu’aucune des traductions n’hesite a qualifier Jo de bizarre ou d’etrange par le truchement de la Britannique Miss Kate, mais que certaines hesitent a lui accorder de l’intelligence, la preferant « sympathique » (G.P.) ou instruite (C). Effective Writing. Les exemples pourraient etre multiplies, mais nous esperons avoir montre que la caractere audacieux et extreme du personnage a ete estompe, et que l’energie extraordinaire de la queer girl ne passe pas toujours en traduction. L’expression de la volonte de Jo est un aspect que les traductions se revelent recalcitrantes a transmettre. Creative Writing. Jo entend dire ce qu’elle pense ( good, strong words, LW : 45), deteste attendre, veut agir sur les choses et se soucie peu du qu’en-dira-t-on. Effective. Elle exprime son desir de liberte en toute occasion.

Bien que cela ait ete respecte, globalement, dans les traductions francaises, certains reves de Jo ont semble choquer. Creative Camp. Au chapitre 14, apres une bonne course avec son ami Laurie, qui lui vaut la reprobation de Meg, l’adolescente s’exclame : « I wish I was a horse ; then I could run for quantum computer research, miles in michigan creative writing camp, this splendid air, and computer papers, not lose my breath. Michigan. It was capital, but see what a guy it’s made me… » (LW :198). Conflict Management Paper. La tenue vestimentaire de Jo a en effet souffert de l’exercice, et elle a perdu toutes ses epingles a cheveux. Creative Writing Camp. L’allusion au cheval a ete gommee par GP et N. Quantum. Chez H (105) et C (88), a la suite de Stahl, on camp, choisit un animal plus associe a la feminite : « Je voudrais etre une gazelle, ou un cheval… », « Ou meme un cheval », concede C, plus fidele au modele (S : XXXII, 61). Les ambitions litteraires de Jo, composante essentielle du systeme de valeurs mis en place par le roman, sont souvent minimisees dans les traductions.

Cette censure, dont nous avons deja touche un mot au sujet du chapitre 8, s’observe encore au chapitre 14. Punk Research Paper. Quand Jo avoue a Laurie qu’elle a soumis deux textes a un journal, le texte de H (102) et de C (85) suivant Stahl, se lit : « j’ai donne deux histoires de ma facon au directeur du Journal des Enfants ». Creative Writing. La fin du chapitre a subi d’importantes distorsions. Management Research. Quatre des traductions resument considerablement la fin de l’episode. Writing Camp. La reaction de fierte de Madame March devant le succes de sa fille est escamotee chez H et N qui arretent le chapitre aux exclamations de joie des soeurs. Computer Papers. Le passage est supprime chez GP egalement. Creative Writing. Chez C (91), Madame March « ne se montra pas mecontente », car « l’histoire etait gentille et convenable ; elle faisait honneur aux sentiments moraux de l’auteur » (S : XXXII, 61). Quantum Computer Papers. Les dernieres lignes du chapitre : « For to michigan writing, be independent, and effective skills for essays, earn the michigan writing, praise of for essays, those she loved, were the creative camp, dearest wishes of effective writing, her heart […] » (LW : 203), si importantes pour la comprehension globale du texte, n’apparaissent pas chez H, N, C. Michigan Creative Writing Camp. Chez GP, la fierte devient de l’approbation.

Encore une fois, seules les deux traductions recentes traduisent « faire honneur » (FJ : 254) et « faire la fierte » (CP : 215). Software Engineer. Il est curieux aussi que la fin de la phrase precedente ou Jo explique qu’elle aimerait aider ses soeurs ( support myself and michigan writing, help the brown writing, girls , LW : 203) est traduite par une generalisation – « aider les autres » (GP :131), « aider les miens » (CP : 215) – dans deux des traductions qui l’ont conservee. Creative. On peut faire un rapprochement avec les propos d’Amy au chapitre 15 : la plus jeune soeur, qui reve d’une carriere artistique, assure que dans dix ans Jo et elle auront fait la fortune de la famille. Skills. Cette phrase a ete supprimee dans quatre des traductions (H, GP, C, N). Michigan. Il semble que, tout autant que la personnalite affirmee de Jo, ses ambitions professionnelles heurtent en traduction ! Le reve de liberte et d’independance s’exprime aussi quand Laurie, fache contre son grand-pere, propose a Jo de partir avec lui pour Washington (chapitre 21).

Dans le texte d’Alcott, l’heroine est fortement tentee par l’aventure et se bouche meme les oreilles pour ne pas entendre la suite des projets seduisants. Recommendation And Conclusion. GP occulte completement ce moment de reverie de Jo, qui propose tout de suite a Laurie de l’aider a se reconcilier avec son grand-pere. Creative. H (162) donne l’essentiel du passage et explicite meme she was tired of punk rock, care and creative writing camp, confinement (LW : 273) par « elle etait fatiguee de sa reclusion aupres de Beth ». Rock Research. Reprenant exactement son modele (S : XXXII, 283), C (163) rend compte de la tentation de Jo, mais moralise par des ajouts : « l’etourdie », « ses yeux tomberent heureusement [sur sa maison] », « ce fou de Laurie », etc. Camp. N (167) resume en quatre lignes, concluant avec autorite : « son bon sens naturel reprit le dessus ». Writing Skills For Essays. Encore une fois, les deux traductions recentes sont plus fideles. Les lamentations de Jo sur les restrictions imposees a la condition feminine (chapitres 1, 3, 5, 10, 16, 20, 21) ont ete traduites dans l’ensemble du texte sans trop d’amplification ni d’attenuation. Michigan Creative. Toutefois, dans cette scene du chapitre 21, les differences dans les traductions francaises signalent un point nevralgique. Creative Graduate Program. L’emphase de H et surtout de C contraste avec le detachement de N, alors que GP, comme on michigan creative writing, l’a vu, n’a pas juge bon de s’appesantir sur la tentation de Jo (tableau 7). Que devient l’heroine contestataire a la fin du roman ? Plusieurs reponses sont donnees selon les points de vue narratifs. Rock Paper. Jo elle-meme s’avoue tres mecontente et ne fait que se resigner aux fiancailles de Meg qui rejouissent toute la famille. Michigan Writing. Elle sent qu’elle n’a aucune prise sur les cadres sociaux. Research. Le parcours de l’adolescente au cours de l’annee delimitee par les deux fetes de Noel est decrit par monsieur March a son retour.

Il dit ne plus reconnaitre le « fils Jo » qu’il a laisse l’annee precedente. Creative Writing Camp. Les transformations qu’il note concernent la tenue vestimentaire, le langage, les gestes, la voix, le developpement du sentiment maternel. Punk Research. La traduction de la fin de son discours presente quelques ecarts (tableau 8). Our black sheep , la metaphore paternelle est on michigan writing camp, ne peut plus claire. Writing Skills For Essays. L’image a ete supprimee dans trois traductions (H, C, N). Writing. « Tete ronde » de H et C renvoie allusivement au sacrifice des cheveux au chapitre 15.

S’il enonce quelque regret, Monsieur March se felicite de voir sa fille entrer dans le rang. And Conclusion. Les traductions francaises n’ont ni force la note, ni attenue la portee du discours. Creative Camp. L’adaptation de Remi Simon (N : 177) ajoute cependant, au nombre des progres de Jo : « et dont les recits sont publies dans les journaux ! ». Brown Creative Program. Observons aussi la facon dont les traductions ont rendu les trois adjectifs strong, helpful, tender-hearted ( woman ) qu’il oppose a wild (girl) . Michigan Writing. Stahl (repris par C) avait opte pour quatre adjectifs « tendre, devouee, forte encore, mais civilisee ». Conflict Management Paper. H omet l’idee de force, tandis que l’adaptation de Simon la conserve. Michigan Creative Writing Camp. Dans les deux traductions recentes, proches l’une de l’autre, on conflict management research, a prefere le courage. Michigan Writing Camp. Il faut noter par ailleurs que la traduction « brebis galeuse » de FJ et CP est nettement plus pejorative que « mouton noir ». L’adaptation de P.-J.

Stahl, encore tres diffusee par l’intermediaire d’Hachette (Ideal-Bibliotheque et Bibliotheque verte) et de Casterman, prend beaucoup de libertes avec la fin de l’histoire [22]. Letter Software Engineer. H ajoute un chapitre « Perspectives d’avenir » qui a fonction d’epilogue. Michigan Creative. La lectrice y apprend que Jo « renoncant a ecrire toutes les histoires qui lui passaient par la tete, s’adonna avec ardeur a la confection du trousseau de sa soeur » (H : 184) ! C (185-187) ajoute au dernier chapitre des details touchants, comme ce geste de Beth montant sur les genoux du fiance de Meg, Monsieur Brooke, pour lui demander a l’oreille s’il rendra sa soeur heureuse. Rock Research. Monsieur March annonce que Meg se mariera dans deux ans, ce qui lui permettra de perfectionner son education : « Cela vous donnera aussi, Jo, l’occasion de completer la votre ». Camp. En quel sens ? peut-on se demander. Quantum Computer Research. Et l’adaptateur conclut : « Monsieur March avait appris a Jo tout ce qu’il y avait a apprendre ». Michigan Writing Camp. Enfin, la resistance de Jo au mariage de sa soeur a completement disparu grace a ses « sages reflexions », comme elle l’explique a Laurie. Effective Skills. Mais P.-J. Michigan Writing Camp. Stahl allait plus loin encore en mariant Jo a Laurie. Brown Writing Graduate. Fort curieusement, l’adaptation toute recente de Chantal Baligand reintroduit cette fin improbable et en totale contradiction avec le second tome. Creative Writing. Elle reprend en effet, en l’abregeant, l’epilogue « Quatre ans apres » de 1880, ou le jeune dandy Laurie devenait fermier pour l’amour de Jo, avec la benediction de son grand-pere (Baligand 2002 : 153-156).

Ainsi, le denouement matrimonial – par une union que Louisa May Alcott s’etait toujours refuse a faire, en depit des prieres de ses lectrices [23] – est-il reactive a l’aube du xxi e siecle ! La seconde fille du « docteur » March, pale reflet de l’heroine d’Alcott ? Il serait a peine exagere de dire que des textes bien differents circulent actuellement sous le titre des Quatre filles du docteur March . Writing For Essays. Sur les six adaptations et traductions que nous avons analysees en detail, quatre presentent des distorsions marquees par rapport a l’original. Michigan Creative Writing. L’amputation de chapitres (de trois a cinq), la suppression de passages complets ou d’elements significatifs des phrases y a pour pendant des gloses interpretatives, particulierement dans l’adaptation anonyme de Casterman, la plus fidele a Stahl. Effective. Nous avons observe en particulier de quelle facon le « discours attributif » des paroles des personnages etait souvent prive des notations sur le ton, l’expression ou le geste. Writing Camp. En outre, nous avons eu la surprise de decouvrir que, parmi les versions les plus recemment editees, se trouvaient aussi bien des traductions soucieuses de transmettre le sens global de l’oeuvre que des adaptations qui la denaturaient. Cette etude des representations de la feminite en traduction francaise, que nous avons centree sur le personnage de Jo, l’adolescente eprise d’action et d’independance, fait apparaitre – meme dans les traductions recentes, sous certains aspects – une edulcoration de l’heroine. Punk Research Paper. Les traits physiques, la parole, les actions et les ambitions ont subi d’importantes retouches dans les versions francaises, qu’il s’agisse des adaptations, mais aussi des traductions. Camp. Les soeurs March continuent de fasciner les lectrices francophones, car il reste toujours quelque chose des grandes oeuvres, meme dans les adaptations les plus desinvoltes ! Mais on effective writing skills, peut deplorer que le premier contact avec ces heroines americaines du xix e siecle soit bien souvent fausse et appauvri, selon l’edition qui leur sera accessible en bibliotheque ou en librairie.

[1] L’enquete, effectuee a partir des ressources disponibles a Montreal, nous parait toutefois representative de la diffusion actuelle des traductions francaises de Little Women . Camp. Il est a noter qu’aucune traduction n’a ete publiee a ce jour en Amerique francophone ; une telle entreprise presenterait de l’interet en raison des liens etroits entre la culture source et la culture cible. Computer Papers. [2] « Mr. Michigan. N. Rock Research Paper. [Niles] wants a girls’story , and michigan creative, I begin “Little Women”. Brown Writing Program. Marmee, Anna, and michigan creative camp, May all approve my plan. Quantum Computer Research Papers. So I plod away, though I don’t enjoy this sort of michigan creative, thing. Recommendation And Conclusion. Never liked girls or knew many, except my sisters, but our queer plays and michigan creative, experiences may prove interesting, though I doubt it. Effective Writing Skills. » (Myerson Shealy 1989 : 165-166) Sur les « vocations » d’ecrivains pour la jeunesse suscitees par les editeurs, voir par exemple Shavit 1986 : 33-57 ; Grenier 1993. Michigan Creative Writing. [3] Pour juillet-aout 1876, elle note dans son journal : « Get an recommendation and conclusion idea and michigan creative writing, start “Rose in letter software test engineer, Bloom”, though I hate sequels. Michigan Creative Camp. » (Myerson Shealy 1989 : 201) [4] L’entree de son journal pour les mois de juin a aout 1875 fait etat de 92 visiteurs : « Fame is an creative writing expensive luxury. Michigan Camp. » (Myerson Shealy 1989 : 196) [5] « Particularly when studied within its critical and conflict, cultural contexts, Little Women emerges as a substantial, multidimensional literary text. Writing Camp. » (Eiselein et Phillips 2001 : 182) [6] « Indeed, one can guess that with the conflict management research paper, passage of creative writing, time, when a new domestic culture is writing skills, sufficiently established not to creative camp, be embarrassed by engineer reminders of the michigan writing, past, youngsters no less than adults will return to conflict research paper, it with fresh enthusiasm as a charming and michigan writing, authentic record of effective skills, New England life in camp, the Civil War period.. Cover Letter Software Test Engineer. […] For the michigan, contemporay reader, what is quantum computer, perhaps most striking about michigan creative, Little Women , even more archaic that its social scene, is quantum research papers, its overt moral emphasis. Writing. » (Alcott 1948 : couverture arriere) [7] Pour la derniere decennie, outre les traductions selectionnees pour cette etude, il faut mentionner : une « traduction nouvelle » d’Anne Joba avec dossier de Nicole Bon aux editions France loisirs, Paris, 1992 ; une « adaptation abregee » anonyme aux Editions du Tournesol, Limay, 1994 ; une traduction anonyme avec dossier de Francoise Gomez chez Pocket Junior, Paris, 1995 ; un abrege de Marie Page aux editions Lito, Champigny-sur-Marne, 1995 ; une traduction d’Anne Joba et France-Marie Watkins aux editions Hachette, 1995 ; une traduction anonyme aux Editions de la Fontaine au roy, « Arpege Junior », 1996 ; une adaptation d’Evelyne Hiest-Lallemand aux editions Lito, Champigny-sur-Marne, 1997 ; une adaptation de Chantal Baligand pour les editions Hemma, Chevron, 2002. Punk Research Paper. [8] Madame Remy (1872) : Petites femmes , Lausanne, H. Michigan Creative. Mignot, « traduit librement de l’anglais avec l’autorisation de l’auteur » ; Madame Remy (1878) : Dictees sur l’orthographe usuelle, les participes et les principales difficultes de la grammaire , Paris, A. And Conclusion. Pigoreau (3 e edition). Michigan Writing. [9] « I think it was so splendid in paper, father to michigan camp, go as a chaplain when he was too old to paper, be drafted, and creative camp, not strong enough to conflict research paper, be a soldier, said Meg warmly. Camp. » (Alcott 1948 : 10) Traduction de P.-J. Effective Writing For Essays. Stahl : « Comme c’est beau a papa d’etre parti a l’armee comme medecin, puisqu’il a passe l’age et qu’il n’aurait plus la force d’etre soldat ! dit Meg avec enthousiasme. Creative Writing Camp. » (Stahl 1880 : XXXI, 30) [10] P.-J. In Thesis. Stahl ajoute au titre une note ou il s’explique sur son travail d’adaptation : « Cet ouvrage se compose de deux gros volumes dans le texte americain. Michigan Creative. Je n’ai connu que le premier, par une traduction litterale de M. Research Papers. Lermont.

Le second, me dit-on, n’eut pas ete possible pour nous. Michigan. Mais la donnee generale de l’oeuvre m’a paru si interessante que j’ai cru bon de faire pour elle le travail d’adaptation que j’avais fait precedemment pour les Patins d’argent . Brown Graduate. N’ayant eu a ma disposition que la premiere moitie de l’ouvrage, j’ai du, en bien des points, le modifier, l’arranger, pour le conduire a un denouement qui ne pouvait etre celui de l’auteur, puisque je l’ignorais. Writing. Le livre, tel qu’il etait, n’aurait pu, je le crains, reussir en France ; mais la physionomie des caracteres des quatre soeurs meritait d’etre conservee dans ses lignes principales. Cover Letter Test Engineer. J’ai cru pouvoir en faire une lecture agreable et profitable pour nos jeunes lecteurs, et je ne regretterai pas mes efforts si j’y suis parvenu. Michigan Creative. » (Stahl 1880 : XXXI, 24) [11] Reeditions successives : 1923, 1934, 1952 pour la « Bibliotheque Verte » et 1950 pour « Ideal-Bibliotheque ». And Conclusion In Thesis. [12] Petites Americaines , Mme Tissier de Mallerais, Hachette, 1935, Meilleurs romans etrangers ; Little Women . Writing Camp. Les Quatre soeurs Marsch (sic) , Henriette Rouillard, Paris, Delagrave, 1936 ; Les Filles du Dr. Quantum Research. March . Creative Camp. Traduction nouvelle de Madame H. Paper. Giraud.

Paris, Pre-aux-Clercs, 1945. Creative Camp. Les Quatre soeurs March , Germaine Lalande, Paris, Hazan, 1946. Computer. [13] La premiere edition, parue sous le titre Petites bonnes femmes, les quatre filles du docteur March , portait la mention « Adaptation de R. Creative Writing. et A. Test Engineer. Prophetie » (Paris, G.P., « Bibliotheque Rouge et or », 34). Writing Camp. [14] Exemple, au chapitre 8, « mais son ennemi interieur, son Apollyon, comme le vieux Bunyan l’appelle dans le voyage du Pelerin, etait toujours pret a la faire s’irriter, et a vaincre sa resolution » (75) traduisant « but her bosom enemy was always ready to quantum computer papers, flame up and michigan creative writing, defeat her » (Alcott 1948 : 96). Paper. [15] « Madame March, mal portante, ne pouvait les accompagner, mais elle les avait dans la journee recommandees aux soins d’une de ses amies, qu’elles devaient retrouver au bal. Michigan Creative Camp. » (Alcott 1993 : 25 ; Stahl 1880 : XXXI, 89) [16] Jo plaide aupres de sa mere : « – Il est malade, avait-elle dit, et tres change, chez les Gardiner, il m’avait presque fait l’effet d’un petit jeune monsieur, mais je vois bien que ce n’est encore qu’un petit garcon. Quantum Computer Research. » (Alcott 1993 : 37 ; Stahl 1880 : XXXI, 153) [17] On y lit par exemple qu’« un Americain rougirait de penser a la dot de sa fiancee et [que], s’il lui arrivait de s’en inquieter et de s’en enquerir publiquement, il ne trouverait plus une fille honorable qui consentit a porter son nom ». Michigan Writing Camp. Et la visiteuse britannique, admirative de tant de vertu, s’exclamerait : « Dieu veuille qu’en vieillissant l’Amerique ne perde pas ces sages principes. Conflict Research Paper. » (Alcott 1993 : 78-79 ; Stahl 1880 : XXXI, 377) [18] Monsieur Laurence appelle Laurie, age de seize ans, un « marmot » (Alcott 1993 : 168). Creative Camp. [19] Ajout de l’adaptateur : « Il y avait evidemment un air de ressemblance entre elle et Margaret, mais Jo etait tres differente d’aspect. Writing For Essays. » (Alcott 1988b : 9) [20] Voir, au chapitre 4, sa reponse au reproche de Meg, « Don’t use such dreadful expressions » : « I like good, strong words that mean something. Michigan Writing. » (Alcott 1948 : 45) [21] Il faut en outre noter que le choix de cette exclamation n’est peut-etre pas fortuit, Louisa May Alcott etant nee un Colombus Day, le 29 novembre 1932 ! [22] Dans un paragraphe tenant lieu de postface, P.J. Cover Software Engineer. Stahl assure que « pas plus qu’un etre humain un livre ne voyage impunement » et qu’il faut se resigner a « sacrifier quelque chose aux gouts et aux moeurs » du pays qui adopte le livre (Stahl 1880 : XXXII, 344). Michigan Writing Camp. [23] Cf. Brown Writing. l’entree de son journal pour le 1 er novembre 1968 : « Girls write to writing camp, ask who the recommendation in thesis, little women marry, as if that was the writing camp, only end and in thesis, aim of writing camp, a woman’s life. Writing. I won’t marry Jo to creative camp, Laurie to quantum computer papers, please any one. Michigan Camp. » (Myerson Shealy 1989 : 167) PhD, is conflict research paper, professor in michigan creative, the Department of recommendation, French Studies, Concordia University, Montreal. Michigan Creative. Her main research interests include medieval studies and effective skills for essays, children’s literature.

She has published numerous articles on creative writing, the novel and quantum research, theater for michigan creative writing camp, the young, and punk rock research paper, is currently doing research on camp, the translation of writing skills, children’s literature from michigan camp, English into conflict management research, French. Michigan Writing Camp. She also has research projects, such as “Socio-aesthetics of the letter software engineer, novel for michigan, young people in letter, Quebec,” funded by creative the Social Sciences and punk rock research paper, Humanities Research Council of creative, Canada, and recommendation and conclusion in thesis, “Children’s literature: a hermeneutic approach,” a team-project funded by michigan the Fond de recherche sur la societe et la culture (Quebec). a) Textes ayant servi de base a l’analyse comparative. Narratology meets Translation Studies, or, The Voice of the recommendation, Translator in michigan writing camp, Children’s Literature. Par Emer O’Sullivan. When Children’s Literature Transcends its Genre : Translating Alice in creative writing, Wonderland. Par Douglas Kibbee. When Modern Little Red Riding Hoods Cross Borders… or Don’t… Par Sandra Beckett.

The Translation of michigan writing camp, Culture-Bound Elements into conflict research paper, Finnish in writing, the Post-War Period.

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1. Objective or Professional Summary? Let’s start at computer the beginning. I am not a fan of the camp, objective, and neither are many hiring managers. If they are reading your resume, they already know you are seeking a position with them. Cover Letter Software Engineer. Generally, an objective is used by someone who has recently graduated or has very little experience. If you have plenty of social work experience, you should consider using a professional summary. Camp. This is one to three sentences at the beginning of writing skills your resume that help describe the michigan creative writing, value you bring as a social worker through your skills and experience. This helps your reader know right away if you will be a good fit for the hiring organization. It is writing, much easier for a hiring manager to find that value in a short paragraph than trying to piece it together from a lengthy history of writing professional experience and education.

DON’T: Objective: Seeking a social work position within a facility where I can utilize my experience to writing for essays, the benefit of my employer as well as gain knowledge and creative camp, professional growth. DO: Licensed Clinical Social Worker with 6+ years experience in medical and mental health settings, working with diverse populations in private practice, health care, outpatient, and inpatient treatment settings. Recently relocated to Georgia. 2. Don’t assume your reader already knows what you do. This is one of the biggest mistakes I see when reviewing resumes. Cover Software Test Engineer. Write your resume as if the person reading it has no idea what you do. Really? Yes! This will help you to be descriptive about michigan creative camp, your experience. For some reason, some social workers are not very good at tooting their own horns. Your resume is exactly the quantum computer, place you need to michigan creative writing, brag about what an amazing professional you are.

Don’t assume that because your title was “Outpatient Therapist,” the reader of your resume will know exactly what you did. Be descriptive. Give a little information about the organization or program, the clients, and the type of rock research therapy or work you performed. This can easily be done in three to five bullets if you craft thoughtful, complete sentences. DON’T: Provide psychotherapy to clients. DO: Provide group and individual outpatient therapy to adult clients at a substance abuse treatment center utilizing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT), psychoeducation, and motivational interviewing. If you worked in a position for five years but don’t list one relevant accomplishment, that is a red flag for a hiring manager. Describing accomplishments is more than simply listing your job duties. These are the michigan creative camp, contributions you have made in your career that would encourage an organization to hire you. Questions you can ask yourself to help remember your accomplishments include: How did you help your clients?

Did you create a new form or program based on the needs of the management research paper, client population? Did your therapy skills reduce the writing, relapse rate in quantum papers, your agency? Did you save your organization money by coming up with a cost-saving idea? Were you selected for special projects, committees, or task forces? Even if the only social work experience you have on your resume is creative camp, your field placement, you should be able to list an accomplishment that will entice the reader to want to know more. DON’T: Completed appropriate and timely documentation according to compliance guidelines. DO: Recognized need for updated agency forms. Developed 10 clinical and administrative forms, including no-harm contract, behavior contract, and therapist’s behavior inventory, which increased staff efficiency and productivity by 15%. 4.Quantify your accomplishments. Numbers aren’t just for business professionals.

Numbers also help with the bragging I mentioned that needs to happen on your resume. The most convincing accomplishments are measurable and help your resume stand out from the crowd. How many clients did you serve? How much money did you receive for that grant you secured for your agency? How many people do you supervise? DON’T: Wrote grants for counseling program in schools. DO: Co-wrote School Group Experiences proposal, which received a $150,000 grant from State Foundation for Health, resulting in doubling the number of children served in group counseling from 120 children to 240 children, and increasing the percentage of minority children served from 20% to 50% of the computer research, total child population in group therapy.

5. Tailor your resume to michigan writing camp, the specific job. You have heard this over and over, and it should make sense. Still, not many social workers do this correctly or at all. Many big organizations, hospitals, and university systems use online applicant tracking systems to review resumes. And Conclusion. When one job has 100 applicants, this is creative, when using keywords REALLY counts. Look at the job description for brown creative graduate program, keywords. For example, what words do they use to describe the clients? Patients, clients, residents, victims, survivors, adults, children? If you have worked with the michigan writing camp, same client populations, used the punk rock research paper, same therapy techniques, or provided the supervision listed in the job description, make sure these SAME words are in camp, your resume.

Hiring managers can tell when you haven’t put any time into recommendation in thesis, matching your experience with their open position. DON’T: Provide in-home therapy for families. DO: (Similar language from job description) Perform individual and michigan creative, family, agency, and home-based therapy for medically fragile children and their families (parents and recommendation and conclusion, siblings) with goal of maintaining intact families and improving family functioning. Social workers LOVE to use acronyms. Many social workers spend hours writing case notes, and to be efficient, they rely on acronyms to describe their work. For the creative writing, same reasons you should use keywords, it is essential that you spell things out for effective for essays, the computer or human resources person who may not know what certain acronyms mean.

I am a social worker with limited clinical knowledge, and I often have to creative camp, Google acronyms when I review NASW members’ resumes. The reader responsible for finding the right candidates to interview will consider this a waste of his or her time and might move on to the rest of the resumes in the pile if he or she has no idea what you are talking about. DON’T: Scored and analyzed clinical assessments to include SIB-R, CBCL, CTRF, or SCQ in packets for families scheduled for effective writing, autism evaluations. Michigan Writing. DO: Scored and analyzed clinical assessments for rock research, autism evaluations including Scales of Independent Behavior-Revised (SIB-R), Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), Caregiver/Teacher Report Form (CTRF), and Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ). Michigan Creative Camp. Most resumes I review are succinct and formatted very nicely by letter software test bulleting experience. But there are still some folks who use paragraphs to describe their experience. You may have 20 years of social work experience at one agency, but that does not mean you can’t be concise.

I guarantee you that hiring managers are not going to read a paragraph that is 15 lines long to look for the experience that will fit the writing, position they are trying to cover letter software engineer, fill. Write your resume in such a way that it is easy to scan and find the keywords in 30 seconds or less. Use three to eight bullets to describe your experience and accomplishments. 8. Do not list every continuing education training you have ever attended. Creative Writing Camp. Whether or not you are licensed in your state, you should seek out continuing education in social work. Don’t forget, it is in the NASW Code of rock paper Ethics: Section 4.01 (b) Competence: “…Social workers should routinely review the professional literature and participate in continuing education relevant to social work practice and social work ethics.” It is great to show your reader that you are up to michigan creative, date on effective writing skills the latest clinical information on your client population, but the section on writing camp your resume for Continuing Education or Professional Development should only list the graduate, courses that are relevant to the job you are applying for.

It is creative writing camp, a great idea to keep a list of conflict management research all your continuing education, for your own reference and for your license renewal. Michigan Writing. You just don’t need to computer research papers, list them all on your resume. I hope you are seeing a theme here. Recently, I have come across a few resumes that have all of the following sections: #13; #13; Professional Summary #13; Education #13; Relevant Social Work Experience #13; Work Experience #13; Additional Experience #13; Summary of Skills #13; Professional Affiliations #13; Volunteer Experience #13; Publications #13; Relevant Coursework #13; Activities #13; Honors #13; Every resume is personal and different. You don’t need 10 categories on your resume. Professional Experience and creative writing, Education are musts. but after that, limit the places hiring managers need to search to creative graduate program, find the information that will help them decide to interview you. Michigan Creative. Only put the information that is test engineer, most relevant to writing, the job to which you are applying. 10.

Your references should always be available upon research papers, request and not on your resume. If the last line on your resume is “References Available Upon Request,” this one is for you. It is creative camp, not necessary to tell your reader that you have references. If you get far enough in the interview process, they will ask you for your references. Have them listed in a separate document. Only send the creative writing, references that are relevant, and only send them when asked. It is imperative that you inform your references that they may be contacted, and always send them a copy of the michigan writing, job description and your recent resume, so they can be prepared when contacted. Nothing is research papers, a bigger turnoff to me than getting a call to be a reference for someone I supervised five years ago and I can’t remember exactly what their job duties were. It is great to get a heads-up and a reminder of what the michigan, person did under my supervision.

And don’t forget to computer research papers, send your references a thank-you note, even if you didn’t get the job! DON’T: References Available Upon Request. DO: (Separate document with your contact information at the top) References: Jessica Rogers, MSW, LICSW, Director of Family Programs, Affordable Housing AuthorityChicago, ILRelationship: Former SupervisorPhone: 543-321-1234rogers@email.orgJessica was my direct supervisor and michigan camp, is familiar with my clinical social work skills, my ability to cover letter software engineer, work with diverse communities, and my aptitude for managing relationships with partner organizations. Jessica recognized my success in client outcomes and promoted me within 6 months of michigan writing camp my hire date. Conflict Management Paper. Remember, your resume is your tool to get an interview. It doesn’t need to include every detail about you as a professional social worker. Use your cover letter to expand on details that are specific to the job you are seeking.

During the interview, you can go into more detail about your relevant experience. Valerie Arendt, MSW, MPP, is the Associate Executive Director for the National Association of michigan creative Social Workers, North Carolina Chapter (NASW-NC). She received her dual degree in social work and public policy from the effective for essays, University of Minnesota and writing, currently provides membership support, including resume review, to the members of NASW-NC. Graduating with my MSW in social work this helps out a lot. Thank you so much for writing graduate, this article. I greatly appreciate it and feel it will be an creative immense help in my job search and conflict management research, resume formulation. Emerald Reese 107 days ago. Thank you for the advice.

Right now I am revamping my resume and trying to avoid paying for the service. Jennifer J. Capri 138 days ago. Thank you so much for all the information! I will be graduating with my MSW in 3 short months and it's about time to start job searching so I am starting to update my resume and this has been so helpful! It has been much appreciated. Michigan Creative Camp. Kelly 154 days ago. This article was so helpful in brown writing graduate program, tweaking my resume. Dana 181 days ago. Creative Camp. I would have made all the listed mistakes, if I hadn't read this article.

Thank you so very much for sharing this knowledge. Amy 197 days ago. Many thanks for the information! Always nice to find job information specific to the human service/social work field! Michael 237 days ago.

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Amit P. - 2013 Client Accepted at recommendation and conclusion in thesis, Wharton! I took the creative writing, GMAT. and and conclusion in thesis scored a 760. Michigan Creative Camp. I strongly recommend Stuart at the brown, classes. Creative Writing. via GoToMeeting. Recommendation And Conclusion. worked well. Creative Writing Camp. Joe H. - 2012 GMAT MBA Admissions Consulting Client Accepted at Harvard Business School! Scored 750 on the GMAT and effective skills for essays accepted at michigan writing, the Stanford Graduate School of Business! 2012 Client from Palo Alto, California. I got into Wharton, Chicago Booth, and NYU Stern. I greatly appreciate your help on the GMAT and have recommended you and Simply Brilliant to writing some of my coworkers who are studying for the GMAT. Writing Camp. 2012 Client from Newport Beach, California. Stuart is knowledgeable, patient, and well-equipped to help improve the score of any applicant.

I enjoyed working with him. Effective Writing. Jason L. - Accepted at Stanford with a 700+ Score! This week I learned that I have been accepted to Wharton! I could not have tackled the michigan camp, GMAT without Stuart's help. It was a challenge for me to get back up to speed on my math skills and I had attempted it with both Manhattan GMAT classes and another private tutor but nothing worked until I found Stuart and effective skills immediately things began to fall into place. Michigan Camp. I initially was hesitant to do online tutoring so I opted for in-person sessions the first couple of quantum papers times. After giving an online session a try, I realized that it actually worked well and was quite convenient. Writing Camp. Thank you Stuart! Sebastian G. - Accepted at effective skills, Wharton with a 700+ Score!

After initially not getting into the schools I wanted with a score of 650 (49 on the quant, 30 on michigan, the verbal), I worked with Stuart . I really started to feel confident . and got a 770 (50 on the quant, 42 on the verbal). I would definitely recommend Stuart going forward for those of you wanting to improve your verbal score! Natalie O. – Scored 770 and Accepted at letter test, Wharton with a Scholarship! With his help I was able to michigan writing raise my score well over 100 points and was accepted by all 3 schools I applied to. I don't believe I could have achieved this without his help. Miguel P. – Accepted at Columbia, NYU and USC! . dramatically improved my score. between 120 and 150 points. Simply Brilliant's application consulting was also very beneficial. Quantum Computer Research Papers. Ryan B. - Accepted at His First Choice Business School with a $75,000 Scholarship! I was accepted into michigan writing the Tuck class of 2014 after working with Stuart to bump my score from a 690 to management research 760. Michigan. I highly recommend Stuart to computer research papers anyone who has put in a significant amount of creative writing study time on quantum, their own and are looking to break out of the inevitable plateau of progress to get to the next level.

Joe P. - Scored 760! Achieved a 40 point increase and got accepted at michigan camp, Northwestern Kellogg! Member of the White House Staff. Stuart was very receptive of what I was trying to accomplish and did not waste time on areas he realized I was already good at. I shared my past tests with Stuart, and quantum research papers we then worked on questions that I got wrong or on questions where I took too much time. Stuart shared great tips and strategies on handling all types of questions.

Dev - Scored 740! You have to michigan writing go to Stuart if you want to punk rock research do well on your GMAT! I drove four hours round trip once a week to see Stuart just because I knew he was the best. All in all, after only four sessions I was able to raise my score 40 points. It is rare to find tutor who is intelligent, helpful, motivating and writing who genuinely wants you to recommendation in thesis do your best.

I only michigan writing camp wish I had met Stuart earlier in my GMAT process. Michelle R. - Accepted at Georgetown McDonough! I enjoyed every session with Stuart. I would recommend Stuart to all my friends and to people who want the best. Dominic S. - Accepted at Nanyang and software test engineer Thunderbird! . His precision and hardwork is definitely an asset to anybody looking for some immediate assistance. Extremely patient and creative camp completes work bang on conflict management paper, time.

You are Simply Brilliant Stuart! Keep rocking. M.S. - Accepted at writing, the University of Washington and Rutgers! I took Stuart's 4-week online GMAT prep course and quantum papers supplemented my prep with a few of his individual tutoring sessions… With Stuart's help, I managed to increase my GMAT score by 80 points and michigan creative camp gained admission to my first choice top-tier MBA program. Jeff R. – Accepted at UCLA Anderson! After following his guidelines for a few months, I took the GMAT and did great.

Let's just say that my score is firmly in paper, the zone for all the top schools. Justin S. - Accepted at Columbia! Stuart is an amazing tutor / teacher and admissions consultant… Thank you Stuart! I attribute all my success to michigan writing you! Christina W. Quantum Computer Research. – Accepted at her first choice business school! Thanks to Stuart, I increased my GMAT score 180 points in less than two months. Bobby S. Stuart’s help with GMAT test-taking strategies, sentence correction and tough quant problems helped me achieve a 99th percentile quant score and a 710 overall.

David D. - Accepted at the University of Chicago Booth School of Business! Stuart helped me bring my score from michigan writing 570 on practice tests to 700 on the official GMAT! Mark M. Punk. – GMAT MBA Admissions Consulting Client Accepted at Columbia-London Business School! I took my test . and creative writing scored a 710 - a full 130 points higher than any score I had before studying with Stuart. Not only that, but my Quant score jumped from 40th percentile to 77th percentile. Patrick B. - Accepted at brown creative writing program, UCLA Anderson and USC Marshall! I previously took a Manhattan GMAT course online and hardly saw an improvement in my score. Stuart took a look at my diagnostic tests and we chugged through all of my weakest topics in 3-4 sessions. Ultimately I saw a 50 point increase in my score and higher than I was shooting for. Paul Z. - Achieved 700+ Score. I applied to four highly competitive schools for which my GMAT score was fairly below the average.

After working with Stuart I was accepted to three of the four programs! . I highly recommend Stuart, and believe anyone lucky enough to work with him will have an advantage over all other applicants. Adam N. Your quant skill was rivalled only by your patience… Hillary M. - Accepted with a Scholarship at INSEAD! Thanks for your superb tutorial skills. Your support was wonderful, and I raised my score 70 points! Dan H. I credit Stuart with my 140 point increase on the GMAT! … I whole-heartedly recommend Stuart's Simply Brilliant Test Prep as the michigan creative writing, program that truly delivers. Jenna V. – Accepted with a Scholarship at Cornell Accepted at Georgetown! I took an 'elite' GMAT course then took the GMAT for the first time.

But after working with Stuart, I took the exam again and improved my score. Matt C. …a great help in tackling the GMAT's extra tricky quant areas. Highly recommend! Jamie M. - Accepted at UCLA Anderson and USC Marshall! In a very short period of time … Stuart helped me to boost my GMAT score almost 100 points.

Eli R. Stuart's assistance with my GMAT preparation was invaluable … I was able to retake the punk rock, exam and michigan creative writing camp increased my score by 110 points! Lauren C. It really was a good decision that I made to sign-up for your course… S.U. Stuart was a tremendous help with my GMAT preparation… he helped me improve my score by 100 points. Sam P. – Accepted at research, Pepperdine! Stuart has a vast collection of need-to-know rules and tricks you won’t find in creative writing camp, any published prep materials… I know it is because of him I got the score I once felt was out of my reach.

Lindsay Z. – Accepted at Duke, NYU, UCLA UNC! . he helped restore my confidence in my quant abilities. Punk Paper. He is michigan writing, patient, knowledgeable, and best of all has a real talent for writing, making the more difficult aspects of the quant section actually seem easy and creative writing camp manageable. Jorge H. I can't imagine my success without his expertise during the cover software, past couple months! Sarah A. Creative Camp. – Accepted at her first choice school with a substantial scholarship!

. A 70 point improvement! He is worth much more than he charges. Dave M. I took a Kaplan course, and it did not boost my score as I had hoped. Recommendation. I needed to increase my GMAT score 60 points. and was able to improve my score exactly 60 points! I couldn't have done it without Stuart! Kristin O. - Accepted at Drucker! Stuart is extremely adept at tutoring for this test, and I would highly recommend him. EJ. . With his immense knowledge, I was able to increase my quantitative score, which boosted my confidence, and michigan writing lessened my stress. Jenny W.

Stuart helped me to stay calm and focused during my exam. This combined with the confidence I gained while working with him, helped me to achieve a score of 720 on the exam with limited preparation time. Research. Chad W. – Accepted at UCLA Anderson! Stuart helped me increase my GMAT score 160 points. Harpal S. – Accepted at USC Marshall! Stuart is an exceptional educator… Naghmeh R. Stuart is professional, knowledgeable, and most important of all, personable… my score went up 60 points! Jenn K. Creative. – Accepted at effective writing for essays, UC Irvine USC!

He is the creative writing, real deal. Kiyumars K. – Accepted at Pepperdine! . Within an hour, I was comfortable with how to structure and write my essays. Shawn P. Not satisfied with the Princeton Review GMAT course, I decided to work with Stuart. He helped boost my quant and critical reasoning skills and showed me new ways to recommendation look at creative camp, problems. Effective Writing Skills. Alexia T.

. I had hit a wall where I was convinced I had reached my potential. One study session with Stuart obliterated that notion, and I was able to exceed my 'best case' scoring expectations. Yale S. . Stuart is an amazing tutor. I felt much better prepared for the exam. Michigan Writing Camp. I highly recommend him if you need help with the GMAT, which I definitely did! Ann K. . Test Engineer. you really are a great teacher. Tony C. . Money well spent.

Patrick H. . I completed a Kaplan prep course, but still felt very unprepared. I experienced noticeable improvement on my practice tests within a couple of weeks of working with Stuart and ultimately achieved a 690 on the official GMAT. Evan K. I feel very fortunate to have found out about Stuart. Not only michigan writing did he do a great job in improving my performance, he also is papers, a great advisor when it comes to putting together an MBA application. Philip W. I had taken the michigan creative, Manhattan GMAT course, however needed additional assistance with the Quantitative side of the test. Stuart is quite knowledgeable regarding this material and has helped me immensely. Sivanthie O.

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