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as essay on essays for children, man Pope wrote his Essay on Man in rhyming verse. Certainly today, we think anybody that writes poetry is one who is a bit odd, to essays testing say the on animals least. Back in the eighteenth century, it was not so strange. Pope stated that he had two reasons for writing his essay in such a manner. First, he thought that principles, maxims, or precepts so written, both strike the reader more strongly at first, and are more easily retained by charter business him afterwards.
The second reason that Pope gave is that he thought that he could express himself more shortly this way than in prose itself. Essays On Animals! I here make comments about the expressions and thoughts of Pope in his essay. I have quoted at length from essays on drug testing in the, his essay. Certainly there is much I have left out, because, likely, certain verses referred to events, persons and things of the early eighteenth century which, quite frankly, I am unfamiliar with. Spattered throughout Pope's work are references to God and His great domain. Such references in the writings out of the eighteenth century are not strange. The livelihood of writers, by and large -- as was with the case of all artists back then -- depended almost entirely on the generosity of church and for children on animals, state, so it was necessary in meaning on man, those days that writers give due regard to for children religious authority. Believing that if Pope were looking over my shoulder he would have no objection, I have left out religious epaulets. Within the first few lines, we see Pope wondering about the fruitlessness of life.
We have no choice: we come to it, look out and then die. What we see as we look out on the scene of man is a mighty maze! But Pope does not think this complex of the three of essays, existence is for children without a plan. Man might sort through the the three types maze because he has a marvelous mental faculty, that of reason; man can determine the nature of the world in which he lives; he can see that all things have bearings, ties and strong connections and nice dependencies. He, who thro' vast immensity can pierce, See worlds on worlds compose one universe, Observe how system into system runs, What other planets circle other suns, Look'd thro'? or can a part contain the on animals whole?
Is the great chain that draws all to agree, - And, drawn, supports - upheld by God or thee? In his next stanza, Pope makes reference to presumptuous man! Why should one be disturbed because he cannot immediately figure out all of the the three of essays mysteries with which he is presented? It cannot be expected that one part of existence (man) should understand all the other parts, he then continues: As of thy mother Earth, why oaks are made. Taller or stronger than the essays for children on animals weeds they shade. And all that rises, rise in essays, due degree; Then, in for children on animals, the sale of reas'ning life, 'tis plain. There must be, somewhere, such a rank as Man. When the dull ox, why now he breaks the clod, Is now a victim, and now Egypt's god, - Then say not Man's imperfect, Heav'n in fault, - Say rather Man's as perfect as he ought: His knowledge measur'd to his state and place, His time a moment, and a point his space. Pope continues with this theme into his third stanza, in business plan, saying Heav'n from all creatures hides the book of fate, and continues: The lamb thy riot dooms to bleed to-day, Had he thy reason, would he skip and play? Pleas'd to the last he crops the flow'ry food, And licks the hand just rais'd to shed his blood.
Who sees with equal eye, as God of all, A hero perish, or a sparrow fall, Atoms or systems into ruin hurl'd, And now a bubble burst, and now a world. Then giving way to for children his religious bent, makes reference to the great teacher Death and continues with his most famous lines: Hope springs eternal in the human breast; Man never is, but always to be blest: The soul uneasy and confin'd from home, Rest and expatiates in a life to come. Next, Pope deals with native people of the uncivilized territories of the world, and how they do not get hung up on such large questions as are expressed in Pope's essay: Lo, the essays lessing poor Indian! whose untutor'd mind. For Children On Animals! Sees God in clouds, or hears him in the wind; His soul proud Science never taught to stray. Far as the solar walk or milky way; Yet simple Nature to his hope has giv'n, Behind the meaning of an essay cloud-topp'd hill, a humbler heav'n; Some safer world in depth of woods embrac'd, Some happier island in essays, the wat'ry waste, Where slaves once more their native land behold, No fiends torment, no Christians thirst for gold! To be, contents his natural desire; He asks no angel's wing, no seraph's fire: But things, admitted to on man that equal sky, His faithful dog shall bear him company. Next, we see Pope start to develop the theme that runs throughout his essay; man is part of a larger setting, a part of nature. Man depends on nature for essays on animals his very substance, and yet, treats her roughly.
Destroy all creatures for thy sport or gust, Yet cry, if Man's unhappy, God's unjust; Ask for what end the heav'nly bodies shine, Earth for whose use, Pride answers, 'Tis for mine! For me kind Nature wakes her genial pow'r, Suckles each herb and spreads out ev'ry flow'r; Pope asserts that man is ruled from within, by his reason and by his passion. Better for us, perhaps, it might appear, Were there are harmony, all virtue here; That never air or ocean felt the wind; That never passion discompos'd the mind. Fishing Charter Business Plan! But all subsists by elemental strife; And passions are the elements of life. The gen'ral Order since the whole began. Is kept in Nature, and is kept in Man. Passion may be equated to instinct; and instinct is the sole guide of on animals, animals. Instinct is day care plan all that animals need as evolution has fitted each animal to on animals his home environment, unlike man who is in types, want of the strength of bulls, the fur of bears.
Here with degrees of swiftness, there of on animals, force: All in exact proportion to the state; Nothing to add, and meaning essay on man, nothing to abate. Each beast, each insect, happy in its own: Is Heav'n unkind to essays for children on animals Man, and meaning of an on man, Man alone? Shall he alone, whom rational we call, Be pleas'd with nothing, if not bless'd with all? Again, Pope emphasizes how nature all good and wise. and what it gives, and what denies has perfected itself and many of essays, its creations: The spider's tough how exquisitely fine! Feels at of an essay, each thread, and on animals, lives along the line: In the nice bee, what sense so subtly true. From pois'nous herbs extracts the healing dew? In nature, we find life in a complete variety, - vast chain of being everything beast, bird, fish, insect.
Or in the full creation leave a void, Where, one step broken, the great scale's destroy'd: From Nature's chain whatever link you strike, Tenth or ten thousandth, breaks the chain alike. In The! The point, I think, is that there is a fearful balance of nature in all its variety, and we dare not destroy one aspect of on animals, nature for meaning essay fear of destroying the on animals whole. All this dread order break - for of an whom? for thee? Vile worm! - oh madness! pride! impiety! In the last line of Pope's first epistle, he bangs home the importance of the essays ruling mind of nature, that while some parts might seem to us to be absurd, it is part of the general frame that all of nature, including ourselves, are but parts of one stupendous whole. Day Care Business! This whole body of nature is through all life and for children, extends throughout all of the of an essay universe and operates unspent. For Children! Pope concludes his first epistle: Safe in the hand of fishing charter business plan, one disposing Pow'r, Or in the natal, or the mortal hour. All Nature is but Art, unknown to thee; All chance, direction, which thou canst not see.
All discord, harmony not understood, All partial evil, universal good: And, spite of pride, in essays for children on animals, erring reason's spite, One truth is clear, whatever is, is right. Pope opens his second Epistle much the day care business same as he opened his first. What is the function of man, positioned as he is somewhere between a god and a beast. Man, during that brief interlude between birth and death, experiences a chaos of thought and passion, all confus'd. He finds on earth the Great lord of for children on animals, all things, yet a prey to all.
Man's function, Pope concludes, is to doris lessing make a proper study of essays for children on animals, mankind ; man is to know himself. What man will come to know is that he is ruled by passion; passion is the essays flight doris ruler and reason it's counsellor. Alas what wonder! Man's superior part. Uncheck'd may rise and climb from art to essays on animals art;
But when his own great work is but begun, What Reason weaves, by Passion is undone. It is in the nature of man to first serve himself; but, on account of reason, to do so with the charter business plan long range in view. Essays For Children! Two Principles in human nature reign; Self-love, to essays flight doris lessing urge, and Reason, to restrain; Self-love still stronger, as its objects nigh; Reason's at distance, and in on animals, prospect lie: A person is driven by passion, driven by his desire for pleasure; temptation is business strong and passion is thicker than arguments. However, a person soon learns through bitter experience that one cannot let his or her passions run wild. Attention, habit and experience gains; Each strengthens Reason, and Self-love restrains.
Self-love and Reason to one end aspire, Pain their aversion, Pleasure their desire, Pleasure, or wrong or rightly understood, Our greatest evil, or our greatest good. Passions, tho' selfish, if their means be fair, List under reason, and deserve her care. On life's vast ocean diversely we sail, Reason the card, but passion is the for children on animals gale;2. Plan! Love, Hope, and Joy, fair Pleasure's smiling train, Hate, Fear, and Grief, the essays for children family of the three types of essays, Pain, These mix'd with art, and to due bounds confin'd, Make and maintain the balance of the mind: Pope's theme is on animals again repeated: the the three types of essays two driving forces of man are his reason and his passion. However, passion is the essays for children king and reason but a weak queen. What can she more than tell us we are fools? Teach us to mourn our nature, not to mend. A sharp accuser but a helpless friend! Reason (th' Eternal Art, educing good from ill) is meaning on man not a guide but a guard. Passion is the mightier pow'r.
Envy, Pope points out essays on animals, as an types, aside, is something that can be possessed only by those who are learn'd or brave. Ambition: can destroy or save, and essays for children, makes a patriot as it makes a knave. With Pope's thoughts, it soon becomes clear one should not necessarily consider that envy and ambition are in day care, themselves wrong. They are moving forces in a person and if properly guided, can serve a person well. As, in essays for children, some well-wrought picture, light and shade. And oft so mix, the diff'rence is too nice, Where ends the the three types virtue, or begins the vice.
And virtuous and vicious ev'ry man must be, Few in essays on animals, the extreme, but all in the degree; Each person is driven by essays workplace self-love, but on the same occasion each on the other to depend, a master, or a servant, or a friend, bids each on essays for children, other for essays and disadvantages of international trade assistance call. Each person seeks his own happiness, seeks his own contentment; each is proud in what he or she has achieved, no matter what another person might think of those achievements. Essays! Whate'er the passions, knowledge, fame, or pelf, Not one will change is neighbour with himself. The learn'd is happy nature to explore, The fool is essay on man happy that he knows no more; The rich is happy in on animals, the plenty given, The poor contents him with the care of Heaven, See the blind beggar dance, the cripple sing. The sot a hero, lunatic a king; The starving chemist in his golden views.
Supremely bless'd, the poet in his Muse. None of essays testing workplace, us should be critical of essays for children on animals, another person's choice in of an on man, life, who is to know it is right. Behold the child, by nature's kindly law, Pleased with a rattle, tickled with a straw: Some livelier plaything give his youth delight, A little louder, but as empty quite: Scarfs, garters, gold, amuse his riper stage, And beads and prayer-books are the toys of age: Pleased with this bauble still, as that before, Till tired he sleeps, and life's poor play is o'er. On Animals! Pope returns, in his third Epistle, to day care his ever present theme, all is essays natural in nature and business, man is a part of nature. He first observes how plastic nature is, how everything is dependant on one and the other, is attracted to one and the other, down even to single atoms. Essays! Everything it's neighbour to embrace. Essays Testing! (While Pope did not do so, he might just as easily have observed that things in nature repel one another, equally so. All things, in the final analysis, are held in the balance, suspended, so it seems, between the two great forces of attraction and repulsion.) All forms that perish other forms supply, (By turns we catch the vital breath, and die) Like bubbles on the sea a matter borne, They rise, they break, and to that sea return. Nothing is foreign; parts relate to whole: Then, Pope picks up once again his theme of the ruling principles, reason and passion.
Here in his third Epistle, he refers to instinct as the unerring guide that reason often fails us, though sometimes serves when press'd. But honest instinct comes a volunteer, Sure never to o'ershoot, but just to on animals hit, While still to wide or short is human wit; Sure by essays flight doris quick nature happiness to for children on animals gain, Which heavier reason labour at in vain. Instinct can be seen at work throughout nature, for doris lessing example, Who make the spider parallels design . without rule or line? Not just the spider does things by essays for children on animals instinct, man does. The obvious example is his artistic work, but our instincts serve us on a much broader range. Think! And you will wonder about many of the daily things that are done, automatically it seems. What, exactly, is essays advantages and disadvantages of international trade it that prompts us to do things. Who calls the essays for children on animals council, states the certain day, Who forms the phalanx, and who points the way? Pope then comes to a rather critical passage in his essay, when he deals with family units in the animal kingdom versus human beings.
The fact of the matter is, family units do not count for much in testing in the workplace, the animal kingdom, at essays, any rate, not for meaning of an essay long. Essays For Children! However, family connections for human beings extend over a long period, indeed, over a lifetime. I would observe that it is an evolutionary development, needed because of the long time required before a child passes into adulthood. These family feelings are important for essays doris lessing the development and cohesion of the essays for children on animals family, but not necessarily good when extended to meaning of an essay the larger group, society as a whole (this is a theme that I have developed elsewhere (EconEcon.doc) and which someday I hope to put up on the 'net.). Thus beast and essays for children on animals, bird their common charge attend, The mothers nurse it, and the sires defend: The young dismiss'd to wander earth or air, There stops the instinct, and there ends the care; The link dissolves, each seeks a fresh embrace, Another love succeeds, another race. A longer care man's helpless kind demands; That longer care contracts more lasting bands: Reflection, reason, still the ties improve, At one extend the interest, and the love; With choice we fix, with sympathy we burn; Each virtue in each passion takes its turn; And still new needs, new helps, new habits rise. That graft benevolence on of an on man, charities. Still as one brood, and as another rose, These natural love maintain'd, habitual those: The last, scarce ripen'd into essays for children perfect man, Saw helpless from him whom their life began: Memory and forecast just returns engage; That pointed back to essays flight lessing youth, this on to age; While pleasure, gratitude, and hope, combined, Still spread the interest, and essays, preserved the kind. Pope then, continuing with his third Epistle, returns to his principle and the power of nature.
Nature is a driving gale, a fact which can be observed in the voice of the three of essays, nature and which we can learn from the birds and the beasts. For Children On Animals! It was the power of nature that built the ant's republic and the realm of bees. Pope observes anarchy without confusion. Their separate cells and properties maintain. Mark what unvaried laws preserve each state;- Laws wise as nature, and business plan, as fix'd as fate.
In vain thy reason finer webs shall draw; Entangle justice in essays for children, her net of law; And right, too rigid, harden into wrong, Still for the strong too weak, the weak too strong. Yet go! and fishing charter business plan, thus o'er all the creatures sway; Thus let the wiser make the rest obey; And for those arts mere instinct could afford, Be crown'd as monarchs, or as gods adored. It is the same voice of nature by which men evolved and cities were built, societies were made. That while men in the gradual and slow build-up ravished one another with war, it was commerce that brought about civilization. Essays For Children! Men came to new countries with war-like intentions, but soon became friends when they realized there was much more profit in meaning of an, trade. When love was liberty, and nature law: Thus states were form'd; the essays name of king unknown, Till common interest placed the sway in meaning essay, one. Essays For Children On Animals! 'Twas Virtue only, or in arts or arms, So, it was trade that built civilizations, and Pope observes, that it was tradition that preserves them. Essays Testing! Convey'd unbroken faith from sire to essays on animals son; The worker from the work distinct was known,
Then, continuing in this historical vein, Pope deals with the types of essays development of government and of laws. Essays! So drives self-love, through just and through unjust. To one man's power, ambition, lucre, lust: The same self-love, in all, becomes the cause. Of what restrains him, government and laws: For, what one likes if others like as well, What serves one will, when many wills rebel? How shall we keep, what, sleeping or awake, A weaker may surprise, a stronger take?
His safety must his liberty restrain: All join to guard what each desires to gain. Forced into virtue thus by self-defence, Ev'n kings learn'd justice and benevolence: Self-love forsook the path it first pursued, And found the private in the public good. 'Twas then, the studious head or generous mind, Follower of God or friend of human-kind, Poet or patriot, rose but to essays advantages and disadvantages of international trade restore. The faith and moral Nature gave before; Relumed her ancient light, not kindled new; If not God's image, yet his shadow drew; Taught power's due use to essays on animals people and to kings; Taught not to slack nor strain its tender strings; The less or greater set so justly true, That touching one must strike the other too; Till jarring int'rests of themselves create. Th' according music of a well-mix'd state. Such is the world's great harmony, that springs. From order, union, full consent of things: Where small and great, where weak and and disadvantages trade, mighty made. To serve, not suffer, strengthen, not invade; More pow'rful each as needful to the rest, And in proportion as it blesses, blest; Draw to one point, and to on animals one centre bring. Beast, man, or angel, servant, lord, or king. Pope makes a side observation that while government is necessary, its form is of less importance, what is day care business important, is a good administration: For forms of government let fools contest; Whate'er is best administer'd is best: Pope then concludes in his third Epistle, emphasizing that regard for oneself and his family has to be different than regard for the whole of society, that nature link'd the essays for children on animals gen'ral frame and bade self-love and social be the same. In his last Epistle on the Essay of Man, Pope deals with the flight lessing subject of happiness.
It may be any one of a number of things, it depends on the person: good, pleasure, ease, content! whatever thy name. That happiness as a plant of celestial seed will grow, and on animals, if it doesn't, one should not blame the soil, but rather the way one tends the soil. Though man may well seek happiness in many quarters, it will only lessing be found in nature. Man should avoid extremes. He should not go about in life trusting everything, but on the same occasion neither should he be a total skeptic. Take Nature's path, and made Opinion's leave; All states can reach it and all heads conceive; Obvious her goods, in no extreme they dwell; There needs but thinking right, and for children on animals, meaning well; And mourn our various portions as we please, Equal is common sense, and on drug testing workplace, common ease. To Pope, pleasure does not last, it sicken, and all glories sink.
To each person comes his or her share and who would more obtain, Shall find the pleasure pays not half the pain. To be rich, to be wise: these are both laudable goals and a person looking about will always be able to essays for children on animals find others who have riches and wisdom in varying degrees, but it cannot be concluded to any degree that they are happy. Happiness comes when one has health, peace, and competence. It is not clear to me from Pope's lines how one might secure peace and competence; health, he says, consists with temperance alone. Essays Flight Doris! It is in for children, the nature of man to attempt to change things; he is never happy with things as he finds them; never happy with his fellow man; never happy with the advantages of international trade world about him. We forever strive to make things perfect, a state that can hardly be define in essays on animals, human terms. Those that reflect on man's condition will soon have Utopian dreams. But still this world, so fitted for the knave, Contents us not. Business! A better shall we have? A kingdom of the for children on animals just then let it be: But first consider how those just agree. Essays In The Workplace! The good must merit God's peculiar care;
But who but God can tell us who they are? It all too often appears to us that virtue starves, while vice is fed. One might wish for man to essays be a God and for earth to be a heaven, both God and types of essays, heaven coming from the imaginations of man. But, Pope concludes: 'Whatever is, is for children on animals right.' -- This world, 'tis true. Of fame, Pope says, it is but a fancied life in others' breath . All that we feel of it begins and ends in the small circle of our foes and friends . Essays! It will get you nothing but a crowd of stupid starers and of loud huzzas. Of wisdom, Pope attempts a definition and points out how often the for children wise are bound to trudge alone with neither help nor understanding from his fellow man.
In parts superior what advantage lies! Tell, for fishing business you can, what is on animals it to be wise? 'Tis but to know how little can be known ; To see all others' faults, and essays testing in the, feel our own: Condem'd in business or in arts to drudge, Without a second, or without a judge: Truths would you teach, or save a sinking land? All fear, none aid you, and few understand. And so we arrive at the last of Pope's lines.
Show'd erring Pride, WHATEVER IS, IS RIGHT; That Reason, Passion, answer one great aim; That true Self-love and Social are the same . 1 The Poetical Works of essays on animals, Alexander Pope which includes Dr. Testing In The! Johnson's 65 page biography on Pope, Essay on Man (31 pp.); Essay on Criticism (17 pp.), Rape of the Lock (19 pp.), The Dunciad (31 pp.). My vintage copy has within it two frontispiece Steel Engravings (Philadelphia: Hazard, 1857). 2 Here, again, we see Pope refer to the analogy of the sailing ship on the sea finding its way only with compass (card) for direction and essays for children, the wind in the sails to drive the vessel along.
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rogerian style essay An Alternative to Traditional Rhetoric. University of Calgary. As the Introduction to this volume points out, all of the essays for children on animals approaches to essay argumentation collected here offer some form of alternative to for children the argument as war metaphor. In each approach, argument is redefined as one or another form of negotiated inquiry into common grounds for testing in the workplace, belief. Rogerian rhetoric also moves away from a combative stance, but is distinct from other models of argumentation in essays, three ways. First, it goes even farther than most other models in avoiding an adversarial approach. Second, it offers specific strategies based on nondirective therapy for building the co-operative bridges necessary for day care business plan, noncombative inquiry. Third, and in my opinion most important, it has the potential to offer students an opportunity for long-term cognitive and ethical growth. Ever since Young, Becker and Pike introduced the discipline of composition to Rogerian rhetoric in 1970, our profession has remained deeply divided over whether such a rhetoric is conceptually sound, useful in practice, or even possible.
Some have argued that it is nothing but warmed- over Aristotelian rhetoric (Lunsford 1979); others, that it is untrue to essays for children Carl Rogers' principles (Mader 1980), or that it is essays flight a cumbersome welding-together of persuasion and on animals, non-directive therapy, two fundamentally incompatible processes (Ede 1984). Of An? All of essays on animals these criticisms point to real problems with the model, problems which often reflect the way it has been conceptualized by fishing charter plan its proponents. Nonetheless, the essays on animals literature of composition studies reflects a continuing fascination with Rogerian principles. Textbooks continue to fishing charter plan suggest these principles as alternative methods of persuasion (Coe 1990; Flower 1993), and a recent collection edited by for children Nathaniel Teich (1992a) presents a wide variety of both philosophical and pedagogical investigations into Rogerian perspectives. In this chapter I will try to account for this continuing fascination with Rogerian rhetoric and explain what it can offer that no other approach to argumentation can quite match. To do so I will briefly survey the history of Rogerian rhetoric and outline its basic principles. Then I will discuss some of the ways in which Rogerian principles can be used in practice to teach both a technique of essays workplace inquiry and an ethic of inquiry. BACKGROUND: ROGERIAN THERAPY AND ROGERIAN RHETORIC. Carl Rogers is more familiar to many as a therapist than as a rhetorician.
However, the goal of therapy, like the goal of rhetoric, can be broadly described as attitude change. Whereas the essays for children rhetorician may want his audience to adopt certain specific beliefs, the therapist may not--in fact, should not--have a clear model of specific behaviors which he wants the client to essays and disadvantages trade adopt in place of the dysfunctional ones that brought her into therapy in the first place. Essays For Children On Animals? Rather, he aims for a broader change in the way the client interacts with the world. Nonetheless, the essence of both arts is to induce change through verbal means--Plato's art of influencing the soul through words (1956, 48). Rogerian therapy informs rhetoric by advantages and disadvantages offering a new way of thinking about the means of inducing change. Rogers (1951) describes how, as a young practitioner, he quickly discovered that he could not change the attitudes or behavior of his clients by rational argument. The ideal rhetorical situation as described by on animals Plato involves an audience which, like his hero Socrates, is not less happy to be refuted than to refute (1951, 17). Alas, this attitude is rare among real, vulnerable human beings who are not characters in a Platonic dialogue.
Clients in therapy, at the peak of their vulnerability, are particularly unhappy to be refuted. Essays Flight Doris? When Rogers began to explain how unreasonable his clients' unreasonable fears were, how self-destructive their self-destructive behavior was, he met a blank wall of resistance. The problem, he decided, was that rational argument of this type always implies a form of evaluation. Argument may convince a person to buy this kind of car or to vote for that politician, but the closer the on animals subject of argument comes to the beliefs that constitute the flight core of a person's sense of self, of identity, the more any attempt to change beliefs is perceived as a threat and met with walls of defence. The way around these walls, Rogers discovered, was to change the role of the therapist. The therapist, in Roger's view, is not a healer, but rather a facilitator of healing. She does not explain her point of view to the client, but instead listens actively to essays on animals the client as he gets in touch with his own thoughts and emotions and does his own healing. For the art of rhetoric, the essays advantages and disadvantages of international most immediately useful aspect of Rogerian therapy is the specific technique that Rogers developed to facilitate this self-healing process.
This technique is called restatement or saying back. For Children On Animals? Rogers is quite explicit that this is not simply a passive process (1965, 27). Of An On Man? The therapist continually repeats back her understanding of the client's words in summary form in order to check her understanding of the client's mental state. Thus the essays on animals therapist might say, It sounds as though what you are really saying is that you hate your father. The client might respond, No, that's not quite it, and the therapist would continue with more probes such as, Well, perhaps you were just angry with him at types of essays that moment. Always the therapist must walk the fine line between giving the client words to express hitherto inexpressible feelings and for children on animals, putting words in business, his mouth. As a therapeutic tool, Rogerian reflection is both difficult--it can quickly degenerate into an irritating echo-chamber of essays on animals voices--and breathtakingly successful when done well.1 In this pure form, Rogerian therapy is not argument. It is in fact anti-argument, a form of discourse in which the speaker must specifically avoid stating a point of view either directly or indirectly. However, Rogers himself speculated on how his principles could be applied in rhetorical situations, though always under the of an essay on man rubric of essays for children communication rather than rhetoric.
In his 1951 paper, Communication: Its Blocking and of essays, its Facilitation, he proposes that the empathy and feedback model could be used to facilitate communication in emotion-laden situations outside the therapeutic relationship, such as political or labor negotiations. His formula is simple: Each person can speak up for himself only after he has first restated the for children ideas and business, feelings of the previous speaker, and to that speaker's satisfaction (332). In later articles he details Rogerian-style negotiation sessions that have produced astonishing results, including the Camp David negotiations conducted by Jimmy Carter, a conference involving health care providers and impoverished and embittered health care consumers, and essays on animals, even opposing sides in Northern Ireland (Rogers and essays flight doris lessing, Ryback 1984). It is this power to essays for children create an atmosphere of co-operation that led Young, Becker and Pike to flight doris propose an essays, alternative form of rhetoric based on Rogerian principles (1970).2 Rogerian rhetoric as recreated by Young, Becker and Pike is aimed at those situations in which more confrontational techniques are most apt to fail: that is, in highly emotional situations in which opposing sides fail to essays and disadvantages trade establish even provisional grounds for discussion. Young, Becker and essays for children on animals, Pike recommend that, rather than trying immediately to present arguments for her point of view and to refute her opponent's, the writer should first undertake a task similar to that of the Rogerian psychotherapist. She should try to reduce the reader's sense of threat by meaning essay showing that the writer has genuinely listened to the reader's position.
This reduction of essays for children on animals threat will in turn induce an assumption of similarity: the reader will see the day care writer as a human being more or less like herself and therefore be more likely to for children listen to what the flight writer has to say. Although they argue that it should not be reduced to a mechanical formula, Young, Becker and Pike outline four basic stages through which a Rogerian argument should pass: 1. An introduction to the problem and a demonstration that the for children on animals opponent's position is understood. 2. A statement of the day care business plan contexts in which the opponent's position may be valid. 3. A statement of the writer's position, including the essays for children contexts in which it is valid. 4. A statement of how the opponent's position would benefit if he were to adopt elements of the of an essay on man writer's position.
If the writer can show that the positions complement each other, that each supplies what the other lacks, so much the essays on animals better. (283) Not every version of Rogerian rhetoric emphasises exactly these stages, but the common denominator among all versions is that the writer must state the opposing viewpoint first, before stating her own, and day care plan, do so honestly, with understanding, and without either overt or covert evaluation. ROGERIAN RHETORIC IN THE WRITING CLASSROOM. Beginning with Maxine Hairston's seminal article (1976), a number of writers have recommended Rogerian rhetoric as an alternative form of argument to be used, as Young, Becker and essays, Pike originally recommended, when emotions and a sense of threat preclude direct debate in the classical mode (Bator 1980, 1992; Coe, 1992). Lunsford and Ede (1984), Gage (this volume) and others have argued that those who view classical rhetoric as inherently combative have been misled both by later misreadings of Aristotle and his contemporaries and by an incomplete understanding of the role of the enthymeme. They argue that the enthymeme, the meaning of an essay on man heart of Aristotle's structure of argumentation, differs from the logical syllogism precisely in that it involves the rhetor in essays for children, the building an essay, argument from the opinions of the audience. Classical rhetoric can therefore be seen as co-operative, not combative.
This in fact is the basis for Lunsford's argument that a Rogerian alternative to essays for children on animals traditional rhetoric is unnecessary (1979). Regardless of the merits of these arguments, the traditional conception of rhetoric still poses limitations. Traditional rhetoric as envisioned by Aristotle and by most modern textbooks on argument is typically triadic; that is, it is aimed at a third party who will judge the case on the basis of the arguments presented by competing advocates, politicians, researchers, advertisers, or other partisan arguers. In this case it matters little if one arguer threatens the beliefs and self-esteem of the other, for it is not the opponent he is trying to convince, but the essays flight lessing audience as third party. Essays? The process of inquiry claimed for essays flight lessing, the enthymeme creates co-operation between rhetor and audience, not between rhetor and essays for children, opponent. But what about the instances--far more common in everyday life--in which two parties are directly trying to convince each other? In these dyadic situations, standard persuasive strategies will usually do more harm than good, tending to harden rather than soften positions. In such cases of dyadic argument, a technique is required that will create the grounds for reasonable discussion that classical rhetoric presupposes. Rogerian rhetoric offers such a technique (Coe 1992). The challenge for essays, the composition teacher, of course, is how to teach students to put Rogerian principles into essays practice.
Rogerian rhetoric is often tried and dismissed as impractical, too difficult for students to trade use, too difficult to for children on animals teach, or too easy for students to misinterpret as a particularly sly form of manipulation. I believe that some of these problems stem from a failure to recognize just what Rogerian rhetoric really is. The basic model of Rogerian argument, particularly when abstracted from the rich context of heuristic techniques in which Young, Becker and Pike originally embedded it, looks like a form of arrangement: a recipe for what to say first. But arrangement is day care business plan only part of the business of any rhetorical system. Logically prior to arrangement--and as I will argue, embedded in the process of arrangement, not separate from it--is the process of invention. In Rogerian terms, this means exploring an opposing point of view in sufficiently rich complexity that it is possible to reflect it back convincingly to an audience. The problem of invention is accentuated by the written medium. A writer is in a much worse position than the therapist, for essays for children, writing does not allow the fishing business plan back-and-forth movement of face to face conversation that makes possible the continual readjustment of the for children discourse. But if we are content to relax our standards somewhat, it is still possible for students to learn how to apply a form of Rogerian principles in writing.
To do so, they must learn how to imagine with empathy and how to read with empathy. By imagining with empathy, I mean more than teaching students to doris lessing imagine another's views. This would be little different from classical audience analysis. I mean teaching students to think carefully about how another person could hold views that are different from for children on animals, one's own. This is what Young, Becker and Pike mean by finding the contexts in which the opposing viewpoint is valid. Rather than simply imagining an isolated set of arguments for an opposing viewpoint, the writer must imagine the entire worldview that allows those arguments to exist, that makes them valid for essays of international, the other. By reading with empathy, I mean teaching students to use the for children printed words of doris another as a guide to this imagining process. In a sense, this is no more than what is usually known as research. When preparing any written argument it is useful to do one's homework. But whereas students often associate research with the mere looking-up of for children facts, research in a Rogerian context emphasises the looking-up of facts in the context of the essays of international trade arguments that support them, and looking at those arguments in the context of other worldviews, other ways of seeing. This kind of imaginative reconstruction does not come easily.
In terms of essays on animals actual classroom practice, it usually does very little good simply to explain these points. Rather, the teacher must set up situations in which the students can practice Rogerian reflection and the Rogerian attitude long enough that it can sink in. For instance, the teacher can set up a dialectical situation in which they can practice on real, present people in a context more like the original therapeutic situations for which Rogerian principles were originally designed. The oral, face to face conversation serves as a bridge to the more difficult imaginative task of the distanced written conversation. Though these tasks are in one sense designed to serve as preparation for another, they are in no sense mere warm-up drill or prewriting activities separate from the business of the three of essays argument itself. They are integral parts of what Rogerian rhetoric understands by argument: a process of mutual exploration that may culminate in for children, a written text but which may also take oral and other pathways.
As I argue throughout this chapter, Rogerian rhetoric is a broad rubric for a way of seeing, not just a specific technique for structuring a text. ROGERIAN RHETORIC IN ACTION: SOME CLOSEUPS. I will often begin with a discussion of a controversial issue that students pick from a list generated by the class.3 For this exercise I usually depend on on man, the knowledge that students already possess on the subject, though in more advanced classes I ask students to research the topic beforehand. I get students to identify themselves with one side or the other. Then I will call on a volunteer from essays for children on animals, each side to engage in a public Rogerian discussion (since my disastrous first experience with this technique I am careful not to use the word debate). The discussion is organized according to Roger's own rules as suggested in Communication: Its Blocking and its Facilitation (1951). Neither person can mention his own views until he has restated the other person's to that person's satisfaction. Thus the first round would consist of student A stating an argument, student B restating that argument in summary form, and student A either agreeing that the summary is accurate or attempting to correct it.
This goes on until student A is happy with the summary; then student B gets a turn to state his own point of view (not to the three refute A). The exercise often breaks down into a traditional debate in which one person either tries to refute the other's views or restates them in a way that will make them easier to attack. Emotional hot buttons get pushed, and more straw men begin flying about than in the monkey attack from The Wizard of Oz. One pair of students, John and Michael, picked the topic, Should foreign students have to pay the entire cost of their education? Neither was a foreign student, but John was highly active in for children, the International Centre and day care business, felt strongly that it was unjust to require foreign students to pay more than local students. He stated his reasons, including basic principles of for children on animals equity and the important contribution that foreign students make to the university.
Michael opened his restatement along the lines of, So, you think it's okay to essays advantages and disadvantages make our taxpayers pay for the education of a student from Singapore who won't even stay in this country? Obviously, this is hardly Rogerian reflection. When one's ideas are handed back like a present with a ticking bomb inside, the fight is on. But this is exactly the point. I want students to see the difference between this sort of rebuttal and true Rogerian discussion. Sometimes I involve the for children on animals entire class in discussing whether a particular response is genuinely Rogerian or is really just a sneak attack on meaning of an, the other's values. After some discussion and more prompting from John, Michael eventually worked himself around to identifying the values behind John's statement:
So, if I understand you correctly, you don't think that the cost of for children on animals education should be tied directly to the amount of money one's family has paid into a given educational system, or the obvious financial returns that a country can get from meaning of an essay on man, educating people. Rather, you think that a more general principle of equity applies and that we need to look at a more global good. He still didn't agree, but at least he understood John's point of view. Essays For Children On Animals? Only John's assent that Michael had in fact got it right gave Michael permission to go on to state the reasons for charter, that disagreement. The process is exhausting and usually the class is over before the first exchange of on animals views is complete. But by the end of the process, students (and the teacher!) have a greater appreciation of the day care business plan difference between their own default mode of argument and the process of struggling toward a genuine understanding of for children another's point of day care business view.
The point of this oral exchange is not so much to invent material for a particular piece of writing as to get the general feel of essays Rogerian discussion in its most native mode, face-to-face communication. Essays Lessing? Once I think students have got the hang of this, I move them on to the more difficult task faced by writers: recovering underlying values from other people's written texts. Again I pair them off and they begin by writing straight-ahead, univocal arguments for their own point of view on a controversial issue. Essays For Children On Animals? Students exchange papers and try to write summaries that satisfy the original author, who in turn may write counter-summaries that extend and correct the reflected image of their ideas. Kathy, for instance, felt quite passionate about the on man Young Offenders Act, a controversial Canadian law that severely limits the sentencing of criminals under sixteen years of age even if they have committed violent crimes. Her statement began like this: I feel that we must dispose of the Young Offenders Act. It is for children on animals a useless piece of legislation practically promoting crime. Hasn't our society enough evidence that the essays lessing YOA doesn't work? The use of weapons in schoolyards, an unprecedented amount of car thefts, break ins, even children selling other children for for children, prostitution. A slap on advantages, the hand prevents nothing.
If greater punishment, including real time in essays for children on animals, jail were a threat, I guarantee that our youth would be a little more reluctant. And on and on, rehearsing in no uncertain terms the most common arguments levelled against the YOA in the media. Her partner, Tracey, began her restatement like this: You have expressed concern over the YOA. Essays Flight Lessing? You are concerned that it actually encourages crime because of the lack of deterrence. You feel that a person under sixteen knows right from wrong and should be held responsible for his or her actions, regardless of the on animals personal situation or background which might be used as an excuse for committing crimes. Advantages Of International Trade? You believe that we should place the betterment of society above the protection of criminals, regardless of their age. The important feature of essays for children this restatement is that it is not just a summary of the other's point of view, but, somewhat like Michael's, an attempt to get at underlying beliefs. Essay? She then went on to state her own opinion, that it is not fair for a person to be ruined for life as a result of a crime committed at an early age. But her response was moderate, and had to deal with the delicate balance between protection of society and protection of individual youths that she had detected in Kathy's position.
The effect of the restating process was not simply to essays for children soften up Kathy by putting her in the right frame of mind to of an essay receive Tracey's argument. Rather, it put Tracey in touch with the complexities of the matter, enabling her to see the matter from another's point of view rather than just her own. Once students have begun to essays for children improve their ability to reflect the essays workplace arguments of others who are physically present, I have them move on to Rogerian discussions of non-present writers. One fruitful assignment is to have students reply to essays for children on animals articles embodying worldviews that they do not share. In The Workplace? Sometimes I ask students to find their own article; sometimes I supply an article with which I know everyone in the class will disagree. A particularly prize article that I have used frequently is an opinion piece by Catherine Ford, associate editor of the Calgary Herald. (The entire article is included as an appendix on page xx.) Ford addresses teenage girls who, she feels, cut themselves off from economic opportunities because they take bubblegum courses instead of science and math.
She cites chilling statistics about how much time most women spend in the work force and how little most of them are paid, and equates science and math--which, she says, most girls have been conned into thinking are too difficult--with one of the fastest ways to economic independence for women. However, she begins by telling her audience that the essays world is essays of international trade passing you by, while you're all out there spray-painting your hair purple and reading People magazine, and tries to get their attention by telling them that you guys seem to have melted your brains with your stereo headphones. It's not hard to see that Ford is not exactly a master of Rogerian rhetoric, and the class usually has an entertaining few minutes raking her over the coals for her unsupported generalizations and unflattering portrayal of the very people she is supposedly trying to convert. Students taking a Humanities course are particularly irritated by for children on animals being accused, by implication, of having chosen a bubblegum course. Essays Advantages And Disadvantages Of International? Then I set my students a dyadic task: to write a letter directly to Ford herself that uses Rogerian techniques to essays convince her to moderate her position. To do so, we discuss not only the areas of validity in Ford's argument, but also try to understand both the rhetorical situation--why she might decide to adopt such an aggressive tone to get her point across--and also who she is as a person. Nobody in the class ever knows much about her personally, but with a little exploratory discussion, we begin to think about the implications of being a woman in on drug in the workplace, her forties--to judge by her picture--who has fought her way up to associate editor of the city's major newspaper.
From this and years of for children experience with Ford's writing, we build up a picture of business plan a woman who prides herself on pulling no punches, who is easily angered by behavior that she perceives as foolish, and whose feminism frequently takes the form of being disgusted by girls who cut themselves off from the opportunities that she herself fought so hard to make for essays for children, herself. Essays Of International Trade? Her insistence on for children on animals, economic independence suggests someone with a fierce personal pride and a hard-nosed attitude to charter life, but not--judging by other columns in which she discusses government fiscal policy--someone who values money for essays for children, its own sake. In short, the students are applying consciously the reader-response process of constructing both a text and the person behind the text. They begin to understand that, solely from the evidence of her texts, we can, in a manner of speaking, know this person. None of the three types these personal details need to find their way into the final written product, of course. On Animals? There is not much to be served by essays doris lessing presenting Ford with a detailed picture of herself that is not directly relevant to the issue and could very well be inaccurate. The object of this part of the exercise is simply to sensitize the students to the idea that arguments come from for children, somewhere, and fishing charter plan, if you can understand where they are coming from, you can negotiate meaning more effectively. Here is an for children, example of the sort of texts students produce when they sit down to produce their actual written responses:
From what I understand, you are angry that teenage girls seem to be letting life pass them by. They are playing into the roles society seems to have laid out for them, even though the deficiency of women in math and science is an enormous myth. You are frustrated that today's teenage girls do not seem motivated--they seem totally apathetic to the economic disadvantages that they are creating for themselves. I see young girls in shopping malls who seem to the three types be wasting their lives away, concerned more with buying the right kind of makeup than with insuring that they will have the resources to lead independent lives. However, I have to essays ask you this--what about all the successful women in fields other than math and essay on man, science?
I think there are many opportunities in math and essays for children, science--opportunities that many teenage girls overlook because they think that these fields are too difficult. And Disadvantages Of International? But your own success in the field of essays on animals journalism is a prime example of the fact that there are many other ways to essays on drug in the workplace achieve not only economic independence but also personal fulfilment. I don't think we should make girls feel inferior because they have genuinely chosen to essays for children on animals enter a non-science field. Meaning Of An On Man? But I guess the point is essays on animals that girls should not feel locked out of any profession, and essays doris lessing, they should not take advantage of every strength they have and every opportunity life offers them. On Animals? Otherwise they are going to end up being dependent on some guy because they don't have the business plan skills they need to look after themselves. This little text would probably not turn Catherine Ford's life around if she read it. But it would be more likely to engage her in on animals, honest debate than would a text that began How dare you tell me that I'm lazy and ignorant because I'm majoring in the humanities!
More important, it reflects a new understanding on the student's part. She has not just reached a compromise, a middle point that may not satisfy anyone. Rather, she has thought through what she and Catherine Ford might genuinely share on a subject that she has surely discussed before, but perhaps not explored in this way. The skills learned in this sort of reconstructive reading will, I hope, carry over from civil to academic discourse. As Booth long ago argued (1974), and the three types of essays, as rhetorics of science and rhetorics of academic disciplines increasingly make us aware, there is no field of knowledge in which facts emerge unencumbered by values. A history paper or even the literature review section of a laboratory report can be enhanced by a Rogerian belief that points of view come from somewhere, that the lenses other people choose to hold up to reality are worthy of honest, empathic understanding.4 One may ask, if Rogerian principles go so much beyond mere form, why is all of this Rogerian apparatus needed at all?
My answer is that, even if Rogerian rhetoric is best seen as fundamentally a matter of invention, this invention is driven by the Rogerian form. On Animals? As Richard M. Business? Coe contends (1974), to choose any form, any pattern of arrangement, is automatically to impose an essays for children, invention heuristic. On Drug Testing Workplace? If students are attempting to fill in the form of Rogerian rhetoric, they know that they must produce a statement of on animals another's beliefs that the other person can recognize as his own and can take seriously. This knowledge drives the painstaking process of imaginative reconstruction that constitutes Rogerian invention. The most important lesson that writing teachers can take away from this discussion is that learning to use Rogerian invention is not easy. It cannot be accomplished in a few classes as a coda to traditional argumentation, as one might think from textbooks who spare it only a few pages. I don't mean to suggest that an entire composition course ought to built around explicit instruction in Rogerian rhetoric from on man, beginning to end. Dialogic communication is only one kind of communication, and Rogerian rhetoric is only one kind of dialogic communication. As a form of arrangement, Rogerian rhetoric may not always be appropriate: if communicative bridges are already in for children on animals, place, it may not be necessary to build them, and in essays and disadvantages of international trade, some forms of triadic communication it may be desirable to underline only for children on animals one's own point of essays advantages of international view.
Students therefore need to for children on animals be taught a variety of rhetorical forms. However, the of an general spirit of Rogerian invention should be woven into the fabric of the course through a variety of exercises that help students learn to on animals understand others' points of meaning of an essay view. For Children? Rogerian rhetoric is not so much a strategy as a habit of mind that must be built painstakingly over a period of months--or as I argue below, over a lifetime. CRITICISMS OF ROGERIAN RHETORIC. Rogerian rhetoric has been subject to a number of essays testing in the criticisms which shed light on its strengths and weaknesses. In particular, these criticisms illustrate the importance of treating Rogerian rhetoric as part of a larger system of knowing and valuing, not as an isolated technique. One criticism of for children on animals Rogerian rhetoric is that it can be manipulative. In formal structure, it looks suspiciously like the plan often-described indirect structure in which a writer buffers unwelcome news or an unpalatable request by flattering the reader. (One student who thought he had grasped the principles of Rogerian rhetoric exclaimed triumphantly, Oh, now I get it. First you get the reader on your side, then you hit 'em with your own ideas at the end.) Sometimes this criticism has an ethical tone, as students simply feel uncomfortable engaging in manipulative practices. (In an interview with Nathaniel Teich, Rogers himself states that using his techniques to for children win an argument or change another's mind is a perversion of my thinking [Teich 1992b, 55].) Sometimes it has a more practical tone.
Students frequently protest that Rogerian rhetoric is too idealistic to be used in day-to-day life. People are too hostile, they say, have too often been burned by smooth talkers, to be moved into a more co-operative mindset by advantages and disadvantages of international trade Rogerian techniques. Both of these criticisms are opposing reactions to for children on animals the same reading of Rogerian rhetoric as instrumental. When seen purely as a techne, a specific tool that a student can pull out of her toolbox like a rhetorical torque wrench when a certain job needs doing, Rogerian rhetoric is always open to the charge that it doesn't always turn the nut, or that it turns one that should not be turned. But this view of Rogerian rhetoric results from an over- emphasis on business, arrangement. When Rogerian arrangement becomes divorced from the therapeutic roots of Roger's philosophy, it becomes little more than an updated version of the benivolentiae captatio (securing of good will) recommended in medieval and on animals, modern letter-writing practice. That structure is as inane now as it was then, and I have written elsewhere about how easily most readers see through it (Brent 1985). Aside from the ethical issues, foregrounded flattery just doesn't work very well in an age in the three, which readers have been inoculated by a lifetime of essays for children exposure to charter sales techniques that would have made Gorgias envious. However, when Rogerian techniques are taught more as a matter of invention than of arrangement, the emphasis falls more on the underlying attitude rather than the on animals form, the mutual exploration rather than the attempt to convince an opponent. The goal of essays advantages trade Rogerian rhetoric is to identify genuine grounds of shared understanding, not just as a precursor to on animals an effective argument, but as a means of engaging in effective knowledge- making.
It is a way of business activating the essays on animals Kantian imperative to pay as much attention to others' ideas as you would have them pay to yours. If the result sometimes looks manipulative to a cynical audience, this is simply the price we pay for living in an imperfect world in which we can never be sure of each other's intentions. A deeper criticism comes from feminist approaches to language. On the surface, Rogerian rhetoric might appear to advantages of international trade be an ideal instantiation of on animals feminist discourse. Studies of women's language suggest that women in conversation tend to engage in more transactional and co-operative rather than linear and competitive behavior. Through question-asking and affirming utterances, women's speaking promotes understanding (Spitzack and Carter 1987:411). Rogerian rhetoric, because it privileges co-operative construction of meaning over goal-directed persuasion, the building of relationships over the winning of an argument, seems to fit neatly into the feminist perspective. However, Phyllis Lassner (1990), Catherine Lamb (1991), and other feminist rhetoricians have reported that their students, and they themselves, have felt extremely uncomfortable with Rogerian rhetoric.
The problem, as Lamb puts it, is that Rogerian rhetoric feels feminine rather than feminist (17). Although studies of women in conversation frequently show them working harder than men at promoting understanding and maintaining relationships, the typical method of doing so, especially in gender-mixed groups, is through self-effacement (Lakoff 1975). Their tendency to business plan interrupt less than men, to ask more questions and to avoid direct confrontation, can be seen not just as a maternal desire to focus on relationships, but also as a willingness to give in, to let the conversation be directed by men. It has always been women's work to understand others, claims Lamb. Often that has been at essays for children the expense of the three types of essays understanding self (17). For men, who have been brought up to value the for children on animals individualist, goal- directed construction of self, the essays flight lessing challenge is to for children on animals connect with others. Essays On Drug Testing In The Workplace? For women, brought up to see themselves as socially constructed through their relationships with others, the essays challenge is to find ways of having a well- defined self without sacrificing that connectedness. Elizabeth Flynn's comparison of compositions by the three of essays male and female students (Composing as a Woman 1988) dramatically illustrates these differences in orientation to self and other. In their seminal study Women's Ways of Knowing (1986), Belenky, Clinchy, Goldberger and Tarule also paint a powerful picture of women whose selves are not simply connected to, but all too often extinguished by, the more dominant selves (frequently but not always male) around them. The feminist language project, then, is to essays for children on animals find ways of charting a course between combative (some might say phallocentric) rhetoric and self-effacement.
Here, the therapeutic roots of Rogerian rhetoric that are its greatest strength also pose its greatest danger. The role of the Rogerian therapist is precisely to efface the self in order to business enable the client to for children on animals use language as a tool of self-exploration. The Three Types Of Essays? Even for the therapist, this is risky. Because the essays for children client in a therapeutic relationship is by definition dysfunctional in some way, the possibility of the therapist's personality being significantly changed by the client's is essays and disadvantages not necessarily an attractive prospect. If I enter, as fully as I can, into the private world of a neurotic or psychotic individual, isn't there a risk that I might become lost in that world? (Rogers 1951, 333) The same danger confronts any student, male or female, who tries to use Rogerian exploration to enter another's world. Moreover, as Lassner points out (1990), the for children detached, unemotional tone recommended by standard Rogerian rhetoric goes against the grain of most women's preferred ways of knowing. As developed by Young, Becker and Pike under the on drug workplace influence of General Semantics (by way of for children Anatol Rapoport's studies in conflict resolution), Rogerian rhetoric insists on a non-evaluative, neutral language of pure description that modern language theory, even without reference to feminist insights, rejects as impossible (Brent 1991). This privileging of rationalist objectivity, with its concomitant assumption that emotional involvement destroys the purity of trade reason, can be seen as yet another variant on the old theme that women make poor scientists, poor speakers and poor leaders of society because they are inclined to be emotional.
Women employing Rogerian rhetoric, then, can be caught in a highly contradictory double-bind. One tenet of Rogerian rhetoric, empathy, looks too much like feminine subservience; the other, suspension of essays for children on animals judgement, looks too much like masculine detachment. To deal with the first problem, it is of an on man important to keep in mind the differences as well as the for children similarities between Rogerian rhetoric and types of essays, Rogerian therapy. Rogerian rhetoric requires that the rhetor suspend his tendency to judge temporarily, in order to make contact with other points of view. But the process does not end there; the Rogerian rhetor, unlike the Rogerian therapist, has his own point of view as well, and puts it forward in concert with the essays for children picture he has constructed of the other's view.
This delicate dance of self and other characterizes all rhetorical interchange. If Rogerian rhetoric is to take its place as a means of participating in this dance, it must be a whole rhetoric, a rhetoric in which the rhetor's views and trade, those of others collaborate in a dialectical process of meaning-making. When students use Rogerian reflection to understand other points of view, then, it is important that they use the glimpses of other selves not just to understand those other selves but also to gain a fuller understanding of for children their own beliefs and what has caused them to think differently from the others they take in. On Drug Testing In The Workplace? In classroom practice, this means that the teacher needs to direct discussion toward differences as well as similarities, and essays for children, toward understanding the roots of those differences. The students coming to business grips with their first defensive reaction to Ford's article, for instance, explored not only what might have made Ford such an outspoken advocate of essays math and science, but also their own experience of gender differences, the reasons for advantages and disadvantages trade, their varied choices of specialization, and their relationship with different forms of knowledge in their high school years. Essays For Children On Animals? As part of this process they use not only Rogerian reflection but group conversation, storytelling and freewriting--all methods of exploration that can be and have been used without a Rogerian context, but which take on new depth in a Rogerian frame. It may be that the meaning of an essay on man male students profit most from the connection with others entailed by this process, while the female students profit most by the strengthening of essays for children on animals their understanding of workplace self. I do not, however, wish to buy into the politics of separation by setting up Rogerian exercises differently for male and female students. Rather, I try to allow space for all differences in meaning-making by on animals emphasising the connections between the two parts of the charter business plan process--the exploration of self and the exploration of other. To deal with the on animals second problem, neutral language must be valued, not as a pure good in itself, but in a dialectical relationship with emotional language and the connection with self that emotion entails.
As noted above, students get a chance to try out on drug testing their first reactions to an opposing point of view, responding for instance to Ford's caricature of teenage girls with the derision that an on animals, overstated viewpoint deserves. But it is important that their first reaction not be their last, nor that it be the reaction that is committed to paper in a text aimed directly at the author of the opposing viewpoint. Business? And even when they are passing through the most overt stage of Rogerian reflection, in which hostile language is to be avoided at all costs, I do not make them feel that avoiding overt hostility means adopting a tone of total detachment. We can strive for empathy, understanding, and the completest possible construction of the essays for children on animals other, without supposing that language can ever be a fully neutral descriptor. In short, most of the essays on drug more problematic aspects of Rogerian rhetoric result from essays for children, insufficiently complex uses of the the three types of essays technique and a failure to bring it into line with views of language, gender and politics appropriate to the nineties. Neither Rogers nor Young, Becker and Pike ever pretended that their ideas were anything but a stage in the development of new paradigms of communication.
To teach Rogerian rhetoric as if Young, Becker and Pike's twenty-year-old formulation were the last word is to essays on animals ignore the promptings of doris teacherly common sense as well as the work of Bator, Teich, Coe, and many others in constantly updating the spirit of non-adversarial rhetoric. ROGERS AND THE ETHICS OF RHETORIC. Throughout this chapter, I hope that I have been clear that I believe Rogerian rhetoric is more an attitude than a technique. Essays On Animals? The specific form of day care Rogerian discourse, in which one must be able to reflect another's point of view before stating one's own, is not just a technique to get someone else to listen to you. It's a technique that helps students learn to connect with other points of view, explore them fully, and place them in essays, a dialectical relationship with their own as part of a process of mutual discovery.
I believe, in consequence, that the benefits of Rogerian rhetoric go far beyond teaching students an alternative model of argument. An important goal of charter a liberal education is to create citizens who are fully equipped to take their place in on animals, society. In the twentieth century, fully equipped obviously means more than having a certain necessary complement of skills. It should mean not only training in how to communicate, but also training in essays doris lessing, what communication is for. Once a person has fully internalized the process of inquiry into another's beliefs--not just the surface of those beliefs but the underlying experiences and essays for children on animals, values from which they spring--it will be proportionally more difficult for him to treat others as mere instruments for meaning, the fulfilment of his own desires. He will be in a better position to essays for children on animals find, as Booth puts it, grounds for confidence in essay, a multiplicity of ways of knowing (1974; see also Bator, 1992). This growth in understanding of essays for children others is frequently placed under the heading of cognitive growth by developmental researchers such as William Perry. This name is certainly not inappropriate, for fishing charter, the ability to think through one's own position relative to those of essays on animals others, and to find grounds for at least provisional confidence in an intellectual position, is certainly a cognitive act. But it is also an ethical act.
Cognition is concerned with understanding and ethics is concerned with valuing, but the on drug testing in the workplace one presupposes the other. We do not have to value positively all those whom we understand-- we may understand a Nazi prison guard, as Bruno Bettelheim does in one of Young, Becker and Pike's examples, without adopting his views. But we certainly cannot make informed ethical choices without being able to essays for children on animals explore other points of view. Rogerian rhetoric therefore presupposes a different relationship between ethics and fishing charter business plan, rhetoric than does classical rhetoric. Quintilian for instance insists on virtue as a precondition to good rhetoric: rhetoric is a good man speaking well. On Animals? If virtue includes being able to in the workplace achieve understanding of other people, not only those with whom we must argue directly but also those countless others, alive and long dead, who contribute to the rhetorical building of our selves, then Rogerian rhetoric reverses the equation. Rogerian training in speaking well helps to create a good person by essays contributing to essays advantages of international ethical as well as cognitive growth. Good rhetoric is on animals a precondition to virtue.
This is a heavy burden, and of course Rogerian rhetoric cannot be expected to carry it alone. The world will not become populated by the three types caring and mutually supportive citizens simply because students are taught one particular means (even if it is, as I believe, a particularly powerful means) of exploring others' points of view. But we could certainly do worse than to take up Rogers' challenge to for children on animals take this small scale answer, investigate it further, refine it, develop it and apply it to the tragic and well-nigh fatal failures of communication that threaten the very existence of our modern world (1951:337). CODA: BEYOND ROGERIAN RHETORIC. Young, Becker and Pike end their book with a section called simply Beyond Analysis.
With almost no comment they reproduce A. M. Rosenthal's haunting piece There Is No News from Auschwitz, a text that presents so powerfully one nightmarish consequence of the differences that separate men that contemplation seems more appropriate than analysis (370). It is an eloquent testimony to the need to develop and teach any textual practices, however imperfect and in need of of an on man continued development, that we can find which might help our students bridge such tragic differences. I would like to end, with equally little comment, with an incident that suggests a more optimistic counterpart to on animals Rosenthal's dark vision: a renewed faith in the healing power of language. I had paired several sets of students for the three types, an oral Rogerian discussion as described above. One pair decided to discuss drunk driving. They are not exactly on opposing sides--who would be for drunk driving?--but they had very different views of the problem and its consequences. Was that all right? I told them that it was; in reality, differences of opinion seldom divide along neat bipolar lines of essays for children cleavage that allow pat yes/no sides. Lisa went first. Her initial statement of the three position was much fuller than usual.
In somewhat abbreviated form, it went like this: The year I was born, my grandmother was killed by a drunk driver. She was the stabilizing force in my grandpa's life, so when he died he became a bitter and miserable man. The only time I've ever spent with my grandpa is when he lived with our family after he was seriously injured in another drinking and driving incident. This time he was the drunk.
This accident left him crippled and even more miserable. I see my grandpa once a year. Essays? He is usually in his wheelchair complaining. All I think is, You did this to yourself. But then I think, if my grandma hadn't been killed maybe he would be different. The driver that killed her robbed me. I have seen pictures of her; the one that stands out in my memory is her giggling in my Dad's purple dunebuggy. She was wearing a short skirt, had a beehive and was 50 years old. I never got to meet her. My family does not dwell on meaning of an, what happened so many years ago.
We never talk about what happened to the other driver. But we never drink and drive. Gayleen went through the motions of reflecting back Lisa's statement, appreciating the pain and the anger contained within it. Essays On Animals? But there really wasn't much to uncover. Lisa's eloquent narrative hide little that needed to essays advantages and disadvantages be dug out by Rogerian techniques, and they reached agreement very quickly that Gayleen had got it.
Gayleen's opening statement was equally full: I also learned a very hard lesson, but from essays for children on animals, a different perspective than you, Lisa. I too was the victim of a drunk driver, and meaning of an essay, I too lost something that day that I will never be able to regain. The difference is essays for children on animals that a member of my family was not killed by a drunk driver--a member of my family was the drunk driver. When I was nineteen years old, my fiance went to a stag one night. They all drank and then drove home. On the way home, he went through a stop sign and broadsided a car, killing a woman in the back seat.
From that day on, my life was never the same. While the court case dragged on, I was trying to plan a future. But since my fiance was charged with four counts of criminal negligence causing death, jail was a real possibility. Several people who didn't feel comfortable confronting my fiacne said terrible, hurtful things to essay on man me, as if I condoned this act he had chosen. Friends dropped us as if we had a contagious disease, including the essays on animals same guys my fiane had grown up with and partied with that night, and who also drank and essays lessing, drove themselves home. I also grieved for the family of the woman who was killed, a woman about my mother's age--I kept thinking that it could have been her. My fiance was never able to talk about his feelings about that night. Though we got married and were together for twenty years, it set a pattern for him of avoiding difficult situations and on animals, emotions. He continued to drink and drive--perhaps ten times in twenty years, but it was ten times too many, and it was the one thing we argued about until our marriage fell apart. I always wanted to on man tell the for children woman's family how truly sorry I was for essays advantages and disadvantages of international, their loss. I thought of her every day for many years, so that now the incident is a part of the fabric of for children on animals my being.
I don't drink and drive, yet I feel the same shame as if I had been behind the wheel that day. What more could be said? What could be reflected back? Lisa repeated back the pain that Gayleen had expressed, but there was little need; Gayleen had said what needed to be said without benefit of quasi-Rogerian questioning. And as for advantages of international trade, working through propositions to isolate areas of mutual validity-- well, as you might imagine, we never got that far.
At the end of their Rogerian discussion, they shared the background of their topic. Twenty years apart in age, they were not acquainted except through class discussions on rhetoric. Gayleen had recognized Lisa's name at the beginning of term, but they had not discussed the for children on animals incident until they were paired by random number draw. It was at that time that they decided to try discussing their beliefs on plan, drunk driving, because they shared far more than a general interest in the subject. The accidents they had discussed were actually the same accident.
Gayleen's fiance had killed Lisa's grandmother. The class was left speechless by the courage they displayed in talking about essays for children, this incident in testing workplace, front of people who until two months ago had been total strangers. They also had the essays for children on animals courage to revisit the long-standing grief and anger with each other and with their families. Lisa, who had never really talked with her parents about the incident and what it had meant to her family, talked now, and gave a copy of Gayleen's speaking notes to of an essay on man her father. A renewed process of healing through language was begun. Rogerian rhetoric is lauded for its power to build bridges. But in essays, this instance, the elaborate scaffolding of Rogerian rhetoric was unnecessary because Gayleen and Lisa, through the most impossible of chances, had already found the opportunity to work through their long-separated feelings in both private and public rhetoric.
The bridges were already in place when they stood to speak. There is no news from Auschwitz, but there is news from Communications Studies 461. One news item is the three of essays that Rogerian rhetoric is essays on animals not always necessary if the conversants have the will to communicate. But the day care plan more important news is that the power of rhetoric, Rogerian or not, to heal is as powerful as its ability to persuade. Essays For Children? It has a power that is beyond analysis. 1. Plan? It is instructive to watch Rogers in essays on animals, action in films such as Three Approaches to Psycholtherapy II - Dr. Rogers.
I do not necessarily suggest showing these films to a composition class, as they set up such a powerful image of Rogers' methods as therapy that it may be difficult for trade, students to make the transition to essays on animals written rhetoric. However, they are well worth the time of any teacher who wants to use Rogerian rhetoric. 2. For a more thorough critical analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of Young, Becker and Pike's entire project, as well as a more complete discussion of the criticisms that have been levelled at Rogerian Rhetoric over the years, see my article Young, Becker and Pike's 'Rogerian' Rhetoric: A Twenty-Year Reassessment, College English, 53:452-66. 3. Nathaniel Teich recommends exactly the opposite. Because controversial arguments tend to produce intractable position, Teich suggest avoiding them and concentrating on less emotionally taxing ones (Rogerian Problem-Solving 57-58). I take his point, but because emotional situations are precisely the ones in which Rogerian rhetoric is most necessary, I tend to damn the business plan torpedoes and essays for children on animals, let students argue about gun control, nuclear disarmament and such.
Perhaps the main criterion for choosing between these paths is how long the course is--that is, how much time the instructor is able to day care spend on essays on animals, damage control. 4. In Reading as Rhetorical Invention (Urbana: NCTE 1992), I extend this argument to claim that all research, even into the most apparently factual information, is strongest when it consists of this sort of imaginative reconstruction of the doris lessing person behind the text. That we can never do so perfectly--that all reading is fundamentally indeterminate-- ought not to dissuade us from teaching our students to come as close as they can. Bator, P. 1980. Aristotelian and Rogerian rhetoric. College Composition and essays for children, Communication. 31:427-32. Bator, P. Types? 1992. Rogers and the teaching of rhetoric and composition.
In Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for Oral and essays for children on animals, Written Communication, ed. Meaning Essay? Nathaniel Teich, 83-100. Northwood, N.J.: Ablex. Brent, D. 1985. Indirect structure and essays, reader response. Journal of the American Business Communication Association. 22: 5-8. Brent, D. 1991. Young, Becker and Pike's 'Rogerian' rhetoric: A twenty-year reassessment, College English. 53:452-66.
Coe, R. M. 1974. An apology for form, or, who took the form out of the process? College English. 49:13-28. Coe, R. M. 1990. Day Care Business? Process, Form, and for children, Substance: A Rhetoric for Advanced Writers. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall. Coe, R. M. 1992. Classical and Rogerian persuasion: An archaeological/ecological explication. In Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for Oral and Written Communication, ed.
Nathaniel Teich, 83-100. Northwood, N.J.: Ablex. Ede, L. 1984. Is Rogerian rhetoric really Rogerian? Rhetoric Review 3 (1984):40-48. Flower, L. 1993. Problem-Solving Strategies for Writers. 4th ed. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Flynn, E. 1988.
Composing as a woman. College Composition and Communication 39:423-35. Hairston, M. 1976. Carl Rogers' alternative to traditional rhetoric. Advantages? College Composition and Communication. 27:373-77. Lakoff, R. 1975. Language and Women's Place. New York: Harper and on animals, Row. Lamb, C. E. 1991. Beyond argument in feminist composition.
College Composition and Communication. 42:11-24. Lunsford, A. A. 1979. Aristotelian vs. Rogerian argument: A reassessment. Essays And Disadvantages? College Composition and Communication. 30:146-51. Lunsford, A. For Children On Animals? A., and L. S. Ede. 1984.
On distinctions between classical and modern rhetoric. In Essays of Classical and of essays, Modern Discourse, ed. Robert J. Connors, Lisa S. Ede and Andrea A. Lunsford, 37-49. Carbondale and Edwardsville: Southern Illinois University Press. Mader, D. C. Essays For Children? 1980. What are they doing to Carl Rogers?
Et Cetera. 37:314-20 kPlato. Essays In The? 1951. Gorgias, trans. W. C. Helmbold. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill. Plato. 1956. Essays On Animals? Phaedrus, trans. W. C. Helmhold and W. G. Rabinowitz. On Drug Testing Workplace? Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill.
Rogers, C. R. On Animals? 1961. This is me. Chapter 1 of essays in the On Becoming a Person. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Rogers, C. Essays For Children? R. 1951. Communication: Its Blocking and its Facilitation.
Rpt. in On Becoming a Person, C. R. Rogers, 1961, 329-337, Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Rogers, C. R. 1965. Client-Centered Therapy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Rogers, C. Essays Advantages? R., and D. Ryback. 1984. One alternative to planetary suicide.
The Consulting Psychologist. Essays For Children On Animals? 12(2):3-12. Rpt. in charter plan, Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for Oral and Written Communication, ed. For Children On Animals? Nathaniel Teich, 35-54. Day Care? Northwood, NJ: Ablex, 1992. Spitzack, C., and K. Carter. 1987.
Women in essays, communication studies: A typology for revision. Quarterly Journal of essays flight doris lessing Speech. 73:401-23. Teich, N., editor. 1992a. Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for essays for children on animals, Oral and Written Communication. Northwood, N.J.: Ablex. Teich, N. 1992b.
Conversation with Carl Rogers. In Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for Oral and Written Communication, ed. N. On Drug Testing Workplace? Teich, 55-64. Northwood, N.J.: Ablex. Young, R. E., A. L. Becker and K. Essays For Children? L. Pike.
1970. Rhetoric: Discovery and Change. Meaning Of An? New York: Harcourt. Science Courses Key to Future Jobs Catherine Ford, Calgary Herald. Okay out essays there - all you teenage girls - listen up and don't turn the flight doris page. This is on animals specifically for you. You won't believe your parents, you won't pay any attention to your teachers and counsellors, so I'II try. (But I won't hold my breath, you guys seem to have melted your brains with stereo headphones.)
The world is passing you by, while you're all out day care plan there spray-painting your hair purple and reading People magazine. About 10 or 15 years from now, you are going to be working at some menial, low-paying, miserable job and wondering what happened. Allow me to tell you what is happening while it's happening and maybe you can do something about it. There's a whole great world out essays on animals here waiting for you, if you have enough sense to prepare for it. Stop taking bubblegum courses and testing in the workplace, crowd into the nearest mathematics, physics, and chemistry classes and don't get left behind. On Animals? Because you are being left behind even as you think that math and plan, physics are too tough for you to essays on animals take, and what difference will it make anyway? It could make all the difference in the world to charter your future. Essays For Children On Animals? Yes, you may well be married at 18. You may well meet Mr. Fishing Business? Right and have babies and a three-bedroom bungalow in some suburb and on animals, cook gourmet meals. But please, for once in your life, listen: you will also work.
If the character whose arm you are plastered to after school tries to tell you differently, he's wrong. He may say he will love and support you and let you stay at home and the three types, bring up babies, but the cold hard statistics call him a liar. These days, having a career is not a choice, it's a necessity. You will work for on animals, about 30 years of your life and if you think that school is boring, you ain't seen nothing yet. When you graduate from high school, these are the facts you will face. Over 80 per cent of women spend up to 30 years in the work force. On average, women earn 40 per cent less than men.
Half of Canada's families with two wage earners bring home less than $15,000 a year. Most women work in clerical, secretarial or unskilled jobs. The world so far is handing you a life of expectations which will be unrealized. We are in the midst of a technological revolution, and the science courses which are the foundation for jobs in that revolution are overwhelmingly populated with your boyfriends. Why? Because you think that science and math are too difficult. Meaning On Man? You have been conned into thinking that. There is essays no difference between the brains of meaning of an essay men and women.
You think they're difficult because a society which tries to keep you in your place has led you to believe that. You think that science and math are unfeminine. That is unadulterated nonsense. Essays On Animals? If you buy the of an essay unfeminine label you are condemning yourself to that ghetto reserved for women who still believe it's cute to be stupid. There is only one thing less attractive than stupidity, and that's being stuck in a boring job --or being unemployed, on welfare and seeking job retraining when you're 30. Within a few years, many of the traditional jobs for essays, uneducated women will not exist, as the computer takes over. By dropping science and mathematics, girls eliminate at least half of their job opportunities for the future, and if that isn't frightening, consider the economic implications. Money is power, therefore women who earn the big bucks have more clout than women who don't. As Senator Bud Olson said last weekend at plan a conference on Women, The Law and for children on animals, The Economy: Opportunities and freedoms flow from economic independence.
Almost in fishing business, the same breath he said that women are discouraged from entering science and math courses, yet those fields provide one of the for children on animals fastest ways to economic independence for women. It seems unfair to have to make lifetime decisions when you're only 14 years old and the most important thing is to have a date for the Grade 9 dance. But it's even more unfair to condemn yourself to types of essays always being treated as a 14-year-old, which is about the for children level of treatment that uneducated, un- skilled workers are afforded.
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The Great Homework Debate: What’s Getting Lost in the Hype. Homework – is it an on animals, unnecessary evil or a sound and valuable pedagogical practice? The media coverage of the debate often zeroes in on meaning essay on man these two seemingly polar opposite views, even though they may not be all that far apart. Essays. Homework can be good until – well, until it isn’t. Assign too much or the wrong kind (or both) and the law of diminishing returns kicks in, says Dr. Harris Cooper, professor of psychology and neuroscience at Duke University, r esulting in undue stress for types, students, aggravation for parents and no academic pay-off. But as Cooper, author of “The Battle Over Homework: Common Ground for essays for children on animals, Administrators, Teachers, and Parents,” recently told NEA Today, homework levels and flight parental attitudes haven’t really changed dramatically over the years. Cooper also concludes – perhaps a shock of those who are convinced that very little in our classrooms is working as it should – “the vast majority of for children, educators have got it right.” There’s a lot of essays trade, focus on essays on animals homework now, but has it been scrutinized so heavily in essays the past? Harris Cooper: Throughout the 20th century, the public battle over for children, homework was quite cyclical.
You can go back to World War I or a little after, when it was considered important for kids to exercise their brain like a muscle and that homework was a way to do that. During the flight 1930s, opinions changed. In the 1950s, people were worried about falling behind the communists, so more homework was needed as a way to essays for children speed up our education and essays doris lessing technology. During the 1960s, homework fell out of favor because many though it inflicted too much stress on kids. In the 1970s and for children 1980s, we needed more homework to keep up with the Japanese economically. More recently, as everything about education and teachers is being scrutinized, homework has come into question again. What’s interesting is that the actual percentage of people who support or oppose homework has changed very little over types, the years. And the essays for children actual amount of fishing charter, homework kids are doing has changed very little over the last 65 years.
But haven’t we seen an uptick in the amount of homework assigned to elementary students? HC: There is a little bit of an essays for children, uptick in lower grades. But when you look at flight doris lessing, the actual numbers, we’re talking about the essays difference between an average of 20 minutes and 30 minutes. So you’ll find some people who say the amount of homework being given to 2 nd graders, for example, has increased 50 percent. But If you look at the actual numbers, it’s ten more minutes per flight doris, night. And probably a driving force behind that is obviously end-of-grade testing and accountability issues. Perhaps more legitimately is the importance of early reading. As they say, in third grade you learn to essays for children on animals read, and in fourth grade you read to learn. So this has led to more reading assignments.
While most high school students are still doing approximately the essays trade same amount of homework on average, there’s a great deal of variation. That’s due to choices some kids make about how rigorous an academic program to take and the increased competition over college admissions. So there are a lot of kids out there taking four or five advanced placement and honors classes now, which might not have been the case a while back. According to the MetLife Foundation national homework survey, 3 out of 5 parents said their kids are getting just the right amount of homework. One said too much and one said too little. That survey is a few years old now but I doubt that’s changed. You’ve concluded that homework generally can improve student achievement. At what grade levels do we usually see this effect?
HC: There’s very little correlation between homework and achievement in the early grades. As kids get older, the for children correlation gets stronger. But there are experimental studies even at the earliest grades that look at skills such as spelling, math facts, etc. where kids are randomly assigned to essays and disadvantages of international trade do homework and not do homework. They show that kids who did the essays homework performed better. But we’re really talking about correlation here, so we have to be a little careful. It’s also worth noting that these correlations with older students are likely caused, not only by homework helping achievement, but also by kids who have higher achievement levels doing more homework. But at a particular point more homework is not a good thing. You’ve heard of the “10-Minute Rule,” where you multiply a child’s grade by 10 to determine how many minutes you assign per and disadvantages of international, night. This rule fits the data. For Children On Animals. So 20-minutes for a second grader is where you’d start. Essays Flight Lessing. In middle schools, it’s between 60-90 mins for 6th through 9th graders, about two hours later in essays on animals high school.
When you assign more than these levels, the law of diminishing returns or even negative effects – stress especially – begin to appear. Have school districts coalesced around the 10-minute rule? HC: From my experience, I have never seen a school district that recommends anything that isn’t consistent with the 10-minute rule. They won’t use the term “10-minute rule” usually, but they’ll say, primary school grades will be assigned up to 30 mins., grades 4-6 up to an hour, things like that. But If you translate the policy to the 10-minute rule, it’ll be very similar. Nobody has a policy that says you can expect your second-graders to the three of essays bring home two hours of homework.
The only essays for children on animals, place you’ll see a warning about it is in high school: you can expect half an essays flight, hour a night per essays for children, academic subject. Advantages And Disadvantages. Again, if the kid is taking AP, expect more. What don’t we know about homework? Where are the for children on animals gaps in fishing charter business the research? HC: We need to know more about the the differing impacts by subject matter. Regarding the 10-minute rule, one question I am frequently asked is, “Does that include reading?” Generally, the answer would be yes, but if we’re interested in essays for children kids’ stress level, for example, they are more likely to burn out quicker doing math worksheets and essay on man studying vocabulary than if they were doing high-interest reading. So we really need more work on subject matter, on homework quality, on the level of inquisitiveness that it engenders and the way it motivates. Also we need to know more about the use of the Internet, especially as it relates to for children potential disparities between rich and poor and the ability to testing research at home.
Should Schools Be Done With Homework? No, Parental Involvement is on animals, Not ‘Overrated. The Reading Rush: What Educators Say About Kindergarten Reading Expectations. Are Letter Grades Failing Our Students? HC: Parental involvement is more important in meaning on man the earlier grades and teachers should try to make sure that parents have the skills to teach the material so to avoid any instructional confusion. For Children. Educators should also remind parents to not place great pressure on charter their child and to model behaviors, especially with young children. For example, when the child is doing math homework, a parent could balance the checkbook to demonstrate how the skill can be used in adult life, or they can they read their own book while their child is reading.
Homework also keeps parents aware of what their child is learning. I’ve had some very emotional parents come to essays for children me about having been told by essays advantages of international trade, teachers that their child is struggling, that there might be a learning disability. The parents don’t necessarily see it until they see their child work on homework. If homework is going to essays have its intended affects, teachers should ask parents to essays and disadvantages trade take part less often as kids get older. If support from parents is withdrawn slowly, it can promote autonomous learning – teaching kids that they can learn on their own and they can learn anywhere. Do you think overall the current debate or controversy over homework has been helpful and what, if anything, should educators take from it? HC: Well, I recognize that the debate will always be there, but I generally choose to ignore it, or at least the people who, as the old saying goes, use science the essays for children on animals same way a drunkard uses a lamp post – more for support than for flight doris lessing, illumination. Homework is probably the for children most complicated pedagogical strategy teachers use because it’s open to variations due to child individual differences and business the home context.
But the vast majority of educators have got it right. They’re not going to satisfy everyone, because kids take homework home to essays on animals different environments and to parents with different expectations. But, like I said before, three in five parents are satisfied and there’s one in essay on man each direction – too much homework or too little. That probably means teachers are doing their job properly. Photo: Associated Press. I assign homework every night but I do not in any way include it in the student’s grade for many of the reasons listed above. Why would I include in a student’s grade something that they could have gotten major help with from a parent or a tutor, for for children on animals, instance. I do “spot check” to see if they have done the work and enter this into our online grading system under a “0%” heading just so parents can have an idea if their students are doing the homework. I do the same thing. I assure parents that homework is not something parents need to help with.
Especially since I assume parents don’t know how do it themselves. I am the essays flight lessing teacher for for children on animals, a reason. It is a scaffolding indicator of “do the kids know how to do it by themselves?” If kids are not doing well on advantages of international the homework, then it’s intervention time. I teach 6th grade math at a high title 1 school. Essays For Children. I give 10-15 problems a few days a week at most and at the same difficulty as what was done in class. I ask them to essay on man ATTEMPT the homework and essays for children on animals not stress if they don’t understand.
They just need to essays flight lessing see me the next day and I’ll reteach and provide assistance. Exactly. For my ESL classes, I’ve found that homework is a way to generate discussion questions in for children class! They take the homework home, and do the easy parts on day care their own. When they hit a confusing question they stop, and come to for children on animals class the of an essay next day ready to complain about how confusing it was and we can pick up immediately the next day where the students need help.
I’d rather them give up when it got hard and essays come ask me the next day, than to beat their head against the wall or copy from someone else. Yikes- “give up when it gets hard”. How about a growth mindset- accept that it might be challenging and see if they can work through it. Stop after 30 minutes of doris, actual work. Then, seek help. What kind of adults do we foster who “give up when it gets hard”! I’m more concerned that someone is teaching English who doesn’t know when to use “they” instead of “them.” The sentence should read: “I’d rather they give up…” One way to on animals be sure is to the three recognize its connection to for children on animals “come ask me” later in the sentence.
One wouldn’t say: “I’d rather them come ask me…” This is types, why sentence diagramming is such an essays for children, effective method for types of essays, teaching sentence construction. One learns to view the essays separate parts of a sentence and their connection to other parts of the on man sentence. With the “come ask me” part, one needs to ask “who” should come ask you. In so doing, one sees its connection to “them,” which reveals why it has to be “they,” because “them” cannot be used with a verb. We’d never say “them give us a present every year” nor “them come every week.” So, Mr.
ESL instructor, I hope this helps you teach your students the essays on animals difference between the trade two types of pronouns. I’d be concerned about essays, someone who doesn’t know an on drug testing workplace, honest mistake when they see one. I know very well the difference, but thank you for schooling me anyway. I typed that on my phone and as you know, autocorrect does strange things to essays for children text. I don’t typically spend significant amounts of time editing internet comments on my phone. I’m afraid I’m a little behind the times and don’t have and the three of essays have never used the newer phones, so, unfortunately, I never considered a simple technological glitch. I apologize for my obvious ignorance. Now that I’m older, I got to thinking that what I know doesn’t do anyone any good if it stays locked in my head, so why not pass it along, especially since I see so many errors online, even in articles writers are paid to write, though I can’t explain why I wasn’t more polite about it. The main reason for the notion that I should pass on what I know is that I attribute these errors to essays for children the less-than-adequate education so many millions have received for over 40 years.
I mean, it’s impossible to have an business, inadequate K-12 public education system without adverse consequences. I could be wrong, but it’s been my experience that poor writing and proofing and/or an absence of essays on animals, caring are some of those consequences. But, you raise a relevant issue: the apparent difficulties inherent in some tech devices. How does one view all the errors online with that as a factor? Does it require we ignore all errors in business plan order to essays on animals be fair…and gracious…and polite? My concern is that if people don’t care about the quality of, say, their writing, it isn’t long before they stop caring about the quality of something else they do, possibly a task at of an essay, work. It’s much easier to do less and essays care less than it is to expend the effort to produce quality. When they integrated our public schools in the 1970s, it was assumed that lower-performing students would improve now that they were attending school with a lot of essays on drug testing in the, higher-performing students. Essays On Animals. But, what actually happened is the on drug in the workplace performance of the better students dropped to a level more closely aligned with the essays for children on animals lower-performing students.
When grade schools started giving out stars and fishing charter plan awards for for children, just showing up as a way of building self-esteem, they created, instead, millions of flight lessing, graduates who believe they know more and can do better than they actually can. Schools also created in them such a sense of entitlement that they believe they’re entitled to the big bucks just for showing up, and, based on my experiences with today’s corporate, legal and medical offices, they’re doing and essays for children on animals learning the absolute minimum for those “big bucks.” If that weren’t bad enough, manufacturers decided some time ago that, if they cut corners, management could take home more money, so, where we once had products that would last years, even a lifetime, we now are stuck constantly re-buying everything because nothing lasts more than a few years. Business Plan. So, in on animals an effort to promote quality, I’ve been sending corrections to writers online whenever an email address is available…as if they’d actually appreciate that… :-). But, there’s still the dilemma as to the Comment section of types, articles. Unless you have another suggestion, I’ll try to be more selective…and gracious. Since you teach ESL, may I ask: what are the areas that cause learners the essays for children on animals most difficulty?
All the different tenses of our verbs? How about the placement of words to form a more complex sentence? If it’s the essays lessing latter (and you’re familiar with sentence diagramming), would the use of on animals, sentence diagramming make sentence construction easier for them? How difficult is ESL with your students speaking a variety of essays on drug testing, languages that I trust you don’t happen to speak…or do you? I ask because I’ve been researching several aspects of education reform, and I’m a big proponent of sentence diagramming. Thanks for the heads up as to today’s devices. I think the verb tenses aren’t that difficult for them if taught explicitly and essays on animals practiced. Of Essays. The surprising thing is that what is essays on animals, difficult varies based on a student’s L1 (original) language. Usually it ends up being with the “glue” that hold the sentence together and the crazy rules of grammar that change depending on numerous different variables. Honestly, I haven’t done full-on sentence diagramming since I was in high school (and I’m 41).
We never did it in my college English courses – and I did take a share of Linguistics courses. Most of what I know about that post high school actually comes from studying Latin. Diagramming simple sentences does help for English language learners, however seeing well composed model sentences in a variety of styles seems to help more. You can get bogged down diagramming, and essays flight students don’t seem to transfer grammar lessons to essays actual practice without the opportunity to work with authentic examples. As far as difficulty with ESL, I really don’t have an issue regardless of the language my students speak. In my High School classes this year I have speakers of Spanish (about 50%), Chinese, Hindi, Punjabi, Vietnamese, Arabic, Urdu, Burmese, Quiche, and flight doris lessing probably a few others I forgot. Essays For Children. Some of those students speak two or more languages already. Myself, I speak Intermediate Spanish, which is essays advantages and disadvantages trade, useful sometimes. Essays. I am familiar with grammar structures and language features of meaning of an on man, Chinese although I cannot speak or read it. I make it a point to essays for children study the fishing charter business plan features of my students’ languages and learn a few words at least to show them I respect their language, plus I can bridge concepts in English to on animals their own language.
I am currently finding resources on Punjabi and Arabic so I can learn features of those languages. Even if I don’t speak a student’s language, though, it isn’t much of a barrier. Most students from Asia or the Middle East arrive with a basic introduction to English. Some Central American students have zero English exposure, but I have enough Spanish to get through to them on day one. Essays On Drug Testing In The Workplace. For students who have no English, and I do not share a language with them, we use specific strategies to build a basic working vocabulary, but those are time-intensive as it requires the teacher be working one-on-one with the student. The biggest challenge, honestly, aren’t specific features of English, but their education in their native language.
A student with an excellent command of their own language will acquire English quickly. Essays For Children. A student who is illiterate, uneducated or undereducated in essays advantages and disadvantages of international trade their own language due to insufficient schooling will have significant struggles in essays for children on animals English as well. Thanks so much for testing workplace, all the information. Embarrassing, isn’t it, that most Americans can manage only one language, and many don’t even do that well, yet these immigrants are multi-lingual. I had a Dutch neighbor for essays for children, a time who spoke five languages, partly b/c the Netherlands borders so many countries. Don’t we do our own future citizens a disservice by not exposing them to a second language in elementary school, at a time when it’s easiest for of essays, them to learn it?
Waiting until HS doesn’t seem to serve much purpose. The sentence diagramming is a tool that was always used in grade school, so I’m surprised you had it an upper grade. I find that English speakers have difficulty with placing additional adjective and adverb phrases in the right place…or the best place… and with certain comma placements, which sentence diagramming seems best at for children on animals, preventing, because it trains the brain to see sentences in parts Not too long ago, I found an error in and disadvantages trade a typed 10-12-line sentence in a sales contract the first time I read it, because of that skill. The error was an essays for children on animals, absence of both the subject and day care plan verb, so it was 10-typed lines of conditions with no punch line…no answer to the ifs. The comma error that even today’s best writers (educated by on animals, our inadequate educ. system I presume) make is to leave out one particular comma that’s needed, as in:
…together, and if everyone would like, we can still attend… With the pair of commas where they are, the “and if everyone would like” becomes an testing in the, additional phrase that can be removed without changing the correctness of the main sentence, which, of course, it cannot in every case. The actual additional phrase that can be removed is the essays for children on animals “if everyone would like.” Ergo, the pair of commas separating the additional phrase from the fishing charter business main sentence have to be the one that’s missing after the a-n-d and the one already there after l-i-k-e. I’ve yet to see a writer or published author, including our best, get it right…or their respective editors. I attribute my recognition of essays, it to early instruction in sentence diagramming.
Does this reflect your memory of business, it? Trouble is, everyone seems to for children on animals groan at the mere mention of it, so the automatic response is to dismiss it as a viable and effective tool. I’d like to change the minds of those making the reform decisions. I have to comment the following. Types. I’m what the people here would probably call a high-achieving student and I don’t think I really saw homework done right until I got to college. The reason why is simple: the essays homework we get in the upper-level engineering classes is so hard that anyone with any sense does it in a group.
We will actually get together in large groups and spend multiple hours on assignments, asking each other why certain methods and reasoning it out together. On Drug. Then if we still can’t figure things out, we ask the professor or a TA, who are always willing to explain the concept to us. At the end of the process, we actually do understand the material a lot better. This sort of essays on animals, thing can’t happen in elementary and high school, where students can’t just get together after school and work, because their parents all drive them home after school. (All right, there are a lot of high schoolers who have cars, but I’m pretty sure that the majority don’t.) Get the latest NEA news and features delivered twice a week to your inbox!
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4 Steps to Writing a Job-Winning Resume. Writing your resume, or even updating your resume, can be a scary, daunting task. But with the right approach and on animals know-how, you can create your own standout document in no time. And the good news is we’re here to help. We’ve broken down the resume-writing process into 4 simple steps to make it easier for you to get started!
Our Resume Writing Guide gives you an trade overview of each section of your resume, followed by essays for children, some quick tips and actual resume examples that you can use as model for your own resume. Every great resume begins with a strong summary statement. The Three Types. This is a short description of who you are professionally that includes a brief list of your top skills. Your summary statement is the first thing that recruiters will see. So think of it as your big chance to catch someone’s attention. You also want to show hiring leaders that you’re a great fit for the job. You can do this by using the skills and keywords that are in the job description in on animals your summary statement – just make sure you only use those that reflect your experience (no exaggerating or lying on your resume!). Your statement can be written in either sentence form or bullet-point form and of an essay should be short, but effective – no more than 3 sentences or bullet points; it should also contain the following information: Your professional title Top 2-3 skills Specific expertise, professional traits, accomplishments. Need help writing your own professional summary statement? Our Resume Builder has hundreds of essays for children on animals expertly written summary statements and career-specific phrases that you can easily and quickly add to your resume. Registered nurse with 9 years of charter business plan experience in medical centers and operating rooms ICU and ER experience in 40+ bed units Strong organizational and interpersonal skills.
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Responsible cashier experienced at on animals managing front-of-store needs in meaning of an essay busy environments. Friendly and essays energetic with strong communication and organizational abilities. Plan. Seeking role of increased responsibility where strengths in service and essays for children sales will be valuable. Motivated sales professional with 8 years of fashion retail sales experience who truly enjoys helping customers find their best fit and style. Highly results-oriented and energetic, with unsurpassed customer relations skills. The skills section – often called the #8220;Qualifications#8221; or #8220;Areas of Expertise#8221; section of your resume is a list of your top skills. This section of your resume is your chance to showcase your abilities to employers in essays a quick and for children easy-to-read way. Although this section is typically short and concise (think two columns of 3 to 4 bullet points), it contains very important information about fishing plan your ability to perform a particular type of essays job. Hiring managers should be able to scan your resume and trade find this list of skills easily. Here are a few helpful tips for writing a skills section that will get you noticed.
Target your skills to the job : This is one of the best ways to customize your resume for the job you are applying to. Read the job description and essays on animals list all of the required and desired skills for the position. Then, see if you have any skills that match up with those on your list; these are the abilities you should include in your skills section. This way, when hiring managers skim your resume, they will see that you have the skills they’re looking for in a candidate. Include transferable skills : Transferable skills are skills that cross from one career field to flight lessing another. These skills can be applied to a variety of positions. Some examples include communication skills, presentation or public speaking skills, any foreign language skills you have, social media skills, organizational and planning skills, and management and leaderships skills. Essays. Use keywords : If you are applying to a job online and are asked to upload your resume or fill in of an on man an application online, chances are you are entering your information into an application tracking system.
This is a machine that companies use to scan a resume for keywords specific to on animals the job. Fishing Business. Be sure to pick out keywords from the job description and your industry and use them in your resume and application to make sure it gets past this machine. Using keywords directly from the employer will increase your chances of essays getting noticed by the hiring manager. Need help writing a skills section that gets you noticed? Our Resume Builder has hundreds of career-specific phrases that you can easily and meaning of an essay on man quickly add to your own resume. While all parts of for children your resume are equally important, your work history section is where you will be discussing your direct experience and your accomplishments, and it’s critical to get this one right.Let’s start with the basics.
Your work history section should include the following: Positions and/or titles you held Names of organizations where you were employed City and state of each organization Employment periods for each job, written as Month/Date – Month/Date Brief descriptions of your experience in bullet format. This section will be a combination of your job responsibilities and duties along with your work achievements. Essays In The Workplace. Hiring managers will be looking for your achievements and for children successes, not just your responsibilities, so it’s important to include both. When listing your responsibilities and duties, be sure to use action verbs to increase the day care plan, strength of your writing and make potential employers take notice. Essays. Some action verbs to the three of essays use include: Communicated Negotiated Joined Reported Customized Initiated Planned Budgeted Developed Prepared Contributed Ensured Provided Led. It takes practice and time to come up with your accomplishments and successes and to add numbers to them numbers such as how much money you saved the company, how you increased efficiency, or how many sales you achieved in a certain period of time. However, using two or three bullets under each job to essays describe your successes, along with metrics, will land you an the three types interview. Need help writing a work experience section that shows your value? Our Resume Builder has hundreds of career-specific phrases that you can easily and quickly add to your own resume. Bayle Industries, Hutchins Creek, MD.
July 2010 – present. Essays For Children On Animals. Prioritized and day care business plan managed multiple administrative projects while managing day-to- day tasks such as receiving and on animals distributing mail, maintaining conference rooms, managing calendars, and maintaining office supplies. Increased conference room scheduling efficiency by day care business, 25% by implementing new company-wide online booking system. Provided travel arrangement support for 25+ employees per month for offsite meetings and national conferences. For Children On Animals. Managed operations and the three types logistics for annual onsite company conference for 150 employees and on animals 200+ guest attendees. Parkview Elementary School, Summerfields, PA. September 2014 – May 2016. Assisted in essays on drug workplace a classroom of essays 25 elementary school children, ages 5-6, for two consecutive school years. Engaged children with diverse and enjoyable activities involving theatrical play, musical instruments and hands-on learning.
Offered detailed weekly reports that outlined each child’s activities and day care plan implemented new email letter system to offer reports online, saving the faculty 4 hours per week. Ft. Hood, Killeen, TX. Essays On Animals. January 2008 – August 2015. Developed and essay on man led 5 new training programs over 12 months in preparation for on animals, combat. Essays And Disadvantages Of International. Performed reconnaissance operations in compromised regions to develop combat training programs. Performed as a fire team member during situational training exercises and essays for children all infantry dismounted battle drills.
Communicated urgent orders and directions effectively to fishing charter business team of 200+ military personnel. On Animals. Your educational background can be an meaning of an essay important part of your resume and for children should communicate your background quickly and simply to potential employers. Essays Advantages Of International. Even if you don’t have previous experience in a particular job, you may increase your chances of being considered for the position if you can show that you have taken courses that are relevant to the position at hand. On Animals. Here are some tips to help make your education section work for you: List the highest level of education first. This will help catch the hiring manager’s eye and ensure that he or she is fishing business plan, able to determine your education level quickly. If you are recent graduate without a ton of work experience, then you can place your education section at the top of essays for children on animals your resume for of an, emphasis.
Include your educational information in this order: Degree or diploma name is listed first. Major(s) follow the degree. Essays. If you have minors, these are optional to list but it’s recommended to charter list them if they are relevant to the job you are applying for. List the date you received the essays, degree or diploma by the three types of essays, year (for example, 2003). If you are soon-to-be grad, you can list your expected graduation date. Employment periods for each job, written as Month/Date – Month/Date Do not include your GPA on your resume unless you are a recent graduate.
If you don’t have a degree, never fear! If you have an associate’s degree, you can list it in essays for children the same way as above. Essays Flight. It is also perfectly acceptable to list any college experience you do have, even if you didn’t graduate. In the essays, absence of a college degree, it’s extremely important to list any professional training or certificates you have received especially if they are relevant to the job you are applying for. Then, make sure to emphasize your work experience section as much as possible to show employers that you are qualified for the position, whether or not you have a degree. Need help writing an education section that shows your value?
Our Resume Builder can help you quickly and effectively outline your classroom achievements. More Articles about essays doris lessing How to Write Your First Resume. 3 Critical Mistakes to Avoid on Your First Ever Resume. Tips On Creating A Resume For A New Career. How to Write a Resume When You Have No Work Experience. Get Hired In 30 Seconds: Resume Summary Tips. Get Your Resume In Front of the Right People: Four Tips. Create a Resume That Stops Traffic. How to Write a Resume that Lands More Job Offers. Resume Tips for Job Search Newbies. Essays For Children. Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter.
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Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Presentation and Management in the Haitian American Child. A case study of a young Haitian American is presented that is essays for children, illustrative of cultural issues that influence care of those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Medications are the preferred treatment for ADHD and can be combined with psychological intervention. The Three Types! However, many Haitians and Haitian Americans see psychoactive medications as leading to substance abuse or mental illness. Efficacious psychosocial treatments include contingency management, parent training, and behavior therapy; cognitive-behavioral treatment has not been helpful.
Complementary and essays for children, alternative medicine might have appeal; primary care physicians can help families to assess such treatments and not to be enticed by expensive ones of little benefit. A determinant of the fishing charter plan treatment a family pursues is their perception of the cause of the ADHD behaviors. Essays For Children! While there is no term for ADHD in essays doris lessing, the Haitian-Creole language, in the Haitian culture the behaviors consistent with the diagnosis might be interpreted as indicating a poorly raised child whose behavior could be modified by essays on animals, parental discipline, an intentionally bad child, or a psychically victimized child suffering from an #x0201c;unnatural#x0201d; condition. #x0201c;Natural#x0201d; ailments are attributed to natural forces (e.g., wind, temperature), while #x0201c;unnatural#x0201d; ones are attributed to bad spirits or punishment by God. Families may #x0201c;lift their feet#x0201d; ( Leve pye nou : to essays advantages and disadvantages, see a Hougan or voodoo priest) to determine the essays for children on animals unnatural cause. Fishing Business Plan! Haitian Americans often combine therapeutic foods that are considered cold in nature, natural sedatives and purgatives from herbal medicine, religious treatments, and Western medicine.
Immigrants often lack support of extended families in an environment not supportive of their interpretation of child behaviors and essays on animals, traditionally accepted parental disciplinary style. Stigma, language, cultural conceptions, concerns about governmental agencies, and physician bias can all be barriers to care for day care immigrant families. Primary care and behavioral integration are useful in managing families from other cultures. More than ever in the United States, it is for children on animals, nearly impossible to the three types, find a medical practice with a patient population that does not include cultural and ethnic diversity. For Children! While this reality is broadly recognized, clinicians and patients often face challenges in communicating with one another regarding health concerns. These challenges may be due in part to flight, cultural differences in essays for children, understanding and of an on man, interpreting illness. The importance of cultural issues on mental health care was highlighted in essays on animals, 2000 in the first-ever Surgeon General's report on mental health.
1 National efforts at education in cultural competency have taken root in various ways in medical centers, practice groups, teaching institutions, and community health centers. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed chronic mental conditions of childhood. ADHD has a large genetic component to its etiology, 2, 3 and alterations in the noradrenergic and dopamine systems lead to dysfunction in higher cortical processing related to attention, alertness, and executive functions (e.g., planning, working memory, abstract reasoning, mental flexibility). 4. ADHD has been reported in all continents of the essays flight lessing world. Essays On Animals! Prevalence studies for many countries do not exist; however, studies have been conducted in China, Thailand, Israel, Turkey, Brazil, India, Puerto Rico, and Mexico. 5 Although the charter signs and symptoms of on animals, ADHD are basically the same in these diverse countries, they each represent a different ethno-socio-cultural context in which the condition is interpreted and responded to by patients, their families, caring professionals, and others. 6 Several recent studies demonstrate that in 40#x00025; to 70#x00025; of children, ADHD persists into adulthood. 7, 8. Although ADHD has been well established as a condition in children worldwide, the subtler question of how the interpretation of symptoms and behaviors varies between locales remains elusive.
Studies describing the meaning of an essay on man interpretation of for children, ADHD symptoms in essays doris lessing, different cultures are extremely limited. African American parents have been shown to be more unsure of the potential causes and treatments of ADHD and less likely to for children on animals, connect the school system to ADHD issues than white parents. Essays On Drug Testing Workplace! 9 In another school-based study, white children with ADHD were twice as likely as African American children to for children on animals, receive evaluation, diagnosis, and meaning essay on man, treatment, and the threshold of parental recognition and seeking of services contributed to this discrepancy. 10 In a third study, African American children were identified with ADHD symptoms at higher rates than white children. 11 Compared to white teachers, African American teachers rated children as presenting more ADHD symptoms.
12 A similar study compared Hispanic teachers' and non-Hispanic white teachers' assessments of hyperactive-inattentive behaviors portrayed in standardized tapes of white and Hispanic children. Hispanic teachers were more likely than white teachers to score Hispanic students above the essays for children clinical cutoffs for ADHD. Day Care Business Plan! 13 Whether such discrepancies are due to ethnic differences in essays, behavior, limitations in the cross-cultural validity of diagnostic measures, or bias in the three types of essays, raters' assessments of behavior is uncertain. More than 2 million Haitian Americans reside in the United States, and this cultural group has a presence in every state. The following case study of a young Haitian American illustrates the cultural issues that can influence the care of a person with ADHD and the difficulties that can result from culturally based disagreement or inadequate communication between medical professionals, educators, social service personnel, and essays for children, families. Mr. A is a 25-year-old man with a history of ADHD. Meaning On Man! He was an overactive child from essays for children early infancy, and his parents initially attributed his exuberant behavior to day care plan, the natural tendencies of his sex. Mr. A's parents tried their best to keep his behavior under control by corralling him in his crib, verbally disciplining him, and occasionally spanking him. From when Mr.
A was 3 years of age, his parents became increasingly aware of his hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inability to follow directions. Throughout his pre-school years, he was repeatedly suspended from school and was forced to move from one school to the next. In his community, he developed a reputation for being mal #x000e9;lev#x000e9; #x02014;a French term for #x0201c;badly reared,#x0201d; which in turn reflected negatively on his parents within their extended family and community. At age 5, Mr. A was diagnosed by a specialist as having ADHD.
His parents accepted counseling to help manage their son's condition, but declined the use of medication. Later, during his elementary school years, another clinical assessment confirmed the diagnosis of ADHD. This time, Mr. A's mother accepted the use of medication, but stopped it and refused to consider any other medication when side effects placed Mr. For Children On Animals! A into a #x0201c;zombie-like#x0201d; state that included sluggishness, difficulty sleeping, and loss of essays flight doris lessing, appetite. When Mr. On Animals! A's parents halted his medication, school staff registered their concern with the Department of Social Services by filing a child neglect report. Mr. A's parents were evaluated for social services; however, these services included no interpreter, nor economic or social support. His parents were placed on the defensive all the time and began to feel threatened, stating that #x0201c;the focus was no longer on on drug testing in the, #x0005b;Mr. A's#x0005d; condition, but on our parental abilities.#x0201d; As a result, to attend to Mr.
A and coordinate his care, his mother stopped working outside the for children on animals home. Unable to navigate the different agencies that had become involved with their family, and believing a more disciplinary and essays and disadvantages of international, controlled environment might help, Mr. A's parents first sent him to Haiti to live with grandparents and 1 year later sent him to a Haitian boarding school. Essays On Animals! Neither environment had an essays flight effect on essays on animals, his behavior. Day Care! Two years later, when he returned to live with his parents in the United States, his father built his own life around a tight schedule to tutor, mentor, and supervise Mr. A's school activities. Mr.
A eventually graduated from high school, but was unfocused and performed poorly in the classroom. After graduation, Mr. A participated in several training programs but has yet to complete one. He continues to be hyperactive and unfocused. At work, he is for children, known as a #x0201c;good guy#x0201d; who regularly jumps to defend coworkers, a behavior that often costs him his own employment. His parents are finally convinced that medication would be beneficial, but Mr. A refuses to take medications and denies his disorder.
WHAT DIAGNOSTIC STRATEGIES ARE USEFUL IN PRIMARY CARE PRACTICE TO CONFIRM THE DIAGNOSIS OF ADHD? Table 1 lists the DSM-IV criteria for the 3 subtypes of ADHD. These are (1) predominantly inattentive (has at least 6 of day care plan, 9 inattention behaviors), (2) predominantly hyperactive-impulsive (has at least 6 of 9 hyperactive-impulsive behaviors), and (3) combined (has at least 6 of 9 for both inattention and hyperactive-impulsive behaviors). Due to their ability to function with ADHD during adolescence, children with the inattentive subtype of ADHD tend to be the easiest group to manage and are the least likely to have recurring problems; however, they often are the hardest to diagnose. Hyperactivity behaviors often start by a child's fourth birthday, peak around age 7 to on animals, 8 years, and decrease greatly by adolescence. Impulsive behaviors follow the same early course, but rather than declining in adolescence, remain a problem for life. 7, 14, 15 Impulsive behaviors in adolescence may result in problem drinking and drug use, and trade, impulsive spending in adulthood.
In contrast to hyperactivity and essays for children on animals, impulsivity, inattention often does not become evident until age 8 or 9 years, but, like impulsivity, then remains a problem for life. By DSM-IV criteria, the onset of types, symptoms must occur before the age of 7 years, persist for at least 6 months, be present in more than 1 setting (e.g., school, home, after-school program), and be excessive for the development level of the child. In addition, an individual's behaviors should affect at essays on animals least 1 aspect of life, such as the school, family, or work environment. As with Mr. Meaning Of An Essay On Man! A, ADHD commonly disrupts daily functioning and development in multiple areas. The diagnostic differential for many of the behaviors found in ADHD includes emotional and behavioral problems (e.g., depression, anxiety disorders including obsessive-compulsive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder, conduct disorder) developmental problems (e.g., learning disabilities, mental retardation, conditions such as fragile X syndrome), and medical conditions (e.g., sensory deficits, seizures, fetal alcohol syndrome, thyroid disorders). For recent immigrants, these conditions may present at an age beyond that commonly encountered by American clinicians. Essays For Children On Animals! Environmental concerns and experiences can also lead to lessing, behaviors mimicking ADHD and can be particularly difficult to define in recent immigrants. 16, 17 These include culturally different parenting approaches, parental psychopathology, stressful home environment, lack of experience with the American school environment, inadequate language skills, and for children, child abuse or neglect.
18 A substantial number of individuals with ADHD will also have comorbid psychiatric conditions (e.g., depression, oppositional defiant disorder, learning disabilities). A variety of rating scales are available and helpful in evaluating children (see http://nichq.org); however, most of these have been validated in charter, referral populations rather than primary care settings and may not be generalizable to immigrant populations. Essays On Animals! These scales include ones for use by the three types, clinicians, parents, and teachers. Also, collecting information from other settings (e.g., summer programs, after-school programs) may provide additional helpful insight, particularly if the rater is from a background similar to the patient, but not a family member. For older patients who do not recall enough about their childhood, clinicians should have them speak to relatives to gather their childhood histories. For Children! For example, clues to onset before age 7 years might include being held back or suspended in early school years, old report cards indicating behavior problems, or stories of being difficult to control. Scales for adults (e.g., the Wender Utah Rating Scale, 19 also available in French 20 ; the Copeland Symptom Checklist for Attention Deficit Disorders 21 ; the charter business plan Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale 22 ) can be useful, but yield large numbers of false positives and cannot be relied on for diagnosis without supportive evidence from clinical assessment.
23. Treatment approaches to ADHD include an array of psychotropic medications, behavioral and psychological treatments, and essays, complementary and alternative medicine approaches. Medications are generally the preferred treatment modality and can be combined with behavioral or psychological interventions, especially in children with behavioral problems or comorbid psychiatric conditions. Stimulant medications and psychosocial treatment have been the major foci of doris lessing, clinical research; however, the duration of most randomized trials has been 3 months or less, and thus the literature on long-term treatment is sparse. In general, studies suggest that stimulants and for children on animals, psychosocial treatments are efficacious. 24, 25 They also indicate that treatment with stimulants is superior to psychosocial treatment. 26. Short-term trials of stimulants support their efficacy, with response rates in the 70#x00025;-to-90#x00025; range. 27 Methyl-phenidate and dextroamphetamine are the most studied stimulants.
While there are longer-acting stimulants, these do not appear to provide any improvement in efficacy. Of An Essay On Man! Studies have found that stimulants improve the essays for children defining symptoms of ADHD and associated aggression. However, there are not consistent findings that improvement in symptoms leads to improvement in academic achievement or social skills. 28, 29. Aside from studies suggesting the efficacy of using stimulants, there are also studies of antidepressants showing that tricyclic antidepressants (e.g., imipramine, desipramine, nortriptyline) produce improvements over placebo. 30 The primary concern regarding their use is the risk of cardiac side effects, especially in business, overdose. Essays For Children! Atomoxetine also has proven efficacy for in the workplace ADHD 31, 32 ; it is the only medication approved by the U.S. Food and essays for children, Drug Administration for use in adult ADHD, is not a controlled medication, and might be particularly useful when possible comorbid substance abuse is essays advantages and disadvantages of international, a concern. 33 However, it does have a new black-box warning regarding the potential for severe liver injury, based on essays for children on animals, 2 reports (1 of a teenager and 1 of an essays flight doris lessing adult). Psychosocial treatments of ADHD with demonstrated efficacy include behavioral strategies such as contingency management (e.g., point/token reward systems, timeout, response cost) that is conducted in the classroom, parent training (parent is essays for children, taught child management skills), and clinical behavior therapy (parent, teacher, or both are taught to use contingency management procedures). 34 In contrast, cognitive-behavioral treatment (e.g., self-monitoring, self-instruction, problem-solving strategies, self-reinforcement) has not been found to day care, be helpful in children with ADHD.
35, 36. Complementary and alternative medicine strategies are very commonly used and might have particular appeal to families from essays other cultures. 37 Such therapies include special diets and supplements, megavitamins, applied kinesiology, and biofeedback; however, their benefits have not been demonstrated in day care plan, clinical trials. 38 Diet, including reducing sugar, affects behavior in less than 1#x00025; of children. 39 One role in which the primary care physician can be helpful is to help families assess alternative treatments and not be enticed by expensive treatments of little benefit.
The treatment of ADHD should be viewed as involving 3 stages of therapy: initiation and titration, maintenance, and essays on animals, termination. 40 During the initial phase of treatment, patients and families should be educated regarding ADHD ( Table 2 for examples of parental activities that may be helpful), therapeutic goals should be established with the the three types patient and family, and treatment should be initiated. If medications available in short- and long-acting forms are selected, initial titration can best be accomplished using short-acting forms, observing for response and side effects. This can be followed by switching to longer-acting forms if desired. Starting and adjusting medications on essays, a weekend provides opportunity for essays advantages of international parents to observe effects and side effects directly. During the essays for children maintenance phase, ongoing family education, dosage adjustment, and monitoring of growth, efficacy, and essays on drug, side effects are appropriate. The duration and approach to termination should be individualized, with regular discussions with patients and on animals, families to support adherence to treatment rather than unsupervised treatment termination. Stimulant medications and atomoxetine may be stopped at once, while other medications (e.g., tricyclic antidepressants) may need to the three types of essays, be tapered. For Children! Trials off therapy, for instance during school holidays, may help determine if medications are still beneficial.
In summary, although there are a range of meaning, treatment modalities that have been tried in the treatment of ADHD in essays on animals, children, the management approach that has proved most effective includes stimulants and psychosocial treatments focused on behavioral strategies. Of note, in one large study funded by the National Institute of Mental Health, there was no difference in response to treatment between ethnic groups (Latino, African American, and white). 41. ADHD AND ITS CARE FROM A HAITIAN PERSPECTIVE. While there is of an essay on man, no corresponding term for ADHD in the Haitian-Creole language, in the Haitian culture the behaviors consistent with the diagnosis of essays for children, ADHD might be interpreted as indicating the following: Among Haitians, the charter business interpretation of ADHD-related behaviors varies widely from family to family depending on religious affiliations, level of education, and experience with school and primary care systems. Stigma, language, cultural conceptions, concerns about governmental agencies, and physician and teacher bias can all serve as barriers to care for immigrant families ( Table 3 ). An important determinant of the treatment or other intervention strategy a family pursues is their perception of the cause of the ADHD behaviors.
Whether the cause is natural or unnatural is on animals, extremely important in the Haitian belief system. #x0201c;Natural#x0201d; ailments are often attributed to essay, natural forces (heat/cold, gas, wind, temperature), while #x0201c;unnatural#x0201d; ailments are attributed to bad spirits or punishment inflicted by essays, God. These are treated using either natural remedies or religious intervention. 42 Such belief systems can influence a family's acceptance of a physician's diagnosis of ADHD and types, their adherence to Western medical treatments. In the essays United States, as in many other countries, the diagnosis of essays of international trade, ADHD is mainly a medical one and involves pediatric and family medicine providers, social workers, and essays for children, psychologists. However, for most of the population in Haiti, a child would not be brought to essays on drug, a primary care physician for essays for children on animals care of a behavioral problem.
Doctors are generally seen only for physical illness and emergency care; access to primary care is limited and generally available only to the most affluent. ADHD manifesting as a negative behavior usually is handled by parents, extended family, and school teachers through verbal or corporal discipline. Verbal discipline includes preaching to the child, comparing the child to others, begging the child to behave, and humiliating the child. Corporal discipline and of an on man, punishment can be inflicted by any member of the family, neighbors, and schoolteachers, all of whom are given full authority to on animals, educate and #x0201c;correct#x0201d; the child. Immigration adds a complex dimension to raising children. New families find themselves devoid of the support of the the three of essays extended family, in an environment that is not supportive of essays, their interpretation of child behaviors and traditionally accepted parental disciplinary style. Like many Haitian American parents living in the United States faced with similar circumstances, Mr.
A's parents chose to send him back to Haiti with the meaning of an essay hope that a more authoritative parenting style, the enforcement of discipline in school (schoolteachers are very respected), and essays for children on animals, removal of the essays on drug interference of the American social worker would offer a better environment for rearing their child. For Children! Mr. A went to of essays, live with his grandmother first and on animals, then off to business plan, a boarding school, a setting seen by many Haitian parents as the on animals ultimate answer to a child with behavioral problems. There are many beliefs among Haitian Americans surrounding the use of medication. Many in the Haitian American community see the meaning on man use of psychoactive medications as a gateway to substance abuse or mental illness. Therefore, even parents who agree to allow their children to try them will most likely have low thresholds for terminating medication and for children, be unsupported by family members, friends, neighbors, and even religious leaders. Mr. Essays Advantages Of International! A's parents received much unsolicited advice, and some friends wanted them to #x0201c;lift their feet#x0201d; ( Leve pye nou : to for children on animals, see a Hougan or voodoo priest) who might be able to determine the essays and disadvantages of international unnatural but real cause of their son's problem. Being transnational and having access to essays, both native Haitian medicine and Western medicine, Haitian Americans routinely combine therapeutic foods that are considered cold in of an, nature, natural sedatives and purgatives from traditional herbal medicine, religious treatments, and Western medicine to for children on animals, treat illness. Examples of folk treatments for ADHD include mint tea, sweetsop (apple custard), or leaf teas (usually hot drinks); tizanne (usually cold drinks) of lettuce or other refreshing vegetables; and baths with boiled leaves ( bain de feuille ), which are often used as natural sedatives. While it may be difficult to day care business, establish trust with Haitian families initially, such trust in the doctor-patient relationship is essential in obtaining their participation in the development of essays for children, a treatment plan to which they will adhere.
Clinicians should work to disarm or to gain acceptance with parents and family members. Advantages And Disadvantages! It may be helpful to for children on animals, learn a few words of Creole or tidbits of Haitian history, to be respectful of combining benign natural remedies with conventional Western medicine, and to find ways to show respect for the family's heritage. Engaging families in supportive behavioral management approaches (see Table 2 ) can give them a sense of control and involvement that will help build adherence to other treatments recommended. Cultural sensitivity is testing in the, essential in dealing with not only Haitian patients but also patients from various cultural and ethnic backgrounds. One definition of cultural competency is #x0201c;a set of congruent attitudes, behaviors, and policies that come together in a system, agency, or amongst professionals and enables them to work effectively in cross-cultural situations.#x0201d; 43 Haitians, like most immigrant patients, need sympathetic advice and help from their physicians, as they often feel governmental agencies such as the local department of social services place a great deal of pressure on them to either medicate their children or move their children to other school systems. In direct contrast, it is also important not to for children on animals, #x0201c;overemphasize#x0201d; a patient's culture when considering a diagnosis and treatment. While many of the barriers listed above may be relevant for some patients, culture is only one factor in their understanding of their illness. Educational, social, economic, and individual factors may also hold relevance. Because the on drug workplace interface of psychiatric disorders#x02014;in this case ADHD#x02014;and culture is complex, it is a useful context for examining the integration of psychiatric and primary care. While there are a number of models of such primary care and behavioral integration, one, called #x0201c;primary mental health care,#x0201d; 44#x02013;47 is particularly useful in managing families from other cultures. The goal of this approach is to resolve problems within the primary care service context: #x0201c;primary mental health#x0201d; is designed to support the ongoing behavioral health interventions of the primary care provider.
This model of behavioral health care is consistent with the essays for children philosophy, service goals, and health care strategies of fishing business plan, primary care. Essays For Children! This approach involves making psychiatric consultative services available to primary care providers and essays flight, allows for behavioral health and primary care comanagement of patients who require more concentrated services, but nevertheless can be managed in primary care. Both consultative and condensed specialty treatment services are delivered as first-line interventions for primary care patients who have behavioral health needs. In summary, there are several options for essays on animals assisting Mr. A and essays advantages trade, his family and other Haitian children and adults with ADHD: Drug names: atomoxetine (Strattera), desipramine (Norpramin and others), dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine, Dextrostat, and others), imipramine (Tofranil and others), methylphenidate (Metadate, Ritalin, and others), nortriptyline (Pamelor, Aventyl, and others). The authors acknowledge Jean-Robert Boisrond, Coordinator of the Haitian Health Institute at essays for children Boston Medical Center, Boston, Mass., for assistance in preparation of the case and for commitment to the special needs of the Haitian people.
Cultural Currents presents clinical experience derived from the practices of clinicians caring for patients and essays, families whose cultural backgrounds are outside of the mainstream of society. At times, those very clinicians will be in the position to provide rich insights afforded by their own unique cultural backgrounds. These case reports and commentaries provide knowledge and essays, strategies helpful in the clinical encounter with patients from other cultures. This article is based on a Grand Rounds presented at the Department of Family Medicine, Boston Medical Center, Boston, Mass., on Sept. 16, 2003. The authors received no direct support related to this article.
Dr. Culpepper has been a consultant for Eli Lilly. Drs. Essays Testing In The! Prudent, Johnson, and Carroll report no financial or other relationship relevant to the subject of for children, this article.
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Essay: Comparative analysis of film industry as a mass medium in the United States and China. Film is a form of entertainment that enacts a story by sound and essays on animals, a sequence of the three types of essays images giving the illusion of continuous movement (Word Web, 2013). Film is also known as motion picture or movie. In 1891, Kinetoscope, the first movie machine is invented by Thomas Alva Edison. In 1985, Louis and Auguste Lumier demonstrated the essays on animals, camera-projector called the cinematographe in Paris, France (Croteau, 2012). The Three. Antoine Lumiere started to exhibit projected films before the paying public, beginning the essays for children on animals, general conversion of the medium to projection (Cook, 1990). Edwin S. Porter from America produced an eight minute The Great Train Robbery (1903) which launched the movies as mass entertainment.
Film industry is an important mass medium for a country and the whole world. For years, US cinema which is also called as Hollywood film has the world top box office. Essays Advantages Of International Trade. Hollywood’s box office reached $10.8bn while China took over Japan became the world second highest box office country, $2.7 in 2013 (Filmcontact, 2013). According to the report of on animals Ernst Young, they claimed that China will soon surpass the Hollywood box office by year 2020 (The Guardian, 2012). United States and China are the world two biggest powerful countries.
Their film industries mass mediums are moving forward with the doris, fastest pace in the world. This proposal is on animals, doing a comparative analysis for their film industries. Hollywood is essays testing, one of the world most recognized cinemas. The film industry history is separated into four main periods which are the silent film era, classical Hollywood cinema, New Hollywood, and the contemporary period (Bordwell, 2008). During the time of First World War (1914-1918), the for children, European powers were preoccupied with post-war reconstruction. Then, US cinema started to produce film massively and filled the shortage of meaning of an film supplies. Hollywood films constituted over 75% of the market at for children on animals that time (ohio-state.edu, undated). Since the trade, early 20th century, US film industry has been developed consistently and essays for children on animals, successfully. The United States practices constitutional republic government whereby freedom of the three expression is utilized for the growth of US film industry. Compared to China, the for children, US Constitutional Law protects the Freedom of Expression which gives a lot freedoms for their media and the people to essays on drug testing workplace express, to seek, receive and impart information and essays for children on animals, ideas of all kinds without having fear of essays workplace government punishment (iipdigital.usembassy.gov, 2013)
China’s film industry is on animals, considered as the biggest cinema among all the Chinese language cinemas such as the Cinema of Hong Kong and Cinema of Taiwan since it produced the most movies among three and of essays, ranked as world 2nd highest box office in 2013. The major language for China’s film is mandarin. Due to the political condition, China’s media outlets used to be state-owned and state-run. Essays. The communist government has a very long tight rule on them. For the film industry, State Administration of Radio, Film, and essays flight lessing, Television and the Central Publicity Department are the two main regulatory tools for restriction by the authorities Communist Party of China to control the China’s cinema operation (XiChen, 2007). The Ownerships and Controls. From the late 1920s to the mid-1940s, the essays on animals, film industry of the so-called Golden Age of Hollywood is on man, operated under the studio system. The entire film making process from production to distribution and exhibition is controlled by certain companies which were the eight studios. Then five were having integrated conglomerates which were the 20th Century Fox, Warner Bros, Paramount Pictures, RKO Radio Pictures and Leos’s Incorporated/MGM.
The Universal pictures, Columbia Pictures and United Artists were the other three that were considered as the major studios although considerably smaller theater chains. The production was then separated from distribution and essays for children on animals, exhibition when the set up was challenged in the Supreme Court under anti thrust laws in 1948 (Said, 2013). Until today, the term studio system is meaning of an, still being used. The top six which are considered as the on animals, major studios are Viacom (Paramount Picture), News Corporation (20th Century Fox), Comcast (Universal Pictures), The Walt Disney Company (Walt Disney Pictures), Time Warner (Warner Bros Picture) and Sony (Sony Pictures Entertainment. Prior to 1984, the film industry in China was monopolized by the government. Chinese Communist Party (CCP) paid for all cost such as expenditure in production and distribution, exhibition maintenance and salaries. Film Bureau that worked under the Minister of Culture attributed an annual production target to each film studio to achieve the projects accordingly. China Film Distribution and essays in the workplace, Exhibition bought products from the studios at a fixed price and passed to lower level of distributer from lower level of city, district or country. China’s film industry was ideologically influenced by the CCP’s dogma (Chu, 2002). Besides, the Film Bureau followed CCP’s guideline to form policies that had involved all process of filmmaking, from the script development, production to anesthetic values and technical competence (Chu, 2002). ‘I don’t want to make films any more.
Half of our financial investments cannot be returned. Our job is to make films, and yet our major source of income is not from films.’ (Managing director Zhang Zhaotong, Fujian Film studio, 27 December 2000) Other than the domestic cinema, foreign movies were restricted by import quota to protect domestic cinema economically and preserving national film identity for China (Jaffe, 2011) Distribution and Segmentation.
Hollywood film studios are privately owned by for children on animals 6 major corporations. Beside good story contents form different types of genres, star system remains powerful as an effective tool to attract audiences and hit the business plan, highest box office in Hollywood (Croteau, 2012).Early silent-film stars like Charlie Chaplin until the early of 2010, Tom Hanks and essays for children on animals, Morgan Freeman who are graded as the highest Q (quotient) Scores performers. They are the stars that are used to create highest popularity and profitable hits in Hollywood. During the charter, Maoist period, Chinese films were produced and for children on animals, used as tool of mass education and essays and disadvantages trade, barely prioritize the profit. After Deng Xiaoping step up as the Chairman of the for children, Central Advisory Commission of the Communist Party, the open-door policy and economic reforms brought some changes during the early of 1980s leading China film industry with a serious financial crisis causing bankruptcy of six film studios. Workplace. 1n 1992, Ministry of Radio, Film and Television (MRFT, Now SARFT) pushed the film market by using state monopoly system. For Children. Studios were encouraged to sell their products individually to fishing plan distribution agencies at province or city level. Essays For Children. After the essay, withdrawal of financial support from government, film genres increased massively (Donald, 2002). ‘if we cannot solve the problem of film being led by profit, then we will not be able to regard film’s social impacts as our first priority. The result will.
definitely be to reduce the educational function of essays for children film. Essays On Drug. (Lin, 1993) In 1990s, film distribution agencies started to be more independently. Essays For Children. In 1993, the business plan, government finally allowed the China Film Corporation to import ten revenue-sharing foreign films every year. In August 2000, one of the state-owned film distribution company (Xian Film Corporation) was transformed into shareholding companies (Donald, 2002). National regulatory structure. In US, film industry is regulated by industry self-regulation rating system rather than formal government participation (Croteau, 2012). Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA), a trade organization which established a rating system in 1968 and now there are five categories which are G, PG, PG13, R and NC-17. The rating system was designed to prevent the making or release of any film the MPAA conceived indecent such as nudity and for children, violence. It provides audiences an idea of the movie and aid with parents to decide whether a film is suitable for their children (Wheatmore, 1995). Of International. Since 1934, no movie is allowed to be distributed without acquiring certificate from MPAA.
According to entertainmentlaw.uslegal.com, MPAA was authorized to fine theatres in essays for children on animals US that screen any film without their certificate was released. MPAA also has the right to demand script change. Primarily, regulations in the US film industry revolved mainly around racial issues. Subject or stories that might cause argument or disturb of the social balance were avoided to be appeared in films. (entertainmentlaw.uslegal.com, undated) In US, freedom of speech is guaranteed by the First Amendment in the United States Constitution excluding obscenity. Supreme Court defined obscenity in order to implement censorship in the case of essays trade Roth v. On Animals. United States, 1957.
Obscenity is measured by few criteria. Trade. The dominant theme of the essays for children on animals, work must appeals to fishing plan be lustful, depicted or described sexual conduct in patently offensive way and lacked of serious literary, artistic, political or scientific value. However, the standards to on animals determine obscenity are different from state to state in essays of international trade US (entertainmentlaw.uslegal.com.undated) In China, the Ministry of essays for children Radio, Film, and Television (MRFT) regulated television under the influence of inter-governmental politic until the late 1990s then was replaced by State Administration of Radio, Film and Television. Meaning Of An Essay. The replacement has extended the television regulations and for children on animals, focus on CCP’s nation building preoccupation by essays on drug testing extending forbiddance on essays, threatening national integrity, sovereignty and honor, peace, prosperity and interest (Donald, 2012). Based on in.china-embassy.org, the State Administration of day care business Radio, Film and Television (SARFT) appoints China’s film industry with direct supervision of the State Council. Unlike US, there is essays for children, no rating system in day care plan China. For Children. SARFT censorship board determines the content and message of films (domestic and imported films) to of an ensure them are suitable for the audience of whole country (McCutchan, 2013). The board has approximately 40 members including government officials, academics, filmmakers and representatives from interest groups such as the Communist Youth League (Cieply Barnes, 2013). A foreign film’s script or a finished film has to be submitted to the censorship board to apply for quota slot. SARFT will decide whether to give quota slot.
If the film is awarded with a quota slot, SARFT will then specify any edits to for children make the meaning, film eligible for release. For Children On Animals. Then SARFT will review again the finished product to approve for the cinematic release (McCutchan, 2013). Socio-Economic Origins Functions of meaning Film. According to the A Brief History of essays for children on animals Chinese film, China film industry has developed crime stories film which often adapted from the true stories during the early 1920s. For instance, Yan Rui Sheng (1921) was a crime film that based on a famous Shanghai murder case in 1920. For the trade, late 1920s, martial art genre films had dominated the Chinese cinema due to essays for children the great popularity of the essays advantages trade, publishing of martial arts novels and comic books and a response to tighten censorship from the Kuo Ming Tang government after the 1927 purge of Chinese Communist Party in Shanghai.
Since 1950, films are used as the propaganda tool for the China Chinese Party’s one-party state (BaoYing, undated). Films are also used to cultivate nationalism among the people. Cinematic nationalism was used to spread and continue the myth of perfect national unity (Hu 2003). Essays. Today, China film is commercialized but still very particular in safeguarding national culture and values by resisting Westernization (Teo, 2009). Hollywood’s films produced during war time were emphasizing patriotism.
After World War II, the film industry changed. Film Noir was introduced as a new genre that depicted a world of threatening darkness and ambiguities such as obsession, corruption, and inevitably murder. Besides, film played an day care, important role to essays for children on animals reduce racism (Mintz, undated). Gentleman’s Agreement was one of the films in US that depicted anti-Semitism in the early 40s. During 50s and 60s, there were more US films which were combatting discrimination and helping the authorization to gain positive image (Kenji, undated). Now, US film industry has played important role in cultivating culture and providing entertainment based on consumer values. Film developed slowly from a carnival novelty to one of the most important tools of mass communication and entertainments nowadays. It creates a significant impact on the art, technology, society and the politics. China film industry is growing rapidly in the film market of the world.
But, rating system is urged to be introduced in China by the professionals. According to a survey of more than 6000 Chinese moviegoers carried by Beijing-based data firm EntGroup, although there is no film rating system in China currently, 97.4 percent of meaning of an moviegoers would support or accept one (Cunningham, 2013). Based on BBC, award-winning Chinese director Xie Fei has accused that China’s censorship is ‘killing’ art. He urged to move censorship system to a rating system that allows for a self-governed and for children on animals, self-disciplined film industry. (bbc.uk.com, 2013) ‘Our current review system is not the rule by law, but the rule by on drug in the man, something that. we wanted to end a long time ago,’
Hollywood film industry is a world leading film industry for essays on animals, now. But it has a very concentrated media ownership which is good to produce film with bigger budgets while the same time it is charter, potentially being bias since the ownership by major corporations of vast portfolios of mass media gives audience reason to believe that a whole range of ideas and images. For instance, images critical of gridlock in the federal government are frequent, images critical of capitalism as an economic system are virtually nonexistent (Croteau, 2012). Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Photography and arts essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question?
There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Essays. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Photography and arts work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Photography and on drug testing in the workplace, arts essay was submitted to us by a student in order to for children help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in fishing business plan your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: Comparative analysis of film industry as a mass medium in the United States and China . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/photography-arts/essay-comparative-analysis-of-film-industry-as-a-mass-medium-in-the-united-states-and-china/ [04-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal: 05-11-16 - New Aged Music and Memory Retention 03-11-16 - Prince (music artist) - UNUSUAL PARTNERSHIP: (DIS)ENGAGING ART EDUCATION AND HEGEMONIC PRAXIS) 28-07-16 - Does photography have an impact on our self-perception, and how does it effect society? 29-06-16 - POP-UP BOOK ON TRANSFORMED SAEED AKHTAR ART WORK (TRANSFORMED CURIO) - Designing health and safety signage 29-11-15 - Essay: Three dimensional animations 28-11-15 - Essay: Accessibility of public libraries in danger due to cutbacks?
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