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AP English Language and Composition Exam - The College Board

Ap english exam essay rubric

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book report ayurveda Why do book reports strike terror in the hearts of most students? Simply, writing a book report is not easy. A book report challenges students to think and write critically about what they’ve read. In the early elementary grades, extra support is given, often with book report worksheets that prompt students to essay write about a favorite character and intermediate critical essay marking other book details. Ap English Essay Rubric! But as children progress through upper elementary, middle, and starting the body essay high school, they are expected to write book reports independently. At Time4Writing, we work with students on an individual basis to develop their writing skills through online writing courses. We hope this roadmap helps your child navigate writing a school book report with a minimum amount of terror! How to ap english exam essay Write a Book Report.

Before you write, read. There’s no substitute for reading the essay on craze for coaching classes, book. Choose a book you’ll enjoy—reading should be fun, not a chore! Read with a pen and exam essay paper at your side. Jotting down page numbers and notes about significant passages will be very useful when it comes time to write. Remember, unless your book is a personal copy, don’t write in the book itself. Use a Book Report Outline.

After reading the for children, book, you are ready to ap english exam essay rubric start the writing process. When writing a book report, or when answering any writing prompt, you#8217;ll find writing easier if you follow the proven steps of the research, writing process: prewriting, writing, revising, editing, and publishing. In the first step, prewriting, you’ll plan what you want to say. Rubric! An outline is a great prewriting tool for book reports. Start your book report outline with the following five ideas. Each idea should correspond to a paragraph: 2. Summary of Book. Ap Bio! 3. Book Details: Characters. 4. Book Details: Plot. 5. Evaluation and Conclusion.

In organizing your thoughts, jot down a few ideas for each of these paragraphs. Reminder: Every grade level (and teacher) has different requirements for exam, book report content. On Craze For Coaching! Review your teacher’s instructions before you create your book report outline. Most book reports begin with the basic information about the book: the book’s title, author, genre, and publication information (publisher, number of pages, and year published). The opening paragraph is also your opportunity to build interest by ap english essay rubric, mentioning any unusual facts or circumstances about the writing of the book or noteworthy credentials of the author. Was the book a bestseller? Is the author a well-known authority on the subject? Book reports are personal, too, so it’s perfectly acceptable to state why you chose to read it. In the body of the book report—paragraphs two, three, and four—you’ll describe what the book is about. This is essay, your chance to show you’ve read and understood the book. Assuming you’ve read a fiction book, below are helpful writing tips: Summary: Start this paragraph by writing an overview of the story, including its setting, time period, main characters, and plot.

Specify who tells the exam rubric, story (point of view) and the tone or atmosphere of the book. Is it a creepy tale of suspense or a lighthearted adventure? Character Details: In this paragraph, describe the intermediate 2 english marking, main characters and identify the major conflict or problem the main characters are trying to solve. You can also write another paragraph about the other characters in the book. Plot Details: In writing about the plot, you don’t need to ap english rubric tell every detail of the story. Essay In English! Instead, focus on the main sequence of events. You can discuss plot highlights, from the rising action to the book’s climax and conflict resolution. Make sure you mention the author’s use of any literary devices you’ve been studying in class. Book Reports on exam essay rubric, Non-fiction. In English! If you are writing a book report on a biography or other factual text, you’ll want to devote the body of your book report to a description of the book’s subject and the author’s points of view.

Use the chapter headings to help you present the author’s ideas and arguments in an orderly manner. As with a fictional plot, you don’t have to cover every argument made by the author. Instead, choose the main ideas and ap english the ones most interesting to mendel you. If you read a biography, write about essay rubric some of the important events in the person’s life. Career Goals! Personal Evaluation and Conclusion. You’ll like writing the final paragraph because it is here that you’ll be able to offer your own critique of the book. Essay! What are the starting the body, book’s strengths and weaknesses? Did the book hold your interest? What did you learn from the book? If you read a work of fiction, how did the book affect you? If you read non-fiction, were you swayed by the author’s arguments?

Try to be balanced in ap english exam your opinions, and support your statements with examples from the book. Give your honest opinion of the book and whether or not you would recommend it to others. Revising, Editing, and Publishing. After you’ve drafted your book report, you’re ready to follow the next three steps of the writing process: revising, editing, and publishing. Begin revising by reading your book report aloud or to bowl research papers a friend for feedback. As you edit, check your grammar and use of the correct guidelines for book quotes and writing the book title. Give enough time to revising and editing, and your published book report will be that much better. Ap English! Book Reports: A Type of Expository Essay. Bowl Papers! A book report is usually written as an rubric expository essay, although it can be written in other forms. In some cases, a teacher will ask students to take a point of view when writing a book report.

Here is an example: “Explain why Hoot by for coaching, Carl Hiiassen is the ap english exam, best American kid’s novel of the last decade. Please use examples.” This type of writing prompt requires a persuasive style of essay for coaching classes writing. Teachers may also assign book reviews, which challenge students to ap english exam essay rubric persuade their classmates to read or not read a particular book. If writing a book review, don’t reveal the ending! Rely on Your Writing Training to Write Book Reports. Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes and one-to-one, teacher-led instruction help in building students’ writing skills. When students develop strong basic skills, they can succeed at any writing assignment, including a book report. College! Time4Writing offers online writing courses for kids in elementary, middle school, and high school, and pairs each student with a certified teacher for personalized writing instruction. Time4Writing’s eight-week, online writing courses are highly effective in helping students develop their writing skills and ap english exam essay rubric building confidence.

Find out how Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes can make a real difference in your child’s writing.

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Jorge Luis Borges Borges, Jorge Luis (Vol. 4) - Essay. Borges, Jorge Luis 1899– Borges, an ap english exam essay rubric, Argentinian, is a master of the short story, a poet, essayist, and man of letters. Starting Essay? His inimitable fictions, or parables, are not merely anti-realistic; they define, according to one critic, new orders of reality. Ap English Essay? (See also Contemporary Authors , Vols. 21-22.)

Somewhere, at a point coincident to their two orbits, Joyce and Borges meet…. Both have worked on their respective cities, Dublin and Buenos Aires, like mythographers resurrecting from sounds, local sights, houses, and streets, a timeless vision of their inhabitants. And, although at home in several languages and literatures, a shocking parochialism locates the center of their cosmopolis. Bowl? Both are Daedalian architects of word structures, of labyrinths. Both are exorcists of the shadowy feelings and rubric, meanings, the mystery and power of words: literary exorcists of consciousness. Both betray that predilection for compounding the super research erudite and trivial, the esoteric and the oecumenical, implicating, at its most sensitive, our twentieth-century sensibility. And of course both have pressed an obsession with form, with style and technique, to bounds that dazzle even where they seem familiar. Some of their most brilliant moments are strictly parasitic and parodistic, and even self-parodistic. There is, moreover, an influence of one on ap english exam essay, the other, for Borges, in mendel essay the twenties, was one writer of that vanguardist generation feeling the full impact, the contemporary impact, of Ulysses . His essay on Joyce [El Ulises de Joyce] and a translation of a fragment of the rubric closing monologue [Traduccion de James Joyce, La ultima hoja del Ulises , in Proa , January, 1925] comprise a singular event in literary history.

Borges' experiments with style, in his poetry of the twenties, [reflect] a Joycean awareness of a new sensibility in search of expression. Several of the structural ideas of Finnegans Wake acquire a dialectical form in some of intermediate essay marking scheme Borges' stories, essays, and poems. His poem La noche ciclica owes at least the adjective of its title to Joyce. Exam Rubric? Perhaps the decisive point of comparison is that their interpretative vision of the intellectual, social, and moral world of man is esthetic, and that their attitudes, tastes, literary ends and means are apolitical, frequently hermetical, and heretical. It is this affinity of nonconformists that attracts attention to their use of irony for critical essay scheme fusing style to subject. Exam Essay Rubric? Also, we owe to a similar use of the cyclical view of starting the body time, history and personalities, some of their most inimitable and intimate revelations about essay, themselves as writers. And a final point: Borges, like Joyce in his later years, suffers from blindness….

While we proceed in the two essays [Murillo studies Joyce and Borges, in ap bio mendel essay this book, in exam rubric two separate essays] by different means of analysis, the unity of the essays rests on the analogy between the bowl reflective act that both authors accomplish through irony. The reflective act, that is, rendered an esthetic act. Here are two writers who intensify our awareness of the intellectual and esthetic phases by which irony communicates an unstated impersonal and objective meaning. Essay Rubric? Here irony, as a mode, is inseparable from the significance of works in intermediate 2 english marking prose and from the means of our access to that significance. We find here the how of ironical expression increasingly provoking and drawing attention to itself.

Increasingly the effect becomes that of provoking the reaction that this how is attempting to simulate both the thing represented and our intellective and esthetic notions arrested by ap english essay, (Joyce) or converging upon essay goals, (Borges) our apprehension of the thing represented. Essay? The more immediately it provokes our awareness of the mechanics of its operation, the more intensified and effective this how . Its aim is both to produce a counter-reflection through the ap bio mendel impulses of the reader and to redirect them in a conspiratorial action between him and [the] author back upon the facets of reality or life represented. In Borges' stories we … find that our perceptions of the multiple relations between things and persons, and the causal connections between events, constitute the meaning of events, of ap english exam essay lives and things, their whatness established by the howness of Borgian irony and its quality. The residue of mockery and ridicule in this mode is directed as humor or play at classes our impulse to attempt and to possess an omniscient view of human events and exam rubric, an infallible understanding of the universal laws of essay in english for children causality. The result of the conspiratorial action, as part of an impersonal and objective resolution of meanings, is to betray reality, fact, life, into exposing themselves in ap english exam essay rubric our perceptions as image, or symbol, or, to use Borges' term, a simulacrum . At the center of the analogy between Joyce and the body of an essay, Borges are the effects each produces by redirecting the representation of exam essay rubric certain states of consciousness onto the perceptions of their readers. Yet here precisely lies the cause for proceeding on two separate essays. The analogy results from their techniques for attaining a simultaneity of expression and college career goals, multiple equivalences of form to subject. The underlying contrasts are harder to trace to their source. A basic one is the central position held by metaphysical speculation in Borges' dialectical designs. Or we could compare the dreaming consciousness of Finnegans Wake with the ap english exam hallucinatory ordeals of some of Borges' heroes. Both, as dream structures, are labyrinthine and cyclical.

But the for coaching verbal obscurities of Joyce's dreamer-narrator are controlled to exam essay rubric work their way from the irrational inconclusiveness of a sleeping mind toward coherent resolutions of super bowl research papers rational statement; whereas in Borges style and idea impel his rational disquisitions out to fantasy, non-reason, and hallucination. In more conventional terms, we may say that in exam essay rubric Joyce's verbal patterns we have a stream, in Borges' compact, conceptual ones, a structure of consciousness. The states of consciousness in Finnegans Wake , however verbally obscure, appear transparently evident in their linear and sequential movement because they are conceived in the dream as states of nonviolence. They are inner reflections of the human mea culpa taking place or projected upon mendel, a glass of innocency. The Borgian states of consciousness, nearly always scared by acts of violence, are radical conflicts between the subjectivity of will and ap english, illusion and their objectivization in time, conflicts between dimensions of being and the process of their impersonalization that gives rise to archetypes and symbols. Ap Bio? Thus Borges furnishes what I call total conflicts because the progression and movement of their warring tensions build up and impart to us through reiteration and recapitulation (a horizontal and vertical compression of themes) a total opposition between all of essay rubric their components as that dichotomy of symbolical realities that is human consciousness, both personal and collective. Essay On Craze For Coaching Classes? The effect is to heighten the reader's perceptive awareness of exam essay his own consciousness, so to writing college essay speak, as a counterpart to that antagony of irresolvable forces and symbolical dissonances. Essay Rubric? The Joycean effect is then quite unlike the Borgian because, although both authors impel the inductions of ironical readings to a highly logical and, stylistically, logistical point of resolution, the tensions of the Joycean ironies which I call dis-tensions neutralize their opposition at this point to provide entry into the myth that Finnegans Wake enacts; whereas in Borges' stories the conflict of tensions remains irresolvable in order to produce, in their mutual annihilation or effacement, the effect of super a predicament of consciousness compounded, localized, and centered in the reader's intellective and emotive response.

L. Essay Rubric? A. Murillo, Introduction to ap bio mendel his The Cyclical Night: Irony in James Joyce and Jorge Luis Borges (copyright © 1968 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College; excerpted by permission of the publishers), Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1968, pp. ix-xix . Jorge Luis Borges makes strange and compelling word-music. Essay? He plays only one instrument—the intellectual, the epistemological—but the strumming of his cerebral guitar sets into vibration all the strings of emotion, intuition, and esthetic longing that are common to sentient humanity. In his short stories alone he has written a symphony of the human consciousness—unfinished, not because he has left it incomplete, but because he sees human thought as unconsummated. Men may possibly have truth, his fictions tell us, and they can believe they have it, but they cannot know they have it. Tantalized by truth, they juggle their thoughts and words and haply achieve the dazzling suggestion of the imminence of a revelation. On this Borges has based his esthetic of the mendel intelligence. (pp. 3-4) What Borges gives us is uncanny in the Freudian sense: untrue, but somehow true—or, as Plato said of his myths, they are not true but there is something like them that is true. It is in this sense that Adolfo Bioy Casares and Ana Maria Barrenechea have said that Borges' fantasies are more real than reality.

His stories suggest other ways of interrelating the parts of the universe, other ontologies that we have forgotten or have not yet made. This is only to say that Borges is mythic. In the ancient mythmaker and the radical philosophical idealist the wheel comes full circle. Because both are lacking an overriding perspective or mental commitment, their worlds are in ap english exam rubric flux, and each momentary contour of thought is as valid as another. An idea's value to the consciousness is the criterion of starting essay its truth. Ap English Exam Rubric? (p. 5)

Borges does not pretend, and we do not expect, that some ultimate, objective revelation will really spring from his dissolution and reformation of reality; the symphony can never be finished. But it can be played infinitely. The Body Of An Essay? Meaning, beauty, and satisfaction lie in the crescendo that culminates in climactic moments of exam near-fulfilment, when a Name seems about to be called, a summary note struck, and the face of Truth revealed. (p. 6) [Borges] does not suppose, apparently, that in reading his tales we are going to lose ourselves in the mood or the action; instead, he gives us, with deceptive and very deliberate casualness, the symbols of an idea. Through his symbols and images he repetitiously and systematically alludes , and his allusions comprise much, if not most, of the real substance of his narratives. The semantic payload is given largely by suggestion. (p. Essay In English? 7) Having to do with creation as such, many of exam rubric his fictions comprise a literature about literature—art about art…. Ap Bio? Borges' stories in the aggregate comprehend, almost omnisciently, the ap english exam rubric abstract forms of literature and of its creation and its manner of being.

It is almost as if Borges had uttered the ap bio mendel essay hundredth word, calling the summational Name of ap english exam literature; but, courteously, he speaks it obliquely, as if to spare literature the humiliation of fulmination. It is for this reason that Borges is rightly called a Baroque writer. The Baroque is, essentially, a time or a circumstance in which the creative intellect ceases to find value in the results of essay career thought and ap english rubric, turns to contemplating the form of its own activity. (p. Essay For Children? 8) The esthetic experience is essentially intellectual, but it is not usually self-conscious; it does not analyze itself in the moment of its occurrence. But when, in literature, this happening consists precisely in exam its looking at itself through symbolic or allegorical forms, the reader is given a degree of control over the event. Because he has some awareness of what is happening, as it happens, he can surrender to the esthetic enjoyment, or he can concentrate on the manner of production of the esthetic occurrence with intellectual appreciation, or he can do both at once with the essay effect of unifying and heightening his experience. A person can read and reread Borges with the exam essay rubric enjoyment he feels in replaying his favorite music.

The Symbolists made their poetry self-symbolizing, but perhaps took the matter too seriously…. They looked for God through poetry; they tried to be mythic in order to restructure the universe. But Borges, both as poet and writing career, as fiction-maker, knows that modern man cannot be mythic, not really, and that imagination only confirms idealism as the nearest substitute for a mythic view; for in order to be mythic, the mind must lack a structured rationality. Only man's reason can call into question the hierarchy of reality it has created. The conceptual fluidity of the ap english essay mythmaker can exist only as a mentality that radically doubts the validity of its own constructs, or as one which consciously forays into fancy without expecting to transcend or fulminate the vast system of practical fictions that men live by. Borges will not ride with Valery on the seesaw of momentary subjective renewal followed by reentry into mundane reality; this smacks of psychedelic self-hypnosis, of religion, of escape. Borges will not lose psychic control over ap bio essay the game; he will remain the chess player as well as the pawn. (pp. 16-17) If I seem to exam essay rubric treat Borges' short stories as if they were primarily the artistic reflection of a few ancient ideas about the functions of the mind, it is research papers because I must be simplistic for the sake of putting this one aspect of his work into clear relief. It is one of the most important aspects of his fictional creation. (p. 18)

Borges' intellectual esthetic, his imminence of a revelation, his mental process, and his penchant for the depiction of ambiguity, are facets of the self-expression of a mind inverted upon itself…. What, then, is the essential nature, the identity, of the mountains and horses and persons with whom Borges peoples his literature, if in the end they trace the image of Borges, who knows them for what they are? They are ideal beings, the constructions of a self-conscious mind, and ap english essay, we can expect them to behave as such, not as the mountains and horses and persons that we know in the outer world…. In English For Children? The world in which Borges' fictive creations move about is a primeval world and has all the earmarks of the rubric archaic cosmology. This is owing precisely to the fundamental fluidity of essay in english Borges' thought. Borges is an ap english rubric, idealist, a skeptic, a freethinker, and the body, above all, an artist. The human mind imagines and conjectures in the same degree that it does not know, or in the degree to which it does not choose to know or does not believe it knows. Radical speculation—imagination—is the special property of archaic man, who has little fixed knowledge to guide him; of ap english exam rubric children for the same reason; and of the artist, the poet, and the skeptic. Where facts have not yet been chosen or have been rejected for scientific or esthetic reasons, fantasies compete for honor. Every truth begins as metaphor, useful fiction, or esthetic dream. Mendel Essay? (p. 19-20)

Isaiah Berlin, the British historian, has noted … a psychic difference in the mentalities of many great writers. He makes his point by quoting Archilochus: The fox knows many things, but the hedgehog knows one big thing ( The Hedgehog and the Fox , p. 7). Shakespeare, Goethe, and Aristotle are foxes in this scheme; Dante, Plato, and Dostoevsky are hedgehogs. Ap English Essay? Perhaps the distinction is super bowl merely that of Nominalism versus Realism, Aristotle against Plato. (p. 24) I would say that Borges is philosophically a fox who longs for essay rubric the simplicity and college essay career goals, certainty of the hedgehog but cannot bring himself to be one. He searches, without hope of finding, something which transcends fox and hedgehog. He finds only substitutes and metaphors for that transcending something. Intellectually, he finds idealism; esthetically, myth.

Borges is both an Anglophile and an Argentine. Ap English Essay? He is steeped in the mood of Schopenhauer and Nietzsche and in English literature, but emotionally he is a product of Spanish American criollismo . He has made the conflict between perspectivism and universal vision (Zahir and starting the body, Aleph) one of his central artistic concerns (I would maintain that it is the central concern), and he depicts the essay transcendence of this contradiction as myth, the near-abstraction or esthetic fact. Because of this central concern, Borges is literarily a hedgehog. This is the most important point to be made in bowl research papers this study of Borges' fiction. The system that is ap english exam essay apparent in Borges' imagery and symbol hinges upon the simple idea of pyramidal thought, of thing and attribute, with all of its vast implications. I shall try to show that when Borges speaks of on craze twilight and noon, swamps and essay, towers, blood and sand, tigers and walls, and dozens of other things that recur in on craze for coaching classes his fiction, he is talking about essay rubric, being and non-being, the created and the uncreated; and of an, always he is talking about them with the implication that the contradiction between them is transcended—or as I see it, underlain—by myth. Ap English Essay? [Wheelock's careful explication of the word myth, central to essay classes his argument, is found on pages 20-25.] … [Only] the poets and the mystics seem able to prolong [the moment of myth]; they stretch it out by declaring that the world and all of its details are somehow provisional and illusory. Exam Essay Rubric? The idealist prolongs or converts the essay for children moment into an intellectual attitude. We call it pantheism, nihilism, skepticism, or intellectual mysticism, but Borges is nearest to right in calling it an esthetic of the intelligence. (pp. 24-5) Since man's ideas cannot be validated by outside criteria, one idea is essay rubric as good as another. A man can demolish and reconstruct the world, making it less banal and more beautiful, and he can do this with the complete freedom of the self-sufficient mind.

With regard to super research papers this idealist solipsism, Anderson Imbert says that what interests Borges is the beauty of the theories, myths, and beliefs that he cannot believe in; he feels free to choose a multiplicity of simultaneous paths ( Literatura hispanoamericana , II, 268). As this critic goes on to say, Borges sees man as lost in a labyrinth, capable of producing mental labyrinths of his own as explanations of the chaotic Great Labyrinth. But while men in general engage in serious hypostatization as the only form of ap english exam explanation, Borges stands above this attempt to account for the universe; his truth does not depend on the things that can be called true, but upon the assumption that nothing can be so called. For him the goal of starting the body thought is not knowledge, but distraction. Borges' most lucid symbol of this mental isolation from objective reality is the Minotaur of The House of Asterion. This story can be read coherently and meaningfully if one keeps in mind that the narrator, Asterion, is the idealist consciousness and ap english rubric, that the in english for children labyrinth he lives in is the conceptual universe. (p.

27) What does Borges mean by ap english exam essay rubric, dream? This is a critical question for anyone who approaches Borges' fiction as symbolic expression…. In the first place, Borges' idea is the same as Descartes': existence and starting of an, thought are the same thing. (pp. Ap English Essay Rubric? 44-5) Borges' dream, then, is imagination, the creation of the esthetic fiction. But here I do not intend to intermediate 2 english marking imply only literature , but what C. S. Lewis has called fantasy that hovers between the ap english exam rubric allegorical and the mythopoeic.

Such fantasy is career not limited to ap english writers, as Borges would quickly agree. It is precisely because Borges' stories and prose pieces (his thoughts ) have thought as their real subject that they are detached from mundane reality and hence are finally independent of language. Says Lewis [in his preface to George Macdonald: An Anthology ]: The critical problem … is whether this art—the art of mythmaking—is a species of the ap bio literary art…. [The] Myth does not essentially exist in words at exam essay rubric all. Borges' esthetic is an esthetic of the starting intelligence, and ap english rubric, he usually makes dreaming equivalent to essay in english thinking—the kind of exam thinking, or imagination, that brings the elements of the world together into a pregnancy through extreme, almost hypnotic concentration: separation from immediate sense-perceptions and the deliberate inversion of the mind upon super papers, its contents, as if, by the heat of attention, to ap english exam essay melt them into oneness, or to cause them to yield up something palpable, something real. Bowl Papers? In other words, dreaming or thinking is an effort to escape from language, from the idea of the world which language imposes upon us. By dreaming the consciousness hopes to escape its own solidified thought-history, its fixed categories, the dead words that represent memory badly and petrify the world. What the exam essay rubric mind finally seeks is a new arrangement of reality, and to essay for coaching classes achieve this it must go back to the mythical condition prior to the gods, before language; for out of that pregnancy some more adequate God, some better language may come, though it be faceless and wordless. (pp. 45-6)

Borges longs for the Alephic vision that is given only to exam essay rubric mystics; or rather, he longs for that cerebral mysticism which is able to hypostatize all attributes simultaneously instead of successively; to do this would be to destroy linear time. But he cannot have this, and he lives by making hypostatizations, each having its distinct moment. The tension or interplay between longed-for universality and necessary perspectivization is a recurring preoccupation in Borges, best exemplified in The Aleph and The Zahir. But this interplay is not as prevalent as a more fundamental tension that we may call hypostatic rivalry: competition among the hypostatizations of the mind, or between a hypostat and its attributes. Most of the stories in writing El Aleph and Ficciones are (from the standpoint of ap english exam essay motif) only variants of super research this form. Two ideas, two aspects of reality, two attributes or beings vie for the attention of the exam consciousness; one must be victorious over the other; so Scharlach kills Lonnrot, the Negro kills Martin Fierro, Bandeira kills Otalora, and so on.

The fate of the super bowl research papers subordinate idea is essay a cause for lament, in Borges' view, and although the victory of one is necessary, it is nevertheless deplorable because the victor is only a perspective, a partial image of reality. When a dominant hypostatization becomes a fixation, a dogma, it is not a rival who kills him, but the consciousness itself (the universe). Fire is an entity that finally tests the contents of the mind, and essay for coaching, only the expedient and provisional beings survive. Dogmas perish because they are too fixed, too objectively real. The symbols of the Zahir, its modifications, its opposites, and its alternatives are repeated with monotonous persistence throughout all of the stories in the two collections. (pp. 64-5) To dispense with the accepted verities and create fictions out of other fictions is to think freely in the most radical sense. It is to start from, and return to, the primordial home ground of myth in forming and re-forming one's ideas of the world. This makes it possible to see reality in many perspectives, all of exam rubric them fresh and free of blinding dogmatism.

If a man cannot have an Aleph, he must at least have a panorama of views, none of which claims to essay be ultimate and thus blots out the rest. Ap English? Borges says it all beautifully in Pierre Menard, Author of the Quijote …. (pp. 68-9) Carter Wheelock, in his The Mythmaker: A Study of Motif and Symbol in the Short Stories of Jorge Luis Borges (copyright © 1969 by Carter Wheelock), University of Texas Press, 1969 . Borges writes of sceptics overwhelmed by mystical event and of gangsters with the logic of Auguste Dupin. [His] remarkable stories which mix cabbalism with science fiction and the detective story deride, in writing college essay goals their ironic reversals, the fictions of communication with others and make the communication of one with oneself the exam greater puzzle. In his stories, narratives, and prose pieces, Borges is among the starting leading writers of our time who are extending the boundaries of fiction into autobiography and essay. Virginia Quarterly Review, Vol. Ap English Exam Essay? 47, No.

2 (Spring, 1971), pp. lvi-lvii . In his own work, Jorge Luis Borges has practiced, among other offices, that of the body essay chronicler of essay insomnia and of its equally unsleeping counterpart, nightmare. The states of the insomnia that he notes have included poignant and lucid memory. His degrees of dreaming or waking nightmare have been characterized by essay for coaching, prescient insight, by ap english, epiphany. (His epiphanies we understand in the sense in which Joyce employed the term, the larger sense of in english for children passages of rubric revelation and vision….) Borges' own obsession with a dream state—in the individual, in the created (or dreamt) world, in the gods or God—has forced his hand when writing, so that he writes of dreams which must be dreamt in writing college essay goals the future, of man's fates which were dreamt in the past. And so we find that the memory of the ap english essay future is of exactly the same potential as the hope in the past…. From the time of his first, particular, sense of the essay on craze classes infinite, Borges has apparently suspected that everything has been dreamt before. He offers constant proof of this suspicion…. Borges, the subtlest of historians, understands that history is not merely a nightmare (not just a nightmare from which we are struggling to ap english essay rubric awake, as in Joyce's cosmology, but perhaps also a nightmare we are preparing to dream?); it is also a sequence of vividly insomniac epiphanies to be repeatedly relived. In these states of pre-nightmare the personae of the action step to the music of others as well as their own, inhabit the dreams of others as well as their own, are duplicated as brothers, antagonists (second actors), chance counters of a dream lottery.

Borges suspects a cyclical nihilism in it all, an annihilating repetition, a repetitious similitude, a simulacrum…. Borges is a crypto-classic. And the secret (kruptos) of his classicism is in [his] texts, and they in themselves are cryptic, which, as well as secret, means concise, laconic, succinct. His shorthand serves in making precis of ap bio numberless mythologies, personal as well as popular. In expounding his own unique vision, he establishes a valid syncretism of his own for uniting synopses of antique plots which have classically repeated each other.

Previous tellers of antique tales, synopsizers of antique plots, seem less excruciatingly aware that they are retelling the eternal tales, re-synopsizing the plots…. Ap English Essay? Borges is so aware that he is summing-up that he finds it natural to reproduce some of the previous synopses for us so that we may marvel in comparing the Extraordinary. In [his] brief and extraordinary tales, most of the pieces are not tales so much as suggestive passages of para-Kabbalistic meaning: not the Kabbalistic theory of language, but a theory of essay in english key passages: not Word/World, but Sentence/Judgment. As it is for the Kabbalist, history here is a symbolic repetition in every man's soul…. We change each day. In his own work, Borges has shown us that we change each moment in regard to a mirror, the moon, a door, a book. Anthony Kerrigan, Foreword, to Extraordinary Tales by Jorge Luis Borges and Adolfo Bioy Casares, edited and translated by Anthony Kerrigan (© 1971 by Herder and Herder, Inc.; reprinted with permission), Herder Herder, 1971, pp. 7-15 . The laying on of heavy strokes of local colour has always been one of [Borges's] predominant traits and the more one reads of him—outside of his twenty or so 'metaphysical' tales and ap english exam rubric, fables—the more limited seem his means and aims.

His predictable reliance on the basic elements of gothic stories gets to classes be ennervating. (In this he has, I think, been rather poorly served by his recent English publishers who [in A Universal History of Infamy ], greedily and carelessly include pieces which have appeared up to four times previously in other volumes….) In the introduction to ap english exam essay the first edition Borges makes an acknowledgement the goals implications of which he seems, uncharacteristically, to ignore. He says that the early films of Von Sternberg were a great influence on these tales—in fact all they have in common with movies like Morocco and Shangai Express is an emphasis on decor and setting and props. Now it must be patently evident to everyone that the camera, and so the essay rubric spectator, can take in mendel a great deal in the way of 'atmosphere' whilst concentrating on the action of the narrative being played out before it; in print we have to depart from the drama to gather data of this (secondary) nature—in a novel such diversions need not bother us, indeed such diversions may well form the novel, but in a story of a couple of thousand words an author's concern for ambience can often come to exam essay rubric be mistaken for his over indulgence of super bowl research papers a facility for listing the graphic and exam essay rubric, incongruous elements of the backdrop. Jonathan Meades, Borges's Documentary Tales, in Books and Bookmen, January, 1974, p. 47 . Like the frugal stars he mentions in Rubaiyat, [Borges'] poems [in In Praise of writing essay career Darkness ] hold their treasures back. Like those stars, his poems are distant, they are cool, they are tiny, they are remotely bright. Most of all, though, they are only and lastingly themselves. I don't mean that Borges' poems display the extravagant stinginess of exam essay much modern poetry, the pharisaic abuse of the commandment less is more.

Not at all. Nor that he pays out in fashionably flat diction. (Although phrases like that white thing, the moon are the kind of achieved failure, the signal frustration this sort of starting the body diction aims at, or should.) Nor even that the real voice of Borges is in his short stories and essay rubric, that his poetry is metrical ventriloquism. (That, after all, is the vulgar temptation and so the easiest to avoid.) No, I mean that reading his poems is like listening to someone pacing in writing essay goals a carpeted study next door: we strain, we hear, we imagine, but we never do see…. Borges has only been able to give by taking away and he imagines the taking away has been a giving back—his sight for his vision, for instance. What's at stake is not the truth of his statements, their autobiographical or even poetic truth; rather, it is the hazard of an imagination acting on the less, on the least in order to see the ap english rubric most . The Body Essay? As always, Borges' imagination is precisely superlative. Or, as Norman Thomas di Giovanni beautifully renders the ap english exam poet's admirablemente mezquinos , wondrously paltry. Here, then, is the latest collection of poems by one of the three greatest writers alive today. It is the slimmest of essay slim volumes. Unpretentious in its diction, in its imagery, in its praise of plain things and even in its invocation of famous figures like the near-blind James Joyce, it in ap english exam rubric fact pretends to offering the center, the algebra and the key to Borges.

But the book will no doubt be passed over in favor of more obviously assuming works by a man who says here that he wants to be remembered less as a poet than as a friend anyway. This book does much to create that sense of Borges as a friend, an old friend, whose richness lies not in splendid moments but in our extended relationship. So let us not forget that it is the poet who creates the friend. Let us remember that darkness lets us see the stars. Let us, too, praise darkness.

Ronald Christ, in Commonweal (reprinted by permission of Commonweal Publishing Co., Inc.), March 8, 1974, pp. 18-9 . Borges is the modern poet who best expresses not the power of the imagination but the seductiveness of the imaginative intellect, not one who evokes emotion raw or lyrical on the page but one who offers a highly idiosyncratic consciousness just prior to the awakening of an emotion or just after the emotion has passed. Immediacy has always been lacking in his works. Essay In English? And yet the world of Borges has its own majesty, its own penetrating cadences and charm, full of ap english exam essay spheres within spheres, thought about thought, a parabolic shadow play continually unfolding, doubling back, and then returning (to use one of Borges's persistent motifs) like a river to its unimaginable source…. If [the poems in In Praise of Darkness ] have a certain twilit convalescent air, recording Borges's familiar fascination with mirrors and mazes, to bowl research papers which have been added two new themes, old age and ethics, they nevertheless have the beauty of faded cameos, of museums of shifting forms, as well as Borges's poignant, stoical apprehension of his approaching death: I reach my center, / my algebra and my key…. Soon I shall know who I am. The New York Review of ap english rubric Books (reprinted with permission from The New York Review of for children Books; © 1974 by NYREV, Inc.), April 4, 1974, p. 44 . Borges frequently questions his own existence, and characteristic fictive strategies include reviewing non-existent books, inventing obscure texts to quote from, and writing biographical sketches of imaginary writers. In Doctor Brodie's Report , his first collection of new tales for some years, Borges claims he is trying to escape from the elaborate literary games and fantastic contrivances with which he is associated and write 'straightforward stories' in the style of the early Kipling…. Exam Essay Rubric? Only three or four of these 11 stories are Borges at anywhere near his peak. I think especially of End of the Duel , in which a pair of gauchos continue their rivalry up to and just after the essay for children moment of death, and Guayaquil , which involves a mystical conflict between two scholars who briefly take on the identities of the exam essay historical figures they are discussing. Others, for all the skill and economy of their narration, lack the intellectual excitement and resonance of essay for children his best work.

They are plain tales from the foothills of a genius. But while he may have set aside the exam puzzles, the old epiphanies remain, and the stories reflect again and again the familiar obsessions—with time, labyrinths, doubles, chance and destiny…. There is for children much about history in Doctor Brodie's Report , but as usual there is virtually no interest shown in political questions or social problems. Nor is there much concern for essay rubric character, though he creates people with vivid presences and goals, convincing minds. There are however no stories here that eschew human protagonists and rely upon the excitement of ideas, as several of ap english his most memorable fictions do…. Borges appeals to academics in part because his small, coherent, but infinitely suggestive body of work lends itself to endless exegesis. 2 English Essay Scheme? More than that though, he comforts the campus author by essay, refuting the cult of college essay career goals experience, by showing so triumphantly that to ap english exam essay be a writer you don't have to hunt big game, go to the wars or walk the in english for children corridors of power. Ap English Exam Essay Rubric? Further, he combines in an unusual degree the cultivation of the mind and mendel essay, an admiration for the primitive, lucid ratiocination and exam, freewheeling mysticism, while showing that you do not have to be either alienated from society or too closely involved in its problems. As the writer's writer, he embodies and articulates a powerful concern for starting of an essay craft, for essay rubric vocation, for tradition …, for the invincibility of the book. Philip French, Labyrinthine, in New Statesman, May 3, 1974, pp.

628-30 . Access our Jorge Luis Borges Study Guide for Free. Jorge Luis Borges Homework Help Questions. It's safe to say that Borges was obsessed with literal and metaphorical labyrinths. The story begins in the first person point of view. The narrator calls himself Asterion and with the introductory. In this story, the narrator has traveled thousands of years into the future. This might be a utopia for a tired man or for a man who prefers uniformity/conformity to any type of conflict or. Jorge Francisco Isidoro Luis Borges (1899 – 1986) was an Argentine novelist.

As his name illustrates, he is descended from the Spaniards that invaded and conquered Argentina. During the period. Given everything that is essay on craze classes known about the late Argentine writer and poet Jorge Luis Borges, and much is known of this esteemed individual due in no small part to his interviews with such literary. Intriguing question! Borges's story is at its heart a labyrinthine enigma.

We all know what a physical labyrinth is: it's basically a maze, a network of intricate passages, one of which leads to.

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How to Score Your Own AP English Language Practice Essay - Albert

2017 MBA Essay Questions: Harvard Business School. The Harvard MBA application guide has been updated for 2017! EssaySnark#8217;s guide to ap english exam essay, the Class of 2020 Harvard essay will help you understand what needs to be in a successful pitch. Remember, a good HBS essay may have little in common with a good essay for 2 english marking scheme another school like Columbia or Kellogg or Stanford. And OMG, apps were up 6% at HBS last year. The Harvard essay question will be the exam rubric same this year: “As we review your application, what more would you like us to know as we consider your candidacy for the Harvard Business School MBA Program?” This is deceptively simple. You need to know what you bring to the table #8212; and who you are #8212; before you can even begin to goals, craft a response. This is also one of the easiest essays to ap english exam, unintentionally come across as disingenuous and for children, fake. We began a series of posts on The Strategy of Authenticity which is designed to help you build an awareness for exam essay rubric what is, and isn#8217;t, authentic, so you can present yourself truthfully, sincerely, and starting, with impact in your MBA apps. You can see what Harvard required in past years, as a way to understand their strategy in recruiting students. Round 1: Wed., September 6, 2017 Interview invites will come in two batches in the first week of October (October 2nd and October 5th, to ap english rubric, be specific).

If you aren#8217;t invited in the final batch, you#8217;ll be #8220;released#8221; (that is, if they#8217;re not going to starting of an essay, keep you on the further-consideration list; see this post for an explanation). Round 2: Wed., January 3, 2018 ; interview invites will likely be issued in two waves (last year it was on Jan. 25 and Feb. 1); if you aren#8217;t going to get invited, then you#8217;ll be hearing that on the second batch release day. Ap English? Yes, we do recommend a Round 1 application to Harvard. Definitely.

It#8217;s still possible to intermediate 2 english critical marking, make it in during Round 2 but you have a LOT more competition against ap english exam essay you then. Two recommendations Two questions for essay classes them to answer. We explain the concept of #8220;standardized#8221; recommender questions and offer an important resource for you to give to your recommenders, to ap english exam, make their job easier. In 2016, there was a small group including Harvard that used one version of #8220;standardized#8221; questions, and there was a larger group of schools using a different set of NEWLY standardized questions. (are you confused yet? yeah). Essay For Children? No idea how things will evolve for 2017 in terms of what those other schools will do.

We can say that Harvard is sticking to what it#8217;s done for the last several years, so there#8217;s consistency on ap english exam, their side. The first issue of course is, who do you choose to essay classes, write for you? We have a number of posts about recommenders here on the blahg (on the first page of the site, use the dropdown menu in the righthand panel to choose Recommendations to get a list of all of them). Ap English Rubric? If you want more help, our Letters of Recommendation App Accelerator walks through the super bowl specifics and exam essay, lets you submit your recommenders#8217; strategy for essay feedback from EssaySnark. A summary of the 2015 HBS invite process was posted on 9/22/15 and we expect it to be directionally accurate this year, too. HBS works like this: You submit your app, the ap english essay Admissions Board reads all of them (in no particular order it doesn#8217;t matter what time you submitted or if it went in earlier or later than someone else#8217;s, or what geography or career you#8217;re in), then about super research papers, a month-ish later, they will issue interview invites.

When they implemented this process originally, those invites came out in three waves over the course of two weeks (three Wednesdays in rubric a row), then it went down to two; for Rd 1 2015 it was three waves of invitations scattered over essay, only about a week. Round 2 in January 2017 is now confirmed as two Wednesdays in a row, so just one week total. Ap English Essay Rubric? The first wave has tended to be significantly bigger than the second one (the bulk of the invites will go out on starting the body of an essay, that first day). The day of the exam last wave of invites is when everyone not being invited to mendel essay, interview is ap english exam rubric told that they didn#8217;t make it; they call that the writing college career goals #8220;release.#8221; Instead of getting an invite or release on that final day, it#8217;s also possible to be put in the #8220;further consideration#8221; bucket, which is sort of exam essay rubric, like a waitlist but you#8217;re not accepted, you#8217;re just someone they#8217;re hanging onto because they#8217;re still interested in you. In English For Children? The invitations are issued in batch mode, all at once, at noon Eastern time on the scheduled day. If they want to meet you, you#8217;ll get an email which says to ap english, check your app for status. If you don#8217;t get an email on essay, either of the ap english exam essay rubric first two days, you didn#8217;t get an interview (yet but it could still come on the last day). Everyone who wasn#8217;t already invited to marking, interview gets an email on the last day of the ap english exam sequence.

If you haven#8217;t received any email by, say, 12:05pm Eastern time then it#8217;s not gonna come that day. In 2013, HBS invited 1,887 people to ap bio, interview across the ap english exam rubric whole season. Essay For Children? That#8217;s 20% of the 9,543 applications they received. Exam Essay? (We don#8217;t recall seeing this data from college HBS for 2014 but it#8217;s comparable, they tend to invite similar numbers every year regardless of app volumes.) Generally speaking they invite more of their applicants in Round 1 something like 1,000 yet most schools including Harvard tend to get more applications submitted in exam rubric Round 2 so right there tells you that Round 1 is an advantage. It appears that in Round 1 2015 HBS got enough apps that they decided to starting essay, issue interviews to. 50 more candidates. Here#8217;s more details on the data as of the 2012-#8217;13 season if you want to ap english exam rubric, see how it broke down in super papers past years. Remember that getting invited to interview in one wave versus another within the invite-day sequence means nothing in terms of the strength of your candidacy. Dee Leopold says this every year. We did a post on exam rubric, the blahg about it on 10/9/13 (but nobody seems to believe us#8230; so we wrote another post on 10/11/13 to explain it all again).

HOWEVER: There are greater chances that you#8217;ll be invited in the first wave, if you#8217;re going to be invited at all, simply because in past years, they have invited the essay for coaching classes bulk of applicants in the first chunk. Ap English Exam Essay Rubric? If you#8217;re placed on on craze classes, the pre-interview waitlist in Round 1 what they call #8220;Further Consideration#8221; (other schools just call it a #8220;waitlist#8221;) then you#8217;ll either get invited to interview, or released, on the Round 2 interview dates, usually in the first wave. If you#8217;re on the post-interview Round 1 waitlist, you#8217;ll probably get the final answer (admit or deny) on the Round 2 decision date. If you get an invite, you need to be prepared to exam essay rubric, travel, since these are adcom-interviews conducted in hub cities around the world. They won#8217;t be flying to your doorstep to on craze for coaching classes, meet you. You#8217;ll need to make some arrangements, and yeah it#8217;ll likely require taking some time off of work. But don#8217;t freak out about that part; if you end up getting the invite, you will make it happen, we#8217;re confident (and Harvard is ap english flexible with extreme situations like deployed military). Harvard#8217;s Post-Interview Reflection.

The gist of it is, within 24 hours after your interview, you#8217;ll need to submit something (an essay that#8217;s not an essay but it#8217;s basically an essay even if the admissions people claim it#8217;s not an essay) that is, again, totally open-ended. Can you see how much Harvard wants to essay marking scheme, see how you deal with ambiguity? That#8217;s kind of what leaders have to do all the time, right? The Post Interview Reflection is a chance for you to tell the Harvard Admissions Board that thing that occurred to you, that you realized you should#8217;ve said the moment you walked out exam essay, of the interview room. Or it#8217;s an 2 english critical marking scheme, opportunity or try to fix your answer to essay rubric, that one question you completely flubbed. Or if you can#8217;t think of anything else, maybe reiterate your application #8220;theme#8221; (though honestly we don#8217;t think that#8217;s such a great idea, that#8217;s just our personal Snark opinion). If you#8217;ve been invited to interview at Harvard GREAT! CONGRATULATIONS!! Now you really should pick up our HBS Application Guide if you don#8217;t already have it.

We also have some important advice specific to Harvard in our MBA Interviewing Guide. Super Research Papers? Yes we#8217;re telling you to buy two guides. (In fact you#8217;d also benefit greatly from our Custom Interview Questions service.) Do you want to essay, make the most of this opportunity or not? Harvard posted a preliminary Class of 2 english essay marking, 2017 profile on 6-8-15 but then later we saw the exam rubric full profile including GMAT scores and we blinked. An 80% range of scores of 700 to 760. Ap Bio? Really?? OUCH! It#8217;s still possible to exam, get in with a score outside that range but boy is it going to be tough. For reference, here#8217;s the Class of 2016 profile posted at the same point in time the prior year (6-3-14) #8212; which looked very similar to the Class of 2015. So, same GMAT (median 730, full range 510 790 but you know there#8217;s only essay on craze classes, one or two in the 510 range); same GPA (3.67 ouch!) and same age (27 years old). The only difference is there#8217;s more apps than ever a 1.5% increase and they marginally bumped up the class size, to 948. Takeaways?

That it#8217;s just as hard as ever to get into Harvard Business School. Direct from ap english exam essay Harvard. Snarkety snark snark. In September 2013, The New York Times ran a pretty important feature on Harvard about gender dynamics. A few days later, a follow-up article was published on class at HBS (not the mendel kind of #8220;class#8221; with teachers). This resulted in lots of media coverage and big conversations across all the business schools. EssaySnark#8217;s reaction is here. For Reference: Harvard#8217;s Past-Season Questions. Provided for exam posterity. 2 English Marking? And because it helps you to rubric, understand this school. Ap Bio? One essay, unlimited length: “As we review your application, what more would you like us to know as we consider your candidacy for ap english rubric the Harvard Business School MBA Program?” They first asked a version of this question in 2013, for the Class of 2016.

This year#8217;s incarnation is really the epitome of a perfect essay question. They#8217;re basically saying, #8220;Tell us what you think is classes important.#8221; Here#8217;s advice from the #8216;Snarchives which offers a very good place to start thinking about that: The most important thing to remember with your Harvard essay. Every year, EssaySnark provides insights and recommendations for how to exam, handle the HBS application and we have now done that for super research papers all you Class of 2019 prospects! Expanded and revised to give you the greatest advantage in ap english rubric setting your strategy. [end discussion of 2016 HBS app] Click to view the 2015 question. Here#8217;s the super research papers question: It#8217;s the first day of class at HBS. You are in essay rubric Aldrich Hall meeting your #8220;section.#8221; This is the group of 90 classmates who will become your close companions in the first-year MBA classroom. Our signature case method participant-based learning model ensures that you will get to know each other very well. The bonds you collectively create throughout this shared experience will be lasting. Note: Should you enroll at HBS, there will be an opportunity for you to share this with them. We suggest you view this video before beginning to write. First step: Review that video and review it again!

You should also check out their HBS MBA Voices student-focused blog , which should serve as a real goldmine of insights about the school (though PLEASE do not simply parrot the information you view/read/hear from any of these sources into your essays. that#8217;s like such a rookie mistake and yeah, we see it all the time). As a reminder, this is what they asked for the two years previous: #8220;You#8217;re applying to Harvard Business School. We can see your resume, academic transcripts, extracurricular activities, awards, post-MBA career intentions, test scores, and what your recommenders have to super bowl research, say about you. What else would you like us to know as we consider your candidacy?” Advice from Harvard: Be sure to ap english, read their Direct from the ap bio essay Director post dated 15 May 2015 (you may have to scroll down on that page to find it) Admissions Director Dee Leopold gives some useful guidelines to use as an essay rubric, important starting point. On Craze Classes? [end discussion of ap english exam essay, last year#8217;s HBS app] Yes, we do recommend a Round 1 application to Harvard. Definitely. It#8217;s still possible to essay for children, make it in during Round 2 but you have a LOT more competition against you then (and it sounds like this year#8217;s Round 1 was as full as ever).

Regardless, a great app is needed in any round for Harvard Business School. Ap English? [end discussion of intermediate 2 english essay marking scheme, 2015 HBS app] Click to view the 2014 question. You’re applying to Harvard Business School. We can see your resume, school transcripts, extra-curricular activities, awards, post-MBA career goals, test scores and what your recommenders have to say about you. What else would you like us to exam rubric, know as we consider your candidacy? We#8217;ll say it again: Our HBS MBA application guide is very detailed, and ap bio mendel, it gives you important insights into how the HBS Admissions Board thinks about stuff. It#8217;s been revised to reflect the essay rubric new #8220;Introduce yourself#8221; question, with additional checklists and tests you can perform on your essay to in english for children, make sure it#8217;s presenting you as it should. Don#8217;t apply to Harvard just because it#8217;s Harvard; you#8217;re likely to essay, end up heartbroken. Read that guide, and study this blahg, and scheme, then make an informed decision and create an infinitely stronger strategy with your approach. How interviews worked in 2014#8217;s Round 1 deadline was 9/9/14.

First wave interview invites: October 8 an essay, estimated 800 candidates received one (for 2015 Dee Leopold said they#8217;d issue 900 invites that first day) Second wave invites (another 150 candidates got one), #8220;further consideration#8221; invitations (a variation on the waitlist but essentially the same; about 200 of these went out), and release of all others: October 15 (for 2015 there were two more waves, with. 350 total invites between them, and another. 100 FC invites) Interviews held from essay career October 20 to November 21. The adcom travels to multiple cities around the world or you can go to HBS. How it worked in 2014#8217;s Round 2 deadline was 1/6/15 sorry that we don#8217;t have data, only dates. First wave interview invites: January 28 Second wave invites, waitlist invitations, and release of ap english exam essay rubric, all others: February 4. [end discussion of college essay goals, 2014 HBS app] You’re applying to essay rubric, Harvard Business School. College Career Goals? We can see your resume, school transcripts, extra-curricular activities, awards, post-MBA career goals, test scores and what your recommenders have to say about you.

What else would you like us to know as we consider your candidacy? They#8217;ve also reduced the number of recommendations to exam rubric, just two, from three. Writing College Goals? [end discussion of 2013 HBS app] In case you#8217;re curious about what they#8217;ve asked before: Tell us about something you did well. Tell us about something you wish you#8217;d done better. Exam? [end discussion of 2012 HBS app] Highlights from HBS Admissions Webinar July 2, 2014. In 2013, HBS invited 1,887 people to ap bio mendel, interview. Essay? [That#8217;s almost 20% of the for coaching 9,543 applications they received. Ap English Rubric? The Class of 2016 is 940 936 students. -ES] A new section of the super bowl research papers app this year asks about non-degree coursework; you can include MOOCs and other online (non-credit) work you#8217;ve done. Essay Rubric? [This is to help you demonstrate analytical abilities. -ES] Everybody needs to take the GMAT or GRE (they are agnostic as to which one); no exceptions. The resume you upload can be more than one page, but you should ask yourself, #8220;Does it need to be?#8221; [No. -ES] In the app, they ask about your intended post-MBA industry and intermediate 2 english, function. Exam Essay Rubric? HBS does not want a #8220;laminated life plan#8221; but they do want to essay on craze, know your general direction. There#8217;s a separate app question to cover additional information; this is not an essay. [You can use this to explain gaps in employment or circumstances surrounding a low GPA, as you would with other schools#8217; #8220;optional essays#8221; but again, with HBS, this is not an essay and also, you should be able to cover that in your actual Harvard essay, probably. -ES] All financial aid awards are need-based; they don#8217;t do merit-based fellowships. This means you don#8217;t get news of scholarship money at the time of admission, like other schools do. [Basically you should be happy with the admit itself! They don#8217;t feel the need to bribe you to exam essay, attend. Starting Of An? -ES] Of course, Dee talked about the #8220;optional#8221; essay and what they saw in successful applicants last year.

EssaySnark covered many of exam, these points in detail in the 2016 Harvard Guide. Something else you should know: Dee is typically the first person who reads the incoming emails sent to the general HBS inquiry account (!). The most common question they get is, #8220;Do I have to take the TOEFL?#8221; The next most common: #8220;Do I need to mendel essay, take the ap english exam essay GMAT?#8221; (Hint: Their requirements are pretty darned clear on their website .) Takeaway message: Don#8217;t write a stupid email to Harvard admissions. Do your research first, and then and ap bio mendel essay, only then ask the question if you cannot find the essay answer elsewhere. EssaySnark reviews of intermediate 2 english essay marking, Harvard#8217;s 2014 essays. EssaySnark reviews of Harvard#8217;s 2013 essays. We did a bunch of reviews of Harvard essays on GMAT Club in September 2013; the question hasn#8217;t really changed even with the #8220;Introduce yourself#8221; thing, so you may want to check those out. Alas, our contract with GMATClub was not extended so we#8217;re not doing reviews over there any more. EssaySnark reviews of Harvard#8217;s 2012 essays. Ap English? And even older than that (2011 and later) these are still relevant because Harvard is still Harvard they#8217;ve been looking for the same qualities in a Brave Supplicant year after year: Our Essay Ideas App Accelerator includes a free BONUS: a sample essay that won!

Review the original draft and EssaySnark#8217;s complete Essay Decimator critique for the 2011 HBS Essay 1, on #8220;three accomplishments#8221; study it for free and make your Harvard essay that much stronger. And we#8217;ll say it again: Our HBS MBA application guide is marking very detailed, and it gives you important insights into how the HBS Admissions Board thinks about ap english essay rubric, stuff. Writing College? Don#8217;t apply to Harvard just because it#8217;s Harvard; you#8217;re likely to end up heartbroken. Ap English Essay? Read that guide, and study this blahg, and then make an informed decision and create an infinitely stronger strategy (with a professional#8217;s opinion on your HBS essay, even). 2017 MBA Application Strategy Guides. The 2017 Darden MBA Application Guide - rewritten almost from scratch to 2 english essay scheme, help you with the 2017 app!

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Duty of ap english exam essay rubric care and medical negligence. Tel: +44 114 243 4343. Daniele Bryden, FRCA LLB (Hons) MML, Ian Storey, LLB (Hons); Duty of care and medical negligence, Continuing Education in Anaesthesia Critical Care Pain , Volume 11, Issue 4, 1 August 2011, Pages 124–127, https://doi.org/10.1093/bjaceaccp/mkr016. Download citation file: © 2017 Oxford University Press. Negligence arising from medical acts may result in a civil action by the injured party (claimant) or a criminal prosecution by the state. Medical negligence is proved if all components of the three-part test are established on the balance of probabilities (civil suit) or beyond reasonable doubt (criminal prosecution). The three-part test establishes that the doctor owed a duty of care to the patient, the ap bio duty of care was breached, and as a direct result of the breach the patient suffered harm. Successful civil actions result in monetary compensation to the injured party or dependents which may be paid by the employing trust or the doctor's defence organization. Successful criminal prosecutions may result in a custodial sentence for the doctor and ap english essay, an additional GMC fitness to on craze practice hearing. Good record keeping and adherence to established practice guidelines are important as negligence cases may take many years to ap english exam essay rubric be resolved.

The Department of 2 english scheme Health estimates that 10% of hospital inpatient admissions result in an adverse event, 1 but 2% of claims for medical negligence handled by the NHS Litigation Authority result in court action. 2 However, both the number of claims for ap english exam essay rubric negligence and the sums involved in settlement are increasing and so it is essay in english important that anaesthetists understand the factors leading to exam rubric a possible civil claim for negligence and the potentially considerably more serious charge of criminal negligence, both of which can arise from the body essay, failures to uphold a suitable standard of care. This article does not consider claims of negligence in relation to consent which has been considered in a separate article in the journal. The principle of ‘duty of care’ was established by Donoghue v Stevenson in 1932 wherein Lord Atkin identified that there was a general duty to take reasonable care to avoid forseeable injury to a ‘neighbour’. Exam Essay Rubric! 3 In this case, a woman in Paisley drank ginger beer from a bottle until she found a decomposing snail at the bottom. As a result the woman became ill and a case was brought against the ginger beer manufacturers for essay on craze for coaching classes compensation. Lord Atkin determined that the company producing the ginger beer had been negligent in ap english exam rubric, failing to intermediate scheme ensure the woman's safety during the production process, even though the ginger beer was not bought by the woman but by her friend.

It was established that a general duty of care was owed to a neighbour; a neighbour was defined as ‘someone who may be reasonably contemplated as closely and ap english exam rubric, directly affected by an act’. In this case, it did not matter who had bought the ginger beer, since it was reasonable to consider that anyone who drank the super bowl research beer would have suffered the ap english exam rubric same consequences and could therefore be considered under the ‘neighbour’ principle. Where a duty of care is breached, liability for negligence may arise. In English! Medical negligence is part of a branch of law called tort (delict in Scotland) derived from the Latin verb ‘tortere’=to hurt. Ap English Essay Rubric! The idea of hurt is an important consideration in establishing negligence, as the majority of tortious claims for medical negligence that do not succeed fail because they cannot establish that harm has occurred as a direct result of an act or a failure to act. To determine negligence, a three-stage test must be satisfied. The procedure therefore relies on establishing fault on the part of the doctor, hospital, etc.

The person making the claim (the claimant) must establish on the balance of probabilities that negligence has occurred by the hospital or doctor (the defendant). Compensation is paid in order to return the ap bio mendel essay claimant to the position they would theoretically have been if the harm had not occurred. A monetary value will attach not just to actual expenses incurred (to include a loss of ap english exam essay rubric earnings) but additionally to the loss of amenity experienced and the pain and suffering endured in consequence of the injury. There are also more philosophical objectives of promoting accountability and ensuring that those at fault are deterred from future acts of carelessness by 2 english essay marking scheme the need to ap english rubric pay compensation. This deterrent effect is somewhat reduced by a standard fee for professional indemnity for NHS-employed doctors unless the doctor is engaged in independent practice. The Clinical Negligence Scheme for Trusts (CNST) does include such a deterrent element, since the premiums payable by a Trust to indemnify its activities can be reduced by having appropriate measures in place to reduce the likelihood of claims using a three-level rating system that takes account of the robustness of safety and governance processes in operation. Writing Essay Career Goals! 4. A person is owed a duty of care. A breach if that duty of care is established. As a direct result of ap english essay rubric that breach, legally recognized harm has been caused. The relationship between a doctor and a patient is a special one.

Most anaesthetists work in a hospital environment and do not usually have patients directly admitted under their care. Ap Bio! When a patient is admitted to hospital, a duty of care relationship is created, which can be applied to any doctor coming into contact with the ap english patient not just the admitting team. Starting The Body Of An! Hence, it has been argued by medical law academics that any patient we come across in our professional environment is owed a duty of care, not only by the doctors the patient comes into contact with, but also by those who are employed by the Trust to deliver patient care. For example, a patient who has a cardiac arrest on a hospital corridor is owed a duty of essay care by any doctor who happens to be passing, and of an, provision of ap english rubric assistance in such circumstances would probably be expected and would not be classed as a ‘good Samaritan’ act, however this academic view has not currently been tested in a British court environment to our knowledge. This is established where a doctor's practice has failed to meet an appropriate standard.

The standard of the ap bio ‘reasonable man’ or the famous ‘man on ap english essay rubric, the Clapham omnibus’ who is said to be an ordinary person placed in the same circumstances is usually applied for most tort cases. However, where there has been a potential breach of professional duty, this is reinterpreted as that of the standard of essay in english comparable professional practice. Exam Essay Rubric! Bolam v Friern Hospital Trust is the most well-known case in essay for coaching classes, relation to this professional standard. 5 It concerned a patient who sustained fractures during ECT treatment and ap english exam essay, who alleged that care under anaesthesia had been negligent in part because he had not been given muscle relaxation for the procedure, and had not been restrained or warned of the risks of fracture. It was concluded, however, that negligence could not be established, as evidence was provided that at the body the time it was not universal practice to exam administer muscle relaxation, as contrasting opinions existed as to the benefits of muscle relaxation balanced against the increased risks of the relaxant. It was argued that if a doctor acted in accordance with a practice that was considered acceptable by a responsible body of doctors that was sufficient and the claimant must show that no reasonable doctor acting in the same circumstances would have acted in ap bio, that way. The ‘Bolam standard’ (by which the ap english essay rubric alleged negligent practice is super research compared with that of a doctor's peers) is subject to criticism and heavily dependent on expert evidence for either side which may be in conflict; however, this is the same test as for other professional groups where negligence is ap english exam under consideration (e.g. engineers). It has been argued that the presence of a body of opinion that supports a doctor's actions is in favour of the medical profession, handing responsibility for determining negligence back on to those same professionals. Support from eminent professionals for a course of action arguably makes it easier to defend claims of a breach of duty.

The Bolam test is still frequently considered in cases of medical negligence, but it is not definitive, as subsequent cases have called in to doubt the idea that an acceptable standard of care is judged by ap bio essay doctors commenting on practice standards and that it may be part of the role of the court. ‘The court must be vigilant to see whether the reasons given for putting a patient at risk are valid … or whether they stem from a residual adherence to out of ap english exam date ideas’. 6 Since the case of Bolitho, where a child with intermittent croup was not intubated by a paediatric registrar and subsequently suffered hypoxic brain injury from a respiratory arrest, it is possible for the court to decide that negligence has been proved even if a body of medical opinion suggests otherwise. 7 In Bolitho, it was accepted that failure by the paediatric registrar to attend to the child during an earlier episode of croup was negligent. However, it was argued that even if the registrar had attended, it would not have been appropriate to writing college intubate the child at that point, and that therefore the final subsequent respiratory arrest and hypoxic brain injury sustained by ap english essay rubric the child could not have been prevented by earlier action. The judge reasoned that the argument that a failure to attend the child would not have made any difference to the eventual outcome was inconclusive and asserted that on some occasions, differing bodies of medical opinion could be legitimately distinguished by the court. Mendel Essay! ‘It is not enough for a defendant to call a number of doctors to say that what he had done or not done was in ap english, accord with accepted clinical practice. It is necessary for bowl research the judge to consider that evidence and exam essay, [to] decide whether that clinical practice puts that patient unnecessarily at risk’. In English! Bolitho, however, is not universally applied and ap english, many judgements of negligence still rely on the principles of peer review outlined in Bolam, although the greater use of evidence-based medicine, and the extensive practice guidelines produced by bodies like NICE, now allows judges to have objective benchmarks of practice for comparison. It is ap bio less easy for doctors to rely on providing a supporting body of ap english exam essay opinion as a defence for an alleged breach of duty for practice that is contrary to recommendations and guidelines from external agencies.

There is, however, an understanding that progress in medical knowledge takes some time to be disseminated and essay in english, not every new change can be immediately put in to practice. In Crawford v Board of Governors of ap english essay Charing Cross Hospital , a patient sustained a brachial plexus injury from being in one position for too long a time period. On Craze Classes! 8 An article describing such a complication had been published 6 months previously. However, the anaesthetist had not read this article and was not aware of its implications and so was found not to have breached their duty of care to the patient. Moreover, errors of judgement do not automatically amount to breaches of duty. They only do so in circumstances where the doctor has not acted with a level of exam essay care that would be expected from a reasonably competent professional. For doctors in training, this is of particular relevance, as the standard is that expected of the doctor in the same grade of that specialty or in that unit.

There is an assumption, established in Nettleship v Weston where a learner driver lost control of bowl papers a car, that there should be a public expectation of safety, and that doctors in training should be acting to the standard of the grade they are operating in. 9 There are therefore no concessions for a lack of relevant experience, and a doctor in ap english exam, the first day of a new post is expected to work to the same standard of public safety as one who is on the last day of the post. The difference in performance of the essay in english two relates to the degree by which the new doctor may be expected to consult and seek assistance to compensate for their relative lack of knowledge or skill and the degree to which they should expect to be supervised. We would argue that there is an expectation that supervisors allow trainees to do work only exam that they believe them to be capable of doing. The onus therefore is as much on the supervising department/consultant to reassure themselves of the trainee's abilities to do the case or procedure as it does for the trainee to consult (e.g. by departmental/consultant reviews of log books on rotation changes, etc.).

Establishing causation can be difficult, as it must be demonstrated that ‘but for’ the doctor's action/inaction harm would not have occurred. Anaesthetists rarely work alone and it can sometimes be difficult to establish where the harm occurred in relation to an episode of medical care (e.g. paralysis after aortic aneurysm repair may be caused by the surgery or the provision of epidural analgesia). Intermediate 2 English Essay! Unsurprisingly, claims for medical negligence most frequently fail due to an inability to establish causation as there are often a variety of exam essay possible explanations for the outcome. However, if it can be shown that the breach materially contributed to the damage or it is more likely that the damage was due to negligence than another cause that is usually sufficient. Sometimes, in the absence of any other reasonable explanation for a phenomenon, the principle of ‘res ipsa loquitur’ (literally ‘the thing speaks for itself’) applies (e.g. the finding of a retained swab in the abdomen at laparotomy can only be assumed to be due to its negligent loss during a previous laparotomy).

Such a situation would apply to procedures performed on the wrong limb/side (e.g. brachial plexus block and in english for children, if damage occurs from ap english exam, that, then causation is assumed to super papers be established unless the defendant can show that there is another reasonable explanation). If negligence occurs as a result of carelessness, then where the carelessness has been so severe that it is judged to exam essay rubric be ‘gross’, the doctor may be subject to the body a charge of criminal negligence. Although the requirement to ap english essay prove criminal negligence is a much higher one (i.e. Essay For Coaching Classes! beyond reasonable doubt, the sanctions are considerably greater and may include a custodial prison sentence for any doctor found guilty of such an offence). A doctor found guilty of criminal negligence is exam essay also likely to be subject to fitness to ap bio essay practice procedures by the General Medical Council. Prosecutions for criminal negligence are rare, but the ap english exam number of occasions when doctors are investigated by the police for a potential linkage to essay for children a charge of ap english manslaughter after a serious untoward event are increasing.

Conduct which goes beyond the level of civil negligence almost invariably involves the death of the patient but there are difficulties in establishing what actions constitute this. Extreme subjective recklessness such as indifference to an obvious risk to the patient or objective evidence of essay classes incompetence or ignorance may all satisfy the requirement. It is exam also of concern that recent prosecutions have generally been of doctors in training, where it is perhaps easier to establish a sufficient degree of incompetence. Ultimately, the papers decision rests with a jury as to whether a doctor's action/inaction was so bad that it amounted to a crime. R v Adomako concerned an ap english essay rubric anaesthetist who had failed to notice his patient was disconnected from the ventilator whilst the patient was undergoing an eye operation. The patient suffered a fatal cardiac arrest and the anaesthetist was convicted of manslaughter. It is mendel not clear whether Dr Adomako was not in the theatre and had failed to make adequate arrangements to monitor the patient in his absence or had been present and grossly incompetent in delivering the anaesthetic and failing to notice the exam disconnection as the cause of the super bowl research patient's deterioration. However, the House of Lords considered that either action was sufficient to uphold a conviction as consistent with a consideration that ‘the extent to which the defendant's conduct departed from the proper standard of care incumbent upon him, involving as it must have done a risk of death to the patient, was such that it should be judged criminal’.

10 It is sobering to consider that anaesthesia—a specialty associated with a significant risk of death from inadequate actions—could meet such considerations of negligence in the way that other specialties may not. The civil procedure rules in England and Wales allow for claims for exam rubric medical negligence to for coaching classes be started within 3 years of the exam essay alleged negligence occurring or within 3 years of the victim becoming aware of essay classes possible negligence. This is of relevance to exam minors where the 3 years starts when the minor reaches the age of maturity (i.e. 18 years of age). College! Anaesthetists employed by the NHS and acting within the essay rubric scope of their employment will be indemnified by the CNST. This covers only services provided in NHS employment and not ‘good Samaritan acts’, private practice, or medico-legal activity. Medical defence organizations will provide cover for research papers these activities and also where appropriate for ap english exam other independent practice activties (e.g. medical report writing). Super Research! It is recognized that the deterrent effect on individual doctors of civil negligence claims is weak, although the exam essay rubric process is stressful for on craze the individuals involved and time consuming. Rubric! In 2001, the National Audit Office identified that the average clinical negligence case took 5? years from inception to conclusion and that 22% of outstanding cases related to events over college goals 10 years previously. 11 Unsurprisingly the importance of comprehensive, contemporaneous anaesthetic records is ap english exam paramount in being able to defend any claim. It is also noteworthy that in the Chief Medical Officer's 2003 consultation paper, ‘Making Amends’, many victims of iatrogenic injury desire explanation, apology, and evidence of learning from any mistakes as major outcomes and they are not content with mere financial compensation.

Medical negligence is a three-part test whereby a duty of professional care is owed to a patient and as a consequence of a breach of 2 english critical scheme that duty, the patient suffers harm. Ap English Essay Rubric! All parts of the test must be satisfied. Civil considerations of negligence require doctors to act to an appropriate standard usually but not exclusively judged by the standard of their peers, whereas for criminal negligence the standard of research papers practice has to result in serious harm from actions that could be considered to be incompetent or grossly negligent. Due to the greater availability of practice guidelines to guide the courts, doctors should always consider the implications and justification for deviations from accepted practices should the patient suffer harm, and doctors in training should be aware that they are expected to seek advice and ap english essay rubric, assistance where they lack experience in writing career, order to preserve public safety. Adequacy of note keeping to help defend any claims is vital. Online ISSN 2058-5357 Print ISSN 2058-5349 Copyright © 2017 The British Journal of ap english rubric Anaesthesia Ltd. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Copyright 2017 Oxford University Press Privacy Policy Cookie Policy Legal Notices Site Map Accessibility Get Adobe Reader. This Feature Is Available To Subscribers Only.

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Confucianism in Chinese Business Culture. History of Chinese Business Lecturer: PU Hualin (George PU) PhD in Economics Associate Professor By: FERENDY BUDIANTO (SIMBA 2012) CASING ARGUMENTS: How does Confucius teaching reflect on ap english exam essay, ancient Chinese business culture and practice and today Chinese business Culture and practices? DUE: 28th November 2012 Introduction. China as a civilization is one of the oldest that has lived in the face of the essay in english, earth, through out history they can pride themselves with abundance of technological and sociological breakthrough that are ahead from the rest of the civilization in the ancient times. As its best China was the most prosperous and highly intellectual civilization especially during the Tang Dynasty, which were synonymous with the golden era of ancient Chinese history.

Nowadays, as a citizen in this modern civilization we can never hide away from the impact of china in the global economy, based on a personal point of view the superpower of exam essay China today has always maintain the same philosophy, culture and tradition as they have always have which could that back the most ancient of times, none more apparent than the language that has been honed and maintain to this day, and also business culture that has always been distinct from the rest of the world. In this paper we will research the parameters of the philosophy and how it came to essay be to further convey the understanding of Chinese business culture. Outline Confucianism is something that embodied China, it is everywhere and essay, it stick to intermediate 2 english essay every aspect of a Chinese person daily life, therefore to ap english essay search on this topic of the body of an how to understand what role does Confucianism have in influencing the Chinese Business culture it is to be more aware of what is the philosophy is all about. Firstly we learn the ap english exam rubric, basic of this philosophy, which are the principles that Confucius has laid and preached. These information are attainable through books, websites in the internet, databases, journals and personal observation that are carried out during the whole process of the making of research papers this paper. Once we get the ap english exam essay rubric, basic understanding of Confucianism, we will then try to bowl papers see how it fits into the Chinese business culture in the past.

Literature review. The first and foremost literature we will review is the textbook ‘An introduction to Chinese Business culture’ by rubric Xu Huifen, which is the preferred text for the course. The text will be use as the basis of understanding the essay on craze, background and teaching of Confucius, the book provide a good information to help understand the basic philosophy of ap english exam rubric Confucius and also relate them to other lateral disciples of his teaching such as Mencius and for children, Xun Zi. In addition we will use the ap english essay rubric, text to gain more understanding of the relation of Confucius’ teachings and his follower in relations to conomic thoughts and business culture. Although there a concise amount of knowledge and information on this text we it lacks literal view on the actual business culture and examples on how the philosophy is being practiced, therefore in this particular issue we will try to use other sources. The second source will be the different article and essay on craze, point of views that taken from the Internet. One of the sources that are selected is a presentation titled ‘East meet West: Understanding Cultural Differences when Doing Business in China’ by Dr. Eugene Chang. This source will be use as a guideline to common Chinese business practice and culture, to get us more accustomed to the reality side of the study, and from it we will find connection to Confucianism from the exam essay, business practice and culture in China. The third source is an academic paper titled The Influence of Confucianism and Buddhism on Chinese Business: the Case of Aveiro, Portugal by Tianbo Li and Gillian Owen Moreira of the University of Aveiro, Portugal. The text gives us great insight to bowl papers China business today, with data from questionnaires and how Confucianism exists in the world today. he source will be useful affirm hypothesis with real data and also provide knowledge on exam, the Confucianism that is being practice today.

Through out the paper we will use several other references and literature that are not as significant as the 2 english critical scheme, above texts, these sources and ap english rubric, references will further aid our paper. Argument: How does Confucius teaching reflect on ancient Chinese business culture and essay, practice and ap english exam, today Chinese business Culture and practices? History Commerce and trade has always been part of the social system in China for as long as we can remember, and as we know back in the ancient times, usinessman are not as highly regarded during the for children, ancient times when compared to ap english exam essay rubric today, as in college essay goals the ancient times commercial success had never won the respect of the society and Scholars, farmers and rubric, artisans was ahead in the social rank based on Confucian scheme of social stratification (xu,2007) . But still, it doesn’t deter businessmen during that time from essay classes, being wealthy and rich, Chinese businessmen has a long history of being smart, strategic, and agile thinker, which makes them as we can still aware today that they are great businessmen. The beginning of Commercial prominent with the merchant groups that started in Shanxi, Anhui and Zhejiang and Guangdong province, as the exam essay rubric, former two take advantage of the on craze for coaching classes, strategic location in which they were in that became eventually the ap english essay rubric, hub for trading between the north and south part of the country. But the good times for commerce as for other old Chinese tradition were negatively affected when the monarchy came to an end. But the latter two merchants (Zhejiang and Guangdong) has different approach to the trend of decline mainly helped by the strong international influenced and investment put towards coastal and southern cities of Guangzhou and shanghai that resulted with the trade network for research, these merchant that expand to the western region bring prosperous times for these merchants as well. As two merchant groups fell out of their luck the ap english essay rubric, other face a different fate and from then we came to know that the ancestral root of China’s modern merchant were the Zhejiang and Guangdong merchants. Business culture in the ancient times for intermediate 2 english critical marking, china as mention earlier were divided by four merchant groups that were originated from four different areas, we come to know that Shanxi and Anhui merchant were a more traditional merchant groups, due to ap english exam rubric ancient China emphasis on political influence more than economical benefits these two merchant groups become the more prominent merchant groups compared to the others due to their close relations with the intermediate 2 english critical essay scheme, government therefore ensuring their prosperity with favorable policy by the government to them, and for a long time this has become a huge part of the traditional business model in China until the monarchy ended, which turn its favor to ap english exam rubric a more to the more independent merchant of super research papers Zhejiang and Guangdong merchants. As these two merchants lay the oundation for the modern Chinese business culture we will explore more the how the teaching of Confucius influenced them.

Confucius concept in Business Confucius may not rank businessman in in high society rank, but there is no doubt that his teaching influence the many generation of businessmen up until today. There are many ways in which Confucianism affected how Chinese approach business practice. We start with ideology which we must first understand that Confucian theory work on three principles which were ‘ren’ (humility), ‘yi’ (collectivism) and ‘li’(etiquette), these three concepts run like the blood though the vein within Confucius’ teachings. We can learn from the littlest action to exam rubric the biggest and most controversial business practice can leads its way to Confucius teachings, but it is still by no means that Confucianism is in every business practice. Essay For Coaching Classes! Within Confucius teachings of harmony are taken and instill into business culture in the same way that he believes that society need to maintain harmonious relationship within each other, and also it can apply in finding the correct balance in ethics versus profits. To achieve these harmony there are always ways in which ‘ren’, ‘li’ and exam rubric, ‘yi’ is incorporated and essay for coaching classes, be use as the doctrine to act upon, in ap english exam essay ways that ‘ren’ which were filled with kind heartedness, benevolence and goodness, act upon to bring restraint on bad motives to gain profits in ways such as cheating, corrupting and manipulation. As for ‘li’, which brings order, rituals, and hierarchal importance, it is essay, definitely a prominent source to the reason for rubric, Chinese importance of politeness, and super research papers, hierarchical relationship is more importantly emphasized than anywhere else in the world. And lastly ‘yi’ which requires the promotion of collectivism to achieve social stability, we can definitely notice this in ap english essay rubric the way Chinese consider a proposal from a wider point of view, which consider the impact as a whole.

Action influence by essay in english for children ‘yi’ sometimes does not easily received in the West where individualism is more prominent (secondchina. com, 2012). When all ‘ren’,’li’, and ‘yi’ were achieve harmony within the system will be achieved. Second important concept that Confucius based his teachings on is the hierarchical relationships. Ap English Exam Rubric! Within China generally all tend to center around politeness and respect for the dominant figure in essay the relationship. Confucius specified the relationship of ap english essay ruler-subject, husband-wife, parent-child, the elder-younger brother, and the friend-friend relationship. Within this concept we feature ‘li’ as the dominant doctrine as it is the source of 2 english essay marking scheme order, and hierarchical concept aim to achieve order, to apply this concept within the business practice in china, we can see that through the hierarchical status within the the management of ap english exam essay a business, or even the relationship within the government and the people. Unlike the more egalitarian approach of the essay on craze, western society, where you can find managers try to break the formalization of ranks by asking a subordinates to call them by the first name, within china this situation will be hard to come by, as this teaching has been invested so deep into Chinese culture. In other example where hierarchical system is important for Chinese is that, we might notice Chinese businessmen reluctant or offended when a more lower rank personnel is exam, assign to handle his matter, and 2 english essay scheme, also within a family business which were very common in China, the elder son might take over the management of the company while the father have less responsibility, but when it comes to ap english exam essay rubric any important decision it is likely that the son will console the father to make final say.

Third concept is Collectivism, which is the power of group over essay, individualism as mention above collectivism is also ‘yi’ which states that social stability, in part, depends upon the co-dependence and focus on ap english, the family unit. Collectivism is inherent in a Confucian society. Ap Bio Mendel Essay! In order for Chinese society to ap english exam operate smoothly, it was necessary to subject one’s own desires to the greater good of the group. In other words, people didn’t exist independently of one another. Instead, an individual was defined by his or her relationship to the group (Chang, 2011). In a business environment especially in writing college essay the modern times, this is apparent in how there are more emphasis being put to exam essay the group performances when it comes to projects within the company and While the opinions of essay career goals elders have great influence, decisions are often made collectively and reached through a consensus. Lastly there is reciprocity, which is in ap english essay rubric general definition the practice of exchanging benefits or things. It is in fact something in on craze classes most western country known as the ap english exam essay, term ‘the golden rule’ which is to do unto other, as you would want to be done to you.

Within the Chinese business culture, it is to always act with respect toward each other, may it be to a subordinates or superior. Essay! This last concept in a way balances collectivism and hierarchical concept, with which it provides boundaries that a businessman should conduct themselves, with reciprocity businessmen is preach to always have respect towards everyone whether your in a position of rubric power or not. Confucius in today’s world. Now that we have connected in some dots that connect Confucianism from the realm of philosophy and politics to starting the body of an the business culture that still persist today, we will now try to further understand on how important is Confucianism in today’s world and especially the business world. As we know China has grown rapidly over the past 30 years and essay rubric, it has establish itself as the ap bio mendel, factory of the world and exam, its just a matter of time until it stake claim to be the largest economy in the world. But among this highlights we also can see from the what’s happening with this growth that Chinese businessmen were again on the raise, not since the cultural revolution that halted the economy so much and causing many businessman to flee to starting the body essay country outside of China has businessmen of China has this much claim their respected status of being great businessman.

It is comebacks that may have been predicted since the ap english essay, opening of china to the world, a philosophy that during the Mao Zedong Cultural Revolution the philosophy was believe to be the main culprit for China not moving forward. But, it is an college underestimation that a philosophy that was created in china and for what it seems a eternity that the basis of ap english exam essay Chinese culture surround upon this philosophy, to be replaced by another philosophy of an alien kind. Nowadays Confucianism is everywhere, and it seems the nations supports and feels the needs to rekindle their old philosophy, with books, films, and study programs within the China education system on writing essay goals, Confucianism, but the most intriguing aspect of the manifestation is its recent adoption by the communist party. As an article from the economist explains since becoming China’s top leader in 2002, President Hu Jintao has promoted such slogans, which include “Harmonious Society” and “Xiaokang Shehui” (“a moderately well off society”) which possessed hints of the essay, philosophy of Confucianism. (economists, 2007) Taken from source on the study of the ‘influences and mendel essay, Buddhism and Confucianism on Chinese business’ by Li Tianbo and Gillian Owen Moreira, it is revealed on the importance of Confucianism philosophy are for ap english exam essay, Businessmen of china considered guanxi which are ‘connections’ as an important part of business in china, along with other Confucius teaching of super harmony, politeness etc. n their studies Li and Moreira set out a questionnaires to 550 to exam essay 59 different company to each of their personnel and received 288 valid questionnaires back, their result are indicative to Confucianism in the body essay Chinese business culture with, as the result show when asked about cultural values considered important, “68. 7% of the respondents selected interpersonal harmony, 62. 6% considered trust, 50. 8% included collectivism, and 46. 5% chose guanxi (?? ), followed by endurance, social status, thrift, face and others. These results demonstrate how much importance is attributed to the role of interpersonal harmony, trust, collectivism and guanxi (?? ) in successful business in China. ” (Li and Moreira, 2007) The study from Li Moreira goes beyond just how Confucianism is perceived today but also how it works in managing a company and its contribution to the Chinese business culture, with many acknowledging its presence, and exam rubric, ready made ideology, that can fit in essay on craze for coaching classes any business day to day running’s. Conclusions Based on the process of understanding the background of Confucius teachings and the application it has on the business culture in china through out the ap english exam essay, civilization our argument of how Confucius teaching reflect on ancient Chinese business culture and practice and today Chinese business Culture and practices can be conclude that Confucianism does have a significant impact on the business culture in china, and how businessmen of essay on craze for coaching China mold their thoughts, from simple transactions, managements and ethical view of the company.

For me the whole idea of Confucianism is something that has been invested for exam essay, too long within the the body, Chinese culture that it makes what Chinese people, not just the rubric, Mainland Chinese people but also any nationalities with Chinese origins who they are. Even during the times of cultural change something that defines a race cannot be change. Super Bowl Research! The modesty, hierarchical thinking and collectivism is something that cannot be taken away, and for me personally, being a person of exam essay rubric Indonesian nationalities with Chinese origin it something that you grown up with, albeit I never actually thought specifically what it was, but it felt like it is our identity to act upon Confucianism idea. Having experience a fair share working and understanding with people of intermediate 2 english critical essay scheme two different mindset of exam rubric both western and Chinese, I notice many differences in approaches that they go about when they do business. I can confirm based on of an essay, personal experience from the above statement that Guangxi is the most important philosophy ahead of harmony within chinese businessmen, having experience first hand of how connection can get you further ahead than the essay rubric, rest in business but also for western culture I experience and witness how individualism is promoted, having seen this in ap bio essay many western fast food chain where employee of the month award was given and etc. In conclusion, Confucianism I believe was, is and will be everywhere in Chinese business culture, the nature of Chinese culture that support and accepted it are always going to ap english rubric be there as it is a philosophy that has become the norm within everyday life in China. as the future tilt closer to favor China as the world biggest economy it will only be the matter of time when Confucianism business culture spread and no longer be seen as a culture shock by the western civilizations. References. Economist, ‘Ideology in China Confucius makes a comeback’, Beijing, May 2007, ‘http://www. economist. com. hk/node/9202957’ Chang, E. , ‘East Meets West:understanding cultural differences when doing business in intermediate critical essay china’, April 20th ,2011, MeteringChina. com Li and Moreira, ‘The Influence of Confucianism and Buddhism on Chinese Business: the essay rubric, Case of Aveiro, Portugal’, university of Aveiro, Portugal, 2007, ‘http://www. immi. se/intercultural/nr19/tianbo. htm’ University of Florida, ‘CHINESE BUSINESS CULTURE?

Confucian Business Ethics – General’, 2009, ‘http://secondchina. com/Learning_Modules/BUS_web/content/BUS_confucian_ethics. html’ Xu , ‘An introduction to Chinese Business culture’, 2007, Jinan University Press. Haven’t found what you want? 12-22 Newhall St, Birmingham B3 3AS, UK [emailprotected] Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about career receiving a customized one?

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