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BP dividend 'will resume in February' after oil spill suspension. By James Quinn , US Business Editor. 6:30AM BST 12 Aug 2010. Tineke Frikkee, manager of the ?2.5bn Newton Higher Income fund, has said that she still favours the company even though it cut its dividend for this year in the midst of the Gulf of Mexico spill . The dividend fund held 8pc of its assets in BP at the end of May. Ms Frikkee told Reuters that she has not sold down the position since the crisis began on April 20, following the fatal explosion which killed 11 riggers. Essay? Her vocal support for BP will be important in reassuring smaller investors who rely on BP's dividend as part of their regular income.
Before it suspended further 2010 dividend payments in June #x2013; as part of a commitment to fund a $20bn (?12.8bn) Gulf clean-up and compensation fund #x2013; BP was the conflict paper, largest dividend payer in the UK. Recent research by Capita Registrars suggested the cancellation of this year's pay-out had cost shareholders ?5.4bn. However Ms Frikkee said she believes the BP board is committed to future payments and expects an increase in the company's dividend come February. Our concerns have been eased by a number of factors #x2013; the the purges essay, phasing of the liability payments, the current assumptions on the likely cost of the thesis statement handout middle, incident, its asset disposal programme and the continuing strong underlying cash generation to retain the business, she said. Essay? These factors, coupled with the strong commitment to of the in nation deliver future dividends, have led us to retain BP in anticipation of the early resumption of its dividend stream. However her comments failed to bolster BP's share price, which fell 8.35 to 411p as bad weather in the purges, the Gulf continued to impinge on the final sealing of the Macondo well.
A tropical depression suspended the drilling of the final parts of the relief well, through which cement will be pumped to seal the bottom of the Macondo well. The Role? The share price was also affected by news that BP is delaying off-shore drilling in Libya. The company had expected to begin deep-water exploration drilling off the essay, Libyan coast in the next few weeks, but BP said it would now take place before the end of the year. We are working on the last details and we are talking now about the nurse critical questions, second half of the year, said a company spokesman. The delay follows a political outcry over the company's 2007 deal with the Libyan government, amid suggestions #x2013; which have been vehemently denied by all parties involved #x2013; that it was linked to the Scottish Parliament's release of Abdel Basset Ali al-Megrahi, the Lockerbie bomber.
The 2007 deal allows BP to drill wells in Libya's Gulf of Sirte at depths of around 5,500 feet, a little deeper than the ill-fated Macondo well in the Gulf of Mexico. Meanwhile, Congressman Ed Markey #x2013; one of essay BP#x2019;s most vocal critics in the US Congress #x2013; called on the company to accept the US government#x2019;s estimate of how much oil spewed into the Gulf of Mexico as the basis to decide how much it might face in civil fines. Conflict Management Paper? A government report found that 4.9m barrels of oil spilled into the Gulf in a three-month period. Based on civil penalties, which could see BP forced to pay up to $1,100 for each barrel spilled #x2013; or $4,300 if found to have been grossly negligent #x2013; the company could end up with a fine of $21bn. In the letter, addressed to BP Americas head Lamar McKay, Mr Markey wrote: #x201c;BP#x2019;s acceptance. is fundamental to its claim that it #x2018;is doing everything it can to make this right#x2019;. The Purges Essay? Low-balling or litigating the. estimate would be just one more insult to thinking questions the people of the the purges, Gulf.#x201d; BP has yet to conflict management research paper say whether it accepts the estimate, provided by the US Scientific Team.
Top fund manager Mark Barnett: 'Why I am buying bombed-out BP' Andrew Critchlow: Age of $100 oil will return as energy industry cuts too deep. Oil shares yield 6pc, but are the the purges essay, dividends safe? Iran backs down on Opec sending Brent oil price tumbling. North Sea needs ?1 trillion to tap remaining oil and book essays, gas. The biggest companies in the world in 2015. The Fortune Global 500 has been released the annual ranking of the the purges essay, largest companies in the world by revenues.
Here is a list of the 20 biggest corporate money-makers. The Big Short hits UK cinemas: these are the best films about business. The Big Short, the conflict research, film adaptation of Michael Lewis' book of the same name about the causes of the financial crisis, opens in UK cinemas this weekend. How will the essay, story stack up against the greatest films about business? These are the essay youth in nation building, most valuable start-ups in the world. In pics: Some fledgling firms have reached valuations in essay, the tens of billions. Conflict? These are the 20 priciest of them all. Essay? Starbucks' secret menu - the drinks you didn't know you can ask for. There are over the role in nation building 87,000 different drink combinations at Starbucks, according to the coffee retailer’s website. How many of the purges them do you know? From flu remedies to obesity Harry Potter-inspired beverages, we highlight the weird and the wonderful brews and essay, infusions.
Revealed: the weirdest sub-genres on Netflix. From 'scary cult movies from the 1980s' to 'coming-of-age animal tales', Netflix has every niche covered. Revealed: The 20 best countries in thesis for childhood, the world to do business. The Purges? Forbes's annual index assess countries by a range of factors from taxes and technology to red tape and innovation. These are the top 20 countries for doing business. What are the super-rich planning for Valentine's Day? From a rare pair of Gucci shoes, to spending £110,000 releasing an album, Britain's wealthiest are pulling out critical thinking questions, all the essay, stops. First rate rise in thesis handout, 'August 2019' - latest market prediction. Briefing: Predictions saw a huge shift this week. We explain why - and essay, what it means for mortgages and savings.
The world's 10 most expensive cities 2015. New data: Discover the priciest cities around the nurse, globe for luxury property. Tables: The cheapest places to buy an Isa. Our colour-coded tables show at a glance which investment shop will be cheapest for you. More from the the purges essay, web. More from The Telegraph. The latest news, opinion and analysis. Catch up on all the latest football news and results. All the latest film trailers, reviews and features. Enter one of our exciting new competitions.
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Explain the effects of the purges in the Soviet Union in the 1930s
mq admin resume Q1.What is the purges, MQ and what does it do? Ans. MQ stands for MESSAGE QUEUEING. Essay Of The? WebSphere MQ allows application programs to use message queuing to participate in message-driven processing. Application programs can communicate across different platforms by using the appropriate message queuing software products.
Q2.What is essay, Message driven process? Ans . When messages arrive on thesis handout middle school a queue, they can automatically start an application using triggering . If necessary, the applications can be stopped when the the purges message (or messages) have been processed. Q3.What are advantages of the MQ? Ans. 1. Integration. 3. Assured Delivery. Q4.How does it support the Integration? Ans . Because the MQ is independent of the Operating System you use i.e. Conflict Management Paper? it may be Windows, Solaris,AIX.It is independent of the the purges protocol (i.e. TCP/IP, LU6.2, SNA, NetBIOS, UDP).It is not required that both the sender and receiver should be running on the same platform. 5. Management Research Paper? What is Asynchrony?
Ans. With message queuing, the exchange of messages between the sending and receiving programs is independent of time. This means that the sending and receiving application programs are decoupled; the sender can continue processing without having to the purges essay wait for the receiver to acknowledge receipt of the message. The target application does not even have to obesity be running when the message is sent. It can retrieve the message after it is the purges, has been started. Q6.what is a Message and conflict management research what does it contain? Ans: A message is a string of bytes that is meaningful to the applications that use it.
Messages are used to transfer information from the purges essay, one application program to another (or between different parts of the same application). The applications can be running on conflict the same platform, or on different platforms. WebSphere MQ messages have two parts: 1. The application data . The content and structure of the application data is defined by the application programs that use it. 2. A message descriptor . The Purges? The message descriptor identifies the message and contains additional control information, such as the type of message and nurse critical questions the priority assigned to the message by the purges essay the sending application. WebSphere MQ defines the format of the message descriptor. Q7.What is the Max Length of the critical thinking message does MQ support/
Ans: The default maximum message length is 4 MB , although you can increase this to a maximum length of 100 MB (where 1 MB equals 1 048 576 bytes). Ans: A queue is the purges, a data structure used to store messages. A queue manager owns each queue. The queue manager is responsible for maintaining the queues it owns, and for storing all the messages it receives onto the appropriate queues. Q9.What are the Different Types Of Queues? Ans: Queues can be characterized by thesis for childhood the way they are created: 1. Predefined queues are created by an administrator using the appropriate MQSC or PCF commands. Predefined queues are permanent; they exist independently of the applications that use them and survive Web Sphere MQ restarts. 2 Dynamic queues are created when an the purges essay, application issues an MQOPEN request specifying the name of a model queue . Conflict? The queue created is based on a template queue definition , which is called a model queue. Q10.How does an application sends and receives messages from the Queues? Ans: Application programs send and receive messages using MQI calls.
MQOPEN: It is used to essay open the Require Queue. MQPUT: It is thesis obesity, used to the purges PUT the message in to the Required Queue. MQGET: It is used to get the message from the required Queue. MQCONNX: This command used to connect to the QueueManager. MQPUT1: It performs the putting, browsing and management getting application at a time on a single queue. MQCLOSE: It closes the connection with the Queue. MQDISC: This is used to disconnect the application with the Queuemanager. 11.What is the Algorithm followed in retrieving the Messages from the Queue? Ans: 1.First-in-first-out (FIFO). 2.Message priority, as defined in the message descriptor.
Messages that have the same priority are retrieved on a FIFO basis. 3. A program request for a specific message. Q12.What are the Objects used in Web sphere MQ? Ans: 1. Queue Manager 2. The Purges? Queues. 3. Channels 4. Processes 5. Name lists . Q13.Wbat is the Default port number for MQ Queue Manager? Q14.Mention the Different Types of MQ Queues? Ans: There are four types of nurse questions Queues Available in Web sphere MQ. Local queue object : A local queue object identifies a local queue belonging to the queue manager to which the application is connected. All queues are local queues in the purges essay the sense that each queue belongs to a queue manager and, for that queue manager; the queue is a local queue. Remote queue object : A remote queue object identifies a queue belonging to another queue manager .This queue must be defined as a local queue to that queue manager.The information you specify when you define a remote queue object allows the local queue manager to thesis handout middle find the remote queue manager, so that any messages destined for the remote queue go to the correct queue manager. Alias queue object An alias queue allows applications to access a queue by the purges referring to it indirectly in MQI calls.
When an alias queue name is for css essays, used in the purges essay an MQI call, the name is for css essays, resolved to the name of either a local or a remote queue at run time. This allows you to change the queues that applications use without changing the application in any way; you merely change the alias queue definition to reflect the name of the new queue to which the alias resolves. An alias queue is not a queue, but an object that you can use to access another queue. Model queue object A model queue defines a set of queue attributes that are used as a template for creating a dynamic queue. Q15.How can U define Queues in MQ? Ans: Queues are defined to Web Sphere MQ using: 1. The MQSC command DEFINE. 2. Essay? The PCF Create Queue command.
Q16.What is Transmission Queue? Ans: Transmission queues are queues that temporarily store messages that are destined for a remote queue manager. You must define at least one transmission queue for each remote queue manager to which the local queue manager is to send messages directly. Q17.What is Initiation Queues? Ans: Initiation queues are queues that are used in thinking triggering.
A queue manager puts a trigger message on an initiation queue when a trigger event occurs. A trigger event is the purges, a logical combination of conditions that is detected by a queue manager. Q18.What is Dead Letter Queue? Ans: A dead-letter (undelivered-message) queue is a queue that stores messages that cannot be routed to their correct destinations. Thesis Obesity? This occurs when, for the purges essay example, the best book essays destination queue is essay, full. The supplied dead-letter queue is called SYSTEM.DEAD.LETTER.QUEUE. Father's Day Essay Contest 2012? For distributed queuing, define a dead-letter queue on each queue manager involved. Q19.What is Process Definition and essay what are the attributes does it contain? Ans: A process definition object defines an application that starts in response to a trigger event on about building a WebSphere MQ queue manager. The process definition attributes include the application ID , the application type , and data specific to the application.
Q20 . Essay? What is channel and mention different types of channels in MQ? Ans: Channels are objects that provide a communication path from one queue manager to statement middle school another. Channels are used in distributed queuing to move messages from the purges, one queue manager to another. They shield applications from the underlying communications protocols. The queue managers might exist on conflict research the same, or different, platforms. Different types of Channels: 1. Sender-Receiver Channels. 2. Requester-Server Channels.
3. Client Connection channels. 4. Server Connection Channels. 5. Cluster Sender. 6. Cluster Receiver Channels. Q21What is Cluster?
Ans: A cluster is a group of essay queue managers set up in such a way that the queue managers can communicate directly with one another over a single network, without the need for transmission queue, channel, and thesis middle school remote queue definitions. Q22.What is MQ Client? Ans: A Web Sphere MQ client is the purges essay, a component that allows an application running on a system to issue MQI calls to a queue manager running on another system. Research? The output from the call is sent back to the client, which passes it back to the application. Q23.What is MQ Server? Ans: A Web Sphere MQ server is the purges essay, a queue manager that provides queuing services to one or more clients. All the Web Sphere MQ objects, for essay about the role of the youth in nation building example queues, exist only on the queue manager machine (the Web Sphere MQ server machine), and not on the client. A Web Sphere MQ server can also support local Web Sphere MQ. Q24.What are commands used for creating the Queue manager from the Command prompt? Ans : crtmqm -q -d MY.DEFAULT.XMIT.QUEUE -u DEAD.LETTER.QUEUE QM1.
Here -q used to the purges essay define the Queue manager QM1 as a Default Queue manager. -d is used to for childhood define the default transmission Queue -u is used to define the default dead letter queue. Q25.How can U make the existing Queue Manager as an the purges, default Queue Manager? Ans: On Windows systems, use the Web Sphere MQ Services snap-in to display the properties of the queue manager, and check the Make queue manager the father's 2012 default box. You need to essay stop and thesis restart the queue manager for the change to take effect. Q26.Where are the backup files are present after creating the Queue Manager? Ans: Windows systems : If you use Web Sphere MQ for essay Windows NT and Windows 2000, configuration information is stored in the Windows Registry. UNIX Systems : 1. When you install the product, the Web Sphere MQ configuration file (mqs.ini) is best for css essays, created. It contains a list of the purges queue managers that is updated each time you create or delete a queue manager.
There is one mqs.ini file per node. 2. When you create a new queue manager, a new queue manager configuration file (qm.ini) is automatically created. This contains configuration parameters for the queue manager. Q27.What is the command used for starting the Queue Manager? Ans: strmqm QMName. Q28.What is the command used for stopping the Queue manager? Ans: endmqm -w QMName. The command waits until all applications have stopped and the queue manager has ended.
This type of shutdown does not wait for applications to disconnect from the queue manager. Q29.What is the command used to book delete the QueueManager? Ans: dltmqm QMName. Q30.How can a Client connect to the purges a Remote Server? Ans: The client can establish a connect with the contest 2012 Server using the command. SET MQSERVER=SYSTEM.ADMIN.SVRCONN/TCP/IPADDRESS (PORT NO)
Here SYSTEM.ADMIN.SVRCONN is the Default server connection channel used to connect to the server TCP is the protocol used. IPADDRESS is the IP address of the server PORT : Port no is the no on which the QueueManager is running. Q33.What does MQSC Commands are used for? Ans: You can use MQSC commands to manage queue manager objects, including the the purges queue manager itself, clusters, channels, queues, namelists, process definitions, and authentication information objects. Q34.Is the MQSC attributes are Case sensitive? Ans: MQSC commands, including their attributes, can be written in uppercase or lowercase. Object names in MQSC commands are folded to uppercase (that is, QUEUE and queue are not differentiated), unless the names are enclosed within single quotation marks. If quotation marks are not used, the object is processed with a name in uppercase. Q35.How can we write the MQSC commands that have too many parameters/
Ans: For commands that have too many parameters to fit on one line, use continuation characters to indicate that a command is continued on the following line: 1. A minus sign ( ) indicates that the school command is to be continued from the start of _ the following line. 2. The Purges? A plus sign (+) indicates that the command is to be continued from the first nonblank character on the following line. Q36.What is the thesis middle school Max size that Queues support in MQ. Ans. They support around 2GB of Size. Q37.How can u create a Transmission Queue from a local Queue?
Ans. Change the usage attribute from the purges, normal to Transmission. Q38.Define a Local Queue LQ using the MQSC Commands in the QM QM1. Ans: runmqsc QM1. Define qlocal (LQ) Q39.Display the attributes of the Queue Manager QM1? Ans: runmqsc QM1. Q40.What is Triggering? Ans: Web Sphere MQ enables you to start an application automatically when certain conditions on a queue are met. Conflict Research? For example, you might want to start an application when the number of messages on a queue reaches a specified number.
This facility is called triggering. Q41.Explain the different types of Triggering? Ans: There are three types of the purges essay triggering. 1. FIRST: 2. EVERY 3. DEPTH. Q42.What is the Different Logging Methods available? Ans: There are two different types available. 1. Circular : The circular logging is used for for childhood restart recovery. It is the default logging method.
Circular is used in Development and Testing Queues. Circular logging keeps all restart Data in a ring of log files. Logging fills the essay first file in the ring, then moves on to the and so on, until all the files are full. It then goes back to the first file in 2012 the ring and starts This continues as long as the product is in essay use, and has the advantage that you never run out of nurse questions log files. 2. Linear : Linear logging gives you both restart recovery and media recovery. It is used in Production. Linear logging keeps the log data in a continuous Sequence of files. Space is not reused, so you can always retrieve any record logged from the essay time that the conflict management research queue manager was created. As disk space is finite, you might have to the purges essay think about some form of archiving. Thesis For Childhood Obesity? It is an administrative task to the purges essay manage your disk space for the log, reusing Or extending the existing space as necessary.
Q43.What is the Default location where the conflict research logs are stored and mention the default sizes? Ans: Default location: Windows : C:Program FilesIBMWebSphere MQlogqmgr. Q44.What is the log file size? Ans: In Web Sphere MQ for Windows NT and Win 2000, the minimum value is 32, and the maximum is 16 384. The default value is essay, 256, giving a default log size of the role building 1 MB. In Web Sphere MQ for UNIX systems, the minimum value is 64, and the maximum is the purges essay, 16 384.
The default value is 1024, giving a default log size of 4 MB. Q45 what is the number for essay about the role log primary and the purges secondary file allocated? Ans: Primary log files: The number of primary log files to be allocated. The default value is 3, the questions minimum is the purges, 2, and the maximum is 62. Secondary log files: The number of secondary log files to contest be allocated. Essay? The default value is 2, the minimum is critical, 1, and the purges the maximum is 61. Q46.What is the difference between Persistent and Non Persistent Messages? Ans: In Web Sphere MQ, messages can be either persistent or non persistent. Persistent messages are logged and can be recovered in the role youth in nation building the event of a WebSphere MQ failure. Thus, persistent messages are guaranteed to be delivered once and only once. Nonpersistent messages are not logged.
Web Sphere still guarantees to deliver them not more than once, but it does not promise to deliver them once. Q47.What is the effect of using Persistant messages? Ans: Persistent messages are usually logged. Logging messages reduces the performance of essay your application, so use persistent messages for essential data only. If the data in a message can be discarded if the queue manager stops or fails, use a nonpersistent message. Q48.What is Intercommunication? Ans: In Web Sphere MQ, intercommunication means sending messages from one Queue manager to another. The receiving queue manager could be on essay about building the same machine or another; nearby or on the other side of the world. It could be running on the same platform as the local queue manager, or could be on any of the the purges platforms supported by Web Sphere MQ.
This is management, called a distributed environment . Web Sphere MQ handles communication in a distributed environment such as this using Distributed Queue Management (DQM). The local queue manager is the purges essay, sometimes called the source queue manager and 2012 the remote queue manager is sometimes called the target queue manager or the partner queue manager. Q49.What is the Objects required for the DQM? Ans: On source QueueManager: 1. Transmission Queue 2. Remote queue definition. 3. Dead Letter Queue(recommended) 4. Sender Channel. On Target Queue Manager. 1. Local Queue 2. Essay? Dead Letter Queue 3. Receiver Channel 4.Listenr. ***.The sender and receiver channels names should be same. Q50.What is the attribute used to by the Message length? Q51.What is Message Channel agent (MCA)?
Ans: A message channel agent (MCA) is a program that controls the sending and receiving of messages. There is thesis for childhood obesity, one message channel agent at each end of a channel. One MCA takes messages from the essay transmission queue and puts them on the communication link. The other MCA receives messages and delivers them onto a queue on the remote queue manager. A message channel agent is called a caller MCA if it initiated the nurse thinking questions communication; otherwise it is called a responder MCA . Q52.What is Channel initiators and Listeners? Ans: A channel initiator acts as a trigger monitor for the purges sender channels, because a transmission queue may be defined as a triggered queue. When a message arrives on a transmission queue that satisfies the triggering criteria for thesis for childhood that queue, a message is sent to the purges essay the initiation queue, triggering the channel initiator to start the.
appropriate sender channel. You can also start server channels in this way if you specified the best for css essays connection name of the partner in the channel definition. This means that channels can be started automatically, based upon messages arriving on the appropriate transmission queue. You need a channel listener program to start receiving (responder) MCAs. Responder MCAs are started in response to a startup request from the the purges essay caller MCA; the channel listener detects incoming network requests and starts the associated channel. Q53.What are attributes required for the Sender Channel? Ans: 1. The Name of the Channel. 2. The Connection name. 3. Transmission Queue Name. Q54.What are the for css attributes required for the Remote Queue Definition? Ans: 1.Name of the Queue 2. Transmission Queue Name.
3. Remote QueueManager name 4. Remote Local Queue Name. Q55.Mention the No of Characters required for creating names of the MQ objects? Ans: For MQ Channels it is 20 Characters. For Remaining objects it is 48 characters. Q56.What is the the purges essay command used for the running trigger monitor?
Ans: Server side: runmqtrm -m QMName -q Initiation QueueName. Client side: runmqtmc -m QMName -q Initiation QueueName. Q57.What is the command used for creating the listener? Ans: crtmqlsr -t tcp -m QMNAME -p portno. Q58.What is the commands used for running listener? Ans: runmqlsr -t tcp -m QMNAME -p portno. Q59.What is command used to perform task on the MQ services? Q60.What are commands used on the Command server? Ans: 1. Thesis Handout School? strmqcsv : to start the command server. 2. dspmqcsv : to display the command server. 3. endmqcsv : To end the command server.
Q61.Is there is any chance for the Message loss? Ans: If the target queuemanager doesn.t contain the dead letter queue defined and if the essay messages are running on a fast channel and of non persistant,Then there is a chance of the message loss. Q62.What is the use of clustering? Ans. Contest 2012? Due to the use of essay clustering. 1. The Administrator tasks can be reduced.
2. We can achieve the Workload balance. Q63.How many no Full Repository Queue Managers are required for best essays creating a cluster. What is the difference between full and partial repositories? Ans: In each cluster you must select at essay least one, preferably two, or possibly more of the queue managers to hold full repositories. Statement Middle School? A cluster can work quite adequately with only one full repository but using two improves availability. Every cluster has at least one (preferably two) queue managers holding full repositories of essay information about the queue managers, queues, and channels in youth building a cluster.
These repositories also contain requests from the other queue managers in the cluster for updates to the information. The other queue managers each hold a partial repository, containing information about the the purges essay subset of queues and queue managers with which they need to father's day essay 2012 communicate. Q64.Where does the information about the messages of a QueueManager are stored when they are in cluster? Ans: Each queue manager stores its repository information in messages on a queue called SYSTEM.CLUSTER.REPOSITORY.QUEUE . The queue managers exchange repository information in messages on the purges a queue called SYSTEM.CLUSTER.COMMAND.QUEUE . Q65.What is the command that is used to provide authorization for the clients? Ans : setmqaut -m QMName -t queue -n Queuename -p GUEST +all. Q66. What are the common errors u get in DQM? Ans: mqrc 2058: MQRC_Q_MGR_NAME_ERROR.
Mqrc 2059: MQRC_Q_MGR_NOT_AVAILABLE. Mqrc 2033: MQRC_NO_MSG_AVAILABLE. Mqrc 2085: MQRC_UNKNOWN_OBJECT_NAME. Mqrc 2009: MQRC_CONNECTION_BROKEN. Mqrc 2043: MQRC_OBJECT_TYPE_ERROR.
Mqrc 2086: MQRC_UNKNOWN_OBJECT_Q_MGR. Mqrc 2035: MQRC_NOT_AUTHORIZED. Q67.What are different modes in which a application can connect to a Queuemanager? Ans: 1.Binding mode: In binding mode, also known as server connection, the communication to the queue manager utilizes inter-process communications. Conflict Research? One of the key factors that should be kept in mind is that binding mode is available only to the purges programs running on father's the MQSeries server that hosts the queue manager. A program using binding mode will not run from an MQSeries client machine.
Binding mode is a fast and efficient way to interact with MQSeries. Certain Facilities, such as XA transaction co-ordination by queue manager, are available only in essay binding mode. 2. Thesis For Childhood? Client Connection: Client connection uses a TCP/IP connection to the MQSeries Server and enables communications with the queue manager. The Purges? Programs using client connections can run on an MQSeries client machine as well as on an MQSeries server machine. Client connections use client channels on the queue manager to essay about the role of the youth in nation communicate with the queue manager. Essay? The client connection does not support XA transaction coordination by the queue manager. Q68.What are the different types of messaging systems used by JMS? Ans: JMS applications use either the day essay contest 2012 point-to-point (PTP) or publish/subscribe style of messaging.
Point-to-Point : Point-to-point messaging involves working with queues of messages. The sender sends messages to a specific queue to be consumed normally by essay a single receiver. In point-to-point communication, a message has at thesis for childhood obesity most one recipient. A sending client addresses the the purges essay message to the queue that holds the messages for the intended (receiving) client. Publish/Subscribe: In contrast to the point-to-point model of communication, the publish/subscribe model enables the delivery of a message to multiple recipients. A sending client addresses, or publishes, the obesity message to a topic to which multiple clients can be subscribed. There can be multiple publishers, as well as subscribers, to a topic. Q69.What are different Channel status? Ans: Channel Status: 2.1).
Stopped 2.2). Essay? Starting 2.3). Essay The Role Of The? Retrying. 2.4.1). Initializing 2.4.2). Binding 2.4.3). Requesting. 2.4.4). Running 2.4.5). Paused 2.4.6). Stopping.
Q70.Is It Possible to essay use one transmission Queue for the multiple message channels? Ans: It is father's 2012, possible to define more than one channel per transmission queue, but only one of the purges these channels can be active at father's day essay contest 2012 any one time. This is recommended for the provision of alternative routes between queue managers for traffic balancing and link failure corrective action. A transmission queue cannot be used by another channel if the previous channel to use it terminated leaving a batch of messages in-doubt at the purges essay the sending end. Q71.What is BATCH HEARTBEAT INTERVAL? Ans: The batch heartbeat interval allows a sending channel to verify that the receiving channel is still active just before committing a batch of messages, so that if the essays receiving channel is not active, the batch can be backed out rather than becoming in-doubt, as would otherwise be the case. By backing out the batch, the. messages remain available for the purges essay processing so they could, for example, be redirected to another channel. Q72.What is Keep Alive Interval? Ans: The Keep Alive Interval parameter is used to specify a time-out value for a channel.
The Keep Alive Interval parameter is a value passed to the communications stack specifying the Keep Alive timing for essay about the role youth in nation the channel. The Purges Essay? It allows you to specify a different keep alive value for each channel. The value indicates a time, in seconds, and must be in the range 0 to 99999. Q73.What is LONG Retry count? Ans: Specify the maximum number of times that the channel is to statement handout middle school try allocating a session to essay its partner. If the initial allocation attempt fails, the short retry count number is decremented and the channel retries the thesis middle remaining number of times. Q74.What is the command used to test whether the the purges essay channel is father's contest, active or not? Ping channel (channel name). Q75. What are the commands that are used on client side for putting and getting messages from the purges, a queue? Ans: amqsputc -q Queue name -m QMName.
amqsgetc -q Queue name -m QMName. Q76.What is the Default max Queue depth? Q77.What are the for childhood obesity administrative commands that are used in Publish and Subscribe? Ans: The strmqbrk command is essay, used to start a broker. Handout? The first time this command is run on a queue manager, all the relevant MQSeries objects are automatically created.
strmqbrk -m MYQMGRNAME. The dspmqbrk command is used to check the essay status of the broker. Possible states are: starting, running, stopping, quiescing, not active and ended abnormally. dspmqbrk -m MYQMGRNAME. The endmqbrk command is used to middle stop a broker. There are two options: -c requests a controlled shutdown (default), -i requests an immediate shutdown. endmqbrk -i -m MYQMGRNAME.
Q78.What is the algorithm that is followed by MQ in essay clustering? Ans: WebSphere MQ uses a workload management algorithm that uses a round-robin routine to select an available queue manager to route a message to. Q79.What is multiple hoping? Ans: If there is no direct communication link between the source queue manager and the target queue manager, it is possible to pass through one or more intermediate queue managers on the way to 2012 the target queue manager. This is known as a multi-hop. Q80.What are the platform does MQ Client support?
Ans : WebSphere MQ for AIX. WebSphere MQ for essay HP-UX. WebSphere MQ for iSeries. WebSphere MQ for Solaris. WebSphere MQ for Windows. WebSphere MQ for z/OS. Q81.What are the Hardware requirements for WebSphere MQ client?
Ans: A WebSphere MQ client can run on Windows on any Intel 486 processor based IBM PC machine or equivalent that can run Windows 98 or Windows NT® 4.0. There must be enough random access memory (RAM) and disk storage for the programming prerequisites (below), the WebSphere MQ client, the access methods, and the application programs. Q82.What are software requirements for WebSphere MQ client? Ans: The following are prerequisites for WebSphere MQ applications running on a Windows client. Minimum supported software levels are shown. Nurse Thinking? Later levels, if any, will be supported unless otherwise stated.
Microsoft Windows NT, Version 4 compatible, to include TCP/IP, NetBIOS, SNA LU 6.2, and SPX.Microsoft Windows 98. What’s the the purges message code for best book Stopping a Queue Manager? AMQ4044 Queue manager stopping. What is triggering and what are the the purges components? WebSphere MQ can start an application automatically when certain conditions on a queue are met. For example, you might want to the role of the youth building start an application when the maximum number of messages on a queue reaches a specified number.
This facility is called triggering. There are two ways of triggering. a. Application triggering b. Channel Triggering. a) In the case of application triggering the components are Application queue: This is the message queue associated with an application Process: A process definition defines the application to be used to process messages from the application queue. Initiation queue: The queue manager moitors the application queue. If the trigger type of the application queue is set to Every then whenever a message is the purges essay, put to the application queue, the q manager looks into the process definition and puts a message having the application name and best for css essays other details to the initiation queue Trigger monitor: The trigger monitor gets the trigger message from the initiation queue and starts the program specified.
b) For channel triggering the transmission queue is monitored and the purges when messages are put in the transmission queue, the nurse questions q manager puts a message in the channel initiation queue. The channel initiator is the program which monitors the initiation queue and starts the sender MCA. For the message to reach the target queue, the channel listener has to be running in the purges essay the target queue manager. How will you change the log file size? You cannot change the log file size. For this you need to drop and re-create the best for css essays queue manager. The Purges? The number of log files primary secondary can be changed but you need to restart the Q manager for statement middle school the changes to take effect.
What’s the queue where the full and essay partial repository is stored? How to determine if full repositories are in critical thinking Synch? SYSTEM.CLUSTER.REPOSITORY.QUEUES should have the same depth. Also you should find something in your errorlogs if it fails. If the channels between the two FRs are able to the purges essay run, trust IBM, and conflict assume all is well use runmqsc to display all cluster objects. The Purges Essay? Redirect the output into a file Analyze both files for day essay differences . What is the purges essay, Local administration and Remote administration?
Local Administration: Means carrying out best book essays administration tasks on any queue managers you have defined on your local system. Remote Administration: This allows you to issue commands from your local system that are processed on the purges essay another system. For example, you can issue a remote command to change a queue definition on essay the role of the youth in nation a remote queue manager. You do not have to the purges essay log on thinking to that system, although you do need to have the the purges essay appropriate channels defined. The queue manager and command server on the target system must be running. Runmqsc command modes? Verification Mode Direct Mode Indirect Mode. How do you set channel triggering? 1. The local queue manager places a message from an thesis for childhood obesity, application or from a message channel agent (MCA) on the transmission queue. 2. Essay? When the triggering conditions are fulfilled, the local queue manager places a trigger message on the initiation queue.
3. The long-running channel initiator program monitors the initiation queue, and retrieves messages as they appear. 4. Father's 2012? The channel initiator processes the the purges trigger messages according to information contained in them. This information may include the channel name, in which case the corresponding MCA is started. 5. The channel listener running in the target q mgr starts the receiving MCA. Difference between Control Commands used in Windows and other Os? Control commands on are case sensitive other OS but Windows they can be used any way. What is Repository queue manager? What are Full and partial repository? A repository queue manager is a cluster queue manager that holds a full repository.
A queue manager that hosts a complete set of critical information about the purges essay every queue manager in the cluster is referred to as having a full repository for the cluster. The other queue managers in the cluster inquire about the information in the full repositories and build up their own subsets of this information in partial repositories. A partial repository contains information about only those queue managers with which the best book for css essays queue manager needs to exchange messages. The queue managers request updates to the information they need, so that if it changes, the full repository queue manager will send them the essay new information. Where does each queue manager store its repository information? Where do the best book for css queue managers exchange repository information?
Channel initiator is the program that monitors the initiation queue and starts. A channel listener program ‘listens’ for incoming network requests and starts the essay appropriate receiver channel when it is nurse thinking questions, needed. What is MQOO_BIND_ON_OPEN option on the MQOPEN call ? When this attribute is set it forces all the messages sent to this queue to be sent to the same instance of the queue (go to the same queue in cluster) Difference between MQPUT and MQPUT1 call ? The MQPUT1 call always operates as though MQOO_BIND_NOT_FIXED were in effect, that is, it always invokes the the purges essay workload management routine. What happens when a queue manager fails? What happens if I put-disable a cluster queue? How long do the queue manager repositories retain information? It must be 90 days but the Qm sends information to all the QM’s in the cluster to nurse critical questions update its information around 30 days. When is Channel security exit program called? Are called at MCA initiation and termination. Stopping unauthorized queue managers putting messages on your queues.
Use OS security, Object Authority Manager (OAM) on WebSphere MQ user-written procedures. What is intercommunication and its components to send message ? Intercommunication means sending messages from one queue manager to another. The receiving queue manager could be on the same machine or another; nearby or on the other side of the world. It could be running on the same platform as the local queue manager, or could be on any of the platforms supported by WebSphere MQ. The Purges Essay? This is called a distributed environment.
Message channels Message channel agents. Transmission queues Channel initiators and essay about the role of the youth in nation listeners. What is Message Channels and How many types? Message channels are the channels that carry messages from one queue manager to another.They are Uni-directional Channels. 1. The Purges? Sender Channel 4.Receiver Channel. 2. Obesity? Server Channel 5.Requester Channel. 3. The Purges? Cluster-sender channel 6.Cluster-receiver channel. What are MQI channels and there types? MQI channels are the channels that carry messages from MQ Client application to the MQ server and vice versa.They are Bi-directional Channels.
1. Server-connection 2. Nurse Critical? Client-connection. 1.Sender-receiver Channel 4.Requester-server Channel. 2.Requester-sender Channel 5. Server-receiver Channel. 3.Cluster-Sender- Receiver Channel 6.Client-Server Channel. Batch Heartbeat Interval (BATCHHB): This heartbeat interval allows a sending channel to verify that the receiving channel is still active just before committing a batch of messages. If the receiving channel is not active, the batch can be backed out essay rather than becoming in-doubt, Batch interval (BATCHINT), Batch size (BATCHSZ), Channel type (CHLTYPE), Cluster (CLUSTER), Cluster namelist (CLUSNL), Connection name (CONNAME), Convert message (CONVERT), Disconnect interval (DISCINT), Heartbeat interval (HBINT), KeepAlive Interval (KAINT), Long retry count (LONGRTY), Long retry interval (LONGTMR), Maximum message length (MAXMSGL) What is channel disconnect interval? This is a time-out attribute, specified in seconds, for best essays the server, cluster-sender, and cluster-receiver channels. The interval is measured from the point at which a batch ends, that is when the batch size is reached or when the batch interval expires and the purges essay the transmission queue becomes empty. Nurse Questions? If no messages arrive on essay the transmission queue during the specified time interval, the research paper channel closes down. Explain the essay channel attribute BATCHSIZE?
BATCHSIZE denotes the maximum number of messages that can be sent through a channel before taking a checkpoint. This parameter is best for css, valid only for channels with a channel type (CHLTYPE) of SDR, SVR, RCVR, RQSTR, CLUSSDR, or CLUSRCVR. The value must be in the range 1 through 9999. What are the ways to start a channel? Use the MQSC command START CHANNEL. Use the control command runmqchl to start the channel as a process. Use the channel initiator to trigger the channel.
Type of channel states: Inactive and Current- Stopped, Starting, Retrying and Active. What are the three options for stopping channels? QUIESCE FORCE TERMINATE. What are the components of message channel? A queue manager to communicate with another queue manager uses message channel. The components of a message channel are. 1. The Purges Essay? Sender Message channel agent: Sender MCA is a program that transfers messages from a transmission queue to day essay 2012 a communication link. 2. Receiver MCA: It transfers messages from the communication link into the target queue.
3. Communication protocol: Responsible for transferring messages A message channel is unidirectional. A message channel agent (MCA) is a program that controls the sending and receiving of messages. The Purges Essay? There is one message channel agent at each end of a channel. One MCA takes messages from the transmission queue and puts them on essay about building the communication link. The other MCA receives messages and delivers them onto a queue on the remote queue manager. Types: caller MCA and the purges responder MCA. Due to: 1. Xmitq is set to thesis handout get disabled 2. Network Issues. 3.QueueManager Stopped 4. Listener is not running 5.TriggerTurned Off.
Explain Channel-Exit programs and what are the types? Channel-exit programs are called at defined places in the processing carried out by MCA programs. Security Exit: You can use security exit programs to verify that the partner at the other end of a channel is genuine. Message Exit: Message Exit can be used for the purges essay Encryption on the link, message data conversion, validation of user ID, Message-retry Exit: Message-retry exit is called when an attempt to open the target queue is unsuccessful. Sender and receiver Exit: You can use the send and research receive exits to the purges essay perform tasks such as data compression and decompression. Channel auto-definition Exit Transport-retry Exit. What happens if DEAD letter Queue is not defined? If dead letter queue are not defined the Messages are placed on the Transmission Queue and the Queue Manager become Inactive. Explain Remote queue definitions?
Advantages? These are definitions for queues that are owned by another queue manager. Advantages: The advantage of remote queue definitions is that they enable an application to put a message to essay building a remote queue without having to specify the name of the remote queue or the remote queue manager, or the name of the transmission queue. This gives you location independence. If the messages pass through one or more intermediate queue managers on the way to the target queue manager is known as a multi-hop. What is programmable command format (PCF) commands? These commands are issued from a programme for the purges local or remote administration done by programmers. What happens if channel terminates when fast non-persistent messages are in transit? If a channel terminates while fast, non-persistent messages are in transit, the messages are lost and it is up to best book for css essays the application to arrange for the purges their recovery if required. If the conflict management research receiving channel cannot put the message to its destination queue then it is placed on the purges essay the dead letter queue, if one has been defined.
If not, the for css essays message is discarded. What happens when a message cannot be delivered? Message-retry: If the MCA is unable to put a message to the target queue for a reason that could be transitory (for example, because the the purges queue is full), the MCA has the option to best book essays wait and retry the the purges essay operation later. Return-to-sender: If message-retry was unsuccessful, or a different type of error was encountered, the MCA can send the message back to the originator. Dead-letter queue: If a message cannot be delivered or returned, it is put on to the dead-letter queue (DLQ). You can use the conflict DLQ handler to essay process the message.
Recovery scenario –Disk Drive Full, damaged Queue manager object, Damaged single object, Automatic media recovery failure. MQ ensures that messages are not lost by maintaining records (logs) of the activities of the queue managers that handle the research paper receipt, transmission, and essay delivery of messages. How to Process Messages from the Dead-letter-Queue? We can Process the DLQ messages using runmqdlq command for sending messages to the destination Queues or target Queues. Use the runmqdlq command to obesity start the dead-letter queue (DLQ) handler, which monitors and the purges essay handles messages on a dead-letter queue.
runmqdlq QName QMgrName. Use the Dead-Letter-Queue-Handler to perform various actions on conflict research paper selected messages by specifying a set of rules that can both select a message and define the action to be performed on that message. The runmqdlq command takes its input from the purges, stdin. When the command is processed, the results and the role of the youth a summary are put into the purges a report that is sent to stdout. Which field of the MQDLH structure contains a reason code that identifies why the message is on the DLQ?
What is about the role youth in nation, completion code and reason code? Completion code gives the status of the current transaction it can be 0, 1, 2. 0- for Successful completion (MQCC_OK), 1- Warning (MQCC_WARNING), 2- call failed (MQCC_FAILED). Reason code is that which gives the essay reason for which the middle school transaction fails it can be MQRC_NONE, MQRC_BACKED_OUT etc. This is a byte string that the application can use to relate one message to another, or to relate the message to the purges other unit of work that the application is performing. The correlation identifier is a permanent property of the message, and persists across restarts of the queue manager. Explain commit and Back Out units of work? When a program puts a message on best book a queue within a unit of work, that message is made visible to other programs only when the the purges program commits the unit of about of the work.
Commit: To commit a unit of work, all updates must be successful to preserve data integrity. Essay? If the program detects an for css essays, error and decides that the put operation should not be made permanent, it can back out the unit of work. Back Out: When a program performs a back out, WebSphere MQ restores the essay queue by removing the messages that were put on the queue by that unit of work. The way in which the program performs the commit and back out operations depends on the environment in which the program is running. This is a count of the number of times that the message has been previously returned by the MQGET call as part of a unit of work, and subsequently backed out. BackoutCount is the number of times the application tried and failed to put the messages in the Queue. What is segmentation and explain segmentation Flag? When a message is too big for a queue, an attempt to thesis handout middle school put the the purges message on father's contest the queue usually fails.
Segmentation is a technique whereby the queue manager or application splits the message into smaller pieces called segments, and places each segment on the purges the queue as a separate physical message. The application that retrieves the message can either retrieve the thesis for childhood segments one by one, or request the queue manager to reassemble the segments into a single message that is returned by the MQGET call. What are Namelist? when do you use it? A namelist is a WebSphere MQ object that contains a list of other WebSphere MQ objects. Typically, namelists are used. a By trigger monitors, where they are used to identify a group of queues. a Namelists are also used with queue manager clusters to maintain a list of clusters referred to by more than one WebSphere MQ object. a The advantage of using a namelist is essay, that it is maintained independently of thesis statement school applications; it can be updated without stopping any of the applications that use it. Also, if one application fails, the namelist is the purges, not affected and other applications can continue using it. Namelists are also used with queue manager clusters to maintain a list of clusters referred to thesis statement handout by more than one WebSphere MQ object. Command to create a queue manager?
crtmqm -q -d MY.DEFAULT.XMIT.QUEUE –u SYSTEM.DEAD.LETTER.QUEUE SATURN.QUEUE.MANAGER. Why is Channel RETRYINT attribute used? If a message is places in DLQ because of put inhibited or queue full condition, the essay DLQ handler attempts to put the message back to the destination queue. This interval is called as RETRYINT by research default the retry interval is 60 seconds. Receiver Cluster Receiver Requester. What is Local units of the purges work (uses a single-phase commit process) and Global unit of Work (uses a two-phase commit process)? Local unit of work: Units of work that involve only the queue manager are called local units of work. Syncpoint coordination is provided by thesis school the queue manager itself (internal coordination) using a single-phase commit process. Use global units of work when you also need to include updates to resources belonging to other resource managers.
Here the coordination can be internal or external to the queue manager uses a two-phase commit. Stopping a Queue manager manually? For Win NT: use endmqm command or WebSphere MQ service from Services on the Windows Control Panel. For Unix/AIX: use ps command to find the process Ids that are still running Ex: ps –ef | grep QMNAME, then use kill command to kill the running process. Endmqm -I -c -w -p Qmgrname. What are name services? The name service is an installable service that provides support to the queue manager for looking up the name of the the purges queue manager that owns a specified queue.
Problem Definition: Messages do not appear on the Queue? We must check for: has the message been put on the queue successfully, are we able to get messages form the queue, can other applications get messages from the queue, has other application got exclusive access to the queue. Difference between MQSC commands and Control commands? MQSC Commands - These commands are used to handle the admin related functions for the components that are present in the MQ Series. In general MQSC commands are used for creating and maintaining Message channels, Queue Managers, Clusters etc… Control Commands - These commands are used to manage the processes and services that are helpful in the functioning of the for css MQ Series. In general these commands are used for Channel listener, Channel Initiator, Trigger monitor etc… How is Automatic definition of channels done?
If WebSphere MQ receives an the purges essay, inbound attach request and cannot find an appropriate receiver or server-connection channel or Cluster receiver in the channel definition file (CDF), it creates a channel automatically and adds it to the CDF. Automatic definitions are based on two default definitions supplied with WebSphere MQ: SYSTEM.AUTO.RECEIVER and SYSTEM.AUTO.SVRCONN. How will we start a command server? Depending on management the value of the queue manager attribute, SCMDSERV, the command server is either started automatically when the queue manager starts, or must be started manually. Start: Using strmqcsv saturn.queue.manager where saturn.queue.manager is the QM name. Display: dspmqcsv Stop: endmqcsv.
When we use CCSID attribute of the essay ALTER QMGR command to change the CCSID of the conflict paper QM what are the the purges essay components that need to be restarted? Stop and restart the queue manager, stop and restart command server (A command server processes command messages) and channel programs. What is a MQ Series Configuration file (mqs.ini),Queue manager Configuration file (qm.ini)? A queue manager configuration file (qm.ini) to thesis statement effect changes for specific queue managers. There is one qm.ini file for the purges each queue manager on conflict research the node. (A queue manager configuration file, qm.ini, contains config information relevant to a specific queue manager. There is one queue manager configuration file for each queue manager. The qm.ini file is automatically created when the queue manager with which it is associated is created.
For example, the path and the purges the name for a configuration file for a queue manager called QMNAME is:/var/mqm/qmgrs/QMNAME/qm.ini) What is name transformation in naming a Queue manager Configuration File? A qm.ini file is nurse critical questions, held in the root of the essay directory tree occupied by the queue manager. For example, the path and the name for essays a configuration file for a queue manager called QMNAME is: /var/mqm/qmgrs/QMNAME/qm.ini A directory name is the purges essay, generated based on the queue manager name. This process is known as name transformation. Connecting to the queue manager (MQCONN or MQCONNX calls), Opening the object (MQOPEN or MQPUT1 calls), Putting and book essays getting messages (MQPUT or MQGET calls), Closing the essay object (MQCLOSE)
What is a Websphere MQ configuration file (mqs.ini)? Contains information relevant to all the queue managers on the node. It is created automatically during installation (The WebSphere MQ configuration file, mqs.ini, contains information relevant to all the queue managers on the node. Day Essay Contest? It is created automatically during installation. The mqs.ini file for WebSphere MQ for UNIX systems is in the purges essay the /var/mqm directory. It contains: v The names of the conflict paper queue managers v The name of the default queue manager The location of the files associated with each of them) How can we edit the configuration files? Automatically using commands that change the configuration of queue managers on the node, Manually using a standard text editor. First Failure Support Technology For MQSeries for the purges UNIX systems, FFST information is recorded in a file in the /var/mqm/errors directory.
These errors are normally severe, unrecoverable errors, and indicate either a configuration problem with the system or an MQSeries internal error. The files are named AMQnnnnn.mm.FDC, where: nnnnn Is the ID of the about of the in nation building process reporting the error mm Is a sequence number, normally 0 When a process creates an FFST record, it also sends a record to syslog. The Purges Essay? The record contains the book for css essays name of the the purges essay FFST file to assist in automatic problem tracking. What are logs, Log Sizes, what are uses ? Log Primary : 3 IN win a 2-253 In Unix a 2-510. Log Secondary: 2 IN win a 1-253 In Unix a 2-509. Type of best for css Logging in MQ. Circular: Circular logging rotates the the purges essay logs every and thinking questions so overwrites the existing logs. Linear: Linear logging will not rotate log files but keeps the the purges log data in a continuous sequence of files. New log files are added if there is more data to be logged. Creating Damaged Objects Using Log files? 1.Rcdmqimg: Use this command to write an image of an object, or group of thesis for childhood objects, to the log for use in media recovery.
This command can only be used when using linear logging. Use the associated command rcrmqobj to recreate the object from the image. 2.Rcrmqobj: Use this command to recreate an object, or group of objects, from their images contained in the purges essay the log. This command can only be used when using linear logging. Use the associated command, rcdmqimg, to record the object images to the log. Types of statement school recovery: Restart recovery: When you stop WebSphere MQ in a planned way. Crash recovery: When a failure stops WebSphere MQ. Media recovery: To restore damaged objects. What are the locations and files of the the purges essay Error Logging?
IBMWebSphere MQerrors a AMQERR01.LOG, AMQERR02.LOG, AMQERR03.LOG. What are the different types of security services available in MQ Series? Access control a The access control service protects critical resources in a system by limiting access only to authorized users and their applications. Confidentiality a The confidentiality service protects sensitive information from unauthorized disclosure. Data integrity a The data integrity service detects whether there has been unauthorized modification of data. There are two ways in thesis which data might be altered: accidentally, through hardware and transmission errors, or because of the purges a deliberate attack, Non-repudiation. Commands For Authorization:
1.setmqaut: Command used to change the authorizations to the role youth in nation a profile, object or class of objects. Authorizations can be granted to, or revoked from, any number of the purges principals or groups. 2.dspmqaut: Command to display the about of the in nation building current authorizations to a specified object. If a user ID is a member of more than one group, this command displays the combined authorizations of all the groups. Only one group or principal can be specified. 3.dmpmqaut: Command to dump the current authorizations to a specified object.
What are the different methods handled by MQ Series for securing a message? Cryptography Message digests. Digital signatures Digital certificates. Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) What is Cryptography, Why and where it is used in MQ Series? Cryptography is the process of converting between readable text, called plaintext, and an unreadable form, called cipher text. The sender converts the plaintext message to cipher text. The Purges? This part of the process is called encryption (sometimes encipherment).The cipher text is transmitted to the receiver. The receiver converts the cipher text message back to its plaintext form. This part of the process is called decryption (sometimes decipherment). The conversion involves a sequence of mathematical operations that change the appearance of the message during transmission but do not affect the handout school content.
Cryptographic techniques can ensure confidentiality and protect messages against unauthorized viewing (eavesdropping), because an the purges, encrypted message is not understandable. For Css? Digital signatures, which provide an assurance of message integrity, use encryption techniques. What is a Message Digest, Digital Signature and Digital Certificate? Message digest: Is also known as a Message Authentication Code (MAC), because it can provide assurance that the the purges message has not been modified. The message digest is sent with the message itself. The receiver can generate a digest for the message and compare it with the sender’s digest. If the two digests are the obesity same, this verifies the integrity of the message. Any tampering with the message during transmission almost certainly results in a different message digest. Digital signature: Is formed by encrypting a particular representation of a message the the purges essay encryption uses the private key of the signatory and, for efficiency, usually operates on essay about of the youth in nation a message digest rather than the message itself. Digital signatures vary with the data being signed, unlike handwritten signatures, which do not depend on the content of the document being signed.
If two different messages are signed digitally by the same entity, the two signatures differ, but both signatures can be verified with the essay same public key, that is, the public key of the entity that signed the father's messages. Digital certificates: Provide protection against impersonation, because a digital certificate binds a public key to its owner, whether that owner is an individual, a queue manager, or some other entity. Digital certificates are also known as public key certificates, because they give you assurances about the ownership of a public key when you use an asymmetric key scheme. What is a Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), where it is used? The Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) provides an industry standard protocol for transmitting data in the purges essay a secure manner over an insecure network. Conflict Management Research? The SSL protocol is widely deployed in both Internet and Intranet applications.
SSL defines methods for authentication, data encryption, and message integrity for the purges essay a reliable transport protocol, usually TCP/IP. What are Cipher Suites and for css essays Cipher Specs in SSL? Cipher Suite: Is a suite of cryptographic algorithms used by an SSL connection. A suite comprises three distinct algorithms. The Purges Essay? The key exchange and authentication algorithm, used during the SSL handshake.
The encryption algorithm, used to encipher the data.The MAC (Message Authentication Code) algorithm, used to generate the message digest. Cipher Spec: Identifies the combination of the encryption algorithm and MAC algorithm. Both ends of an SSL connection must agree the same CipherSpec to be able to nurse critical thinking questions communicate. What are the steps to be followed in the purges working with SSL on book an UNIX environment? 1.Setting up a key repository 2.Working with a key repository. 3.Obtaining personal certificates 4.Managing digital certificates. 5.Configuring for cryptographic hardware 6.Mapping DNs to user IDs. 7.Adding personal certificates to a key repository. Websphere MQ installation naming consideration? Ensure that the machine name does not contain any spaces.
If you insatall in such a machine you cannot create and Queue managers. Essay? Names for userId and group must no longer that 20 characters. WebSphere MQ messages: Messages are made up of Two parts: Message descriptor, Application data. Types of messages? Datagram: A Message sent with no response expected. Request: A Message sent for which a response is expected.
Reply: A Response Message for a requested message. Report: A Message that describes the father's contest 2012 occurrence or event. Qmanager a 10000 Msgs Maxmsglength a 4 Mb. Queue a 5000 Msgs Maxmsglength a 4 Mb. This defines the essay character set of character data in the message. If you want to set this character set to that of the queue manager, you can set this field to for childhood obesity the constant MQCCSI_Q_MGR or MQCCSI_INHERIT. The Purges Essay? When you get a message from a queue, compare the best for css value of the CodedCharSetId field with the value that your application is expecting. If the two values differ, you might need to convert any character data in the message or use a data-conversion message exit if one is available.
Local Queue Remote Queues Alias Queues. Model Queue Dynamic Queues Cluster Queues. Queue: A safe place to store messages for Prior-To-Delivery, it belongs to the Qmgr to which the application is connected. Model Queue: Model queue is a template of a queue definition that uses when creating a dynamic queue. Alias Queue: Queue definition, which is Alias to an actual Local or Remote Q. Used for security and easy maintenance. Remote Queue: Object that defines a Queue belongs to another Q Manager (Logical Def). Initiation Queue: An initiation queue is a local queue to which the queue manager writes a trigger message when certain conditions are met on essay another local queue. Dynamic Queue: Such a queue is research paper, defined on the fly when the application needs it. Dynamic queues may be retained by the queue manager or automatically deleted when the application program ends. Use- To store intermediate results. Cluster Queue: Custer queue is a local queue that is essay, known throughout a cluster of queue managers.
Reply-To-Queue: A request message must contain the name of the queue into which the responding program must put the Reply Message. Queue Manager: Provides Messaging services and manages the essay about youth in nation building Queues, Channels, and Processes that belongs to it. Alias Q Manager: Queue-manager aliases, are created using a remote-queue definition with a blank RNAME. Channel: Communication Paths between Queue Managers. Default objects: (43 objects) Queues: SYSTEM.DEFAULT.LOCAL QUEUE SYSTEM.DEFAULT.MODEL.QUEUE. Channel Queues: SYSTEM.CHANNEL.INITQ SYSTEM.CHANNEL.SYNCQ. Admin Queues: SYSTEM.ADMIN.ACCOUNTING.QUEUE.
Channels: SYSTEM.AUTO.RECEIVER SYSTEM.AUTO.SVRCONN. Process Def: SYSTEM.DEFAULT.PROCESS. Services: SYSTEM.DEFAULT.SERVICE SYSTEM.BROKER. Name Lists: SYSTEM.DEFAULT.NAMELIS. Event Queues: SYSTEM.ADMIN.CHANNEL.EVENT. What are advantages of creating Aliases? Why do we create Alias?
When sending messages: Re mapping the the purges queue-manager name when sending messages, Altering or specifying the transmission queue when sending messages, Determining the destination when receiving messages, Using a queue manager as a gateway into the cluster. About The Role Youth Building? Gives different application different levels of access authority to the purges essay the target Queue Allows different applications to work with the same queue in different way Simplifies maintenance, migration and workload balance. What are the parameters required to put a message on a queue (or) putting a message on queue parameters? Requires a Connection handler (Hconn), a Queue handler (Hobj), a description of the message that you want to put on the queue (MQMD), Control information, message length, the message data itself. You can remove a message from the queue so that other programs can no longer see the message, you can copy a message, leaving the original message on the queue. This is known as browsing. You can remove the message once you have browsed it.
In both cases, you use the MQGET call, but first your application must be connected to the queue manager, and you must use the thesis for childhood MQOPEN call to essay open the queue. What are Persistent Non-Persistent messages? Persistent messages survive system failures, as they are stored in system log files. However non persistent message will be lost if a system failure occurs. Persistent messages are used to ensure guaranteed delivery of messages to the target queue manager even if there are system failures, Non-persistent messages are used when the source can reproduce the messages. What happens when a message is day essay, put in a PUT-INHIBITED Queue? The messages are put in the dead letter queue.
If a channel is unable to the purges essay put a message to the target queue because that queue is best book for css, full or put inhibited, the channel can retry the essay operation a number of times (specified in the message-retry count attribute) at a given time interval (specified in the message-retry interval attribute). Alternatively, you can write your own message-retry exit that determines which circumstances cause a retry, and the number of attempts made. The channel goes to PAUSED state while waiting for the message-retry interval to for css essays finish. Syncpoint coordination is the process by which units of work are either committed or backed out the purges essay with data integrity. The decision to commit or back out the changes is taken, in the simplest case, at the end of a transaction. Essay Of The In Nation? However, it can be more useful for the purges essay an application to synchronize data changes at other logical points within a transaction. These logical points are called syncpoints (or synchronization points) and the period of processing a set of updates between two syncpoints is called a unit of work.
A trigger monitor is a continuously - running program that serves one or more initiation queues. When a trigger message arrives on an initiation queue, the trigger monitor retrieves the message. The trigger monitor uses the information in the trigger message. It issues a command to start the corresponding application/channel. What are the Trigger types available Explain? EVERY: A trigger event occurs every time that a message arrives on the application queue. Use this type of trigger if you want a serving program to process only father's day essay, one message, then end. FIRST: A trigger event occurs only essay, when the number of messages on the application queue changes from zero to one. Use this type of trigger if you want a serving program to start when the first message arrives on a queue, continue until there are no more messages to process, then end. DEPTH: A trigger event occurs only essay about of the youth building, when the number of messages on the application queue reaches the value of the TriggerDepth attribute.
IS used to the purges essay describe the store for digital certificates and their associated private keys. An in-doubt channel is a channel that is indoubt with the management research remote channel about the purges which messages has been sent and received. Queue open failed? *Reason: On an book essays, MQCONN or MQCONNX call, the value specified for the purges essay the QMgrName parameter is not valid or not known. *Resolution: we must correct the statement configuration information.
*Reason Code 2085 MQRC_UNKNOWN_OBJECT_NAME. *Resolution: check for the Queue name in the purges the QM if not found define it. Messages sent to DLQ? *Reason code: 2218 Message too big for father's 2012 Channel. *Investigation: Examine the contents of the dead-letter queue. Each message is contained in a structure that describes why the essay message was put to the queue, and to where it was originally addressed.
Also look at previous error messages to see if the attempt to put messages to a dead-letter queue failed. *Resolution: change the channel size as required, if the channel is a cluster channel then do a REFRESH cluster so that it will reflect to the other QM’s, then reprocess the message. Message piling up in a Queue? *Investigation: Check for the log files (/var/mqm/qmgrs/qmgrname/errors/*.log), The messages were not being processed because of very high workload. The SSL client does not have a certificate. A certificate has expired or is not yet active. A certificate is not supported. A certificate is corrupted. May be ssl version upgradation.
Channel refuses to run or channel retry? *Reason: A mismatch of name between a sending and receiving channels, Incorrect channel type specified, A receiver channel might be in stopped state, the connection might not be defined Correctly, there might be a problem with communication software. *Resolution: Alter the Queue and REFRESH the cluster to reflect the change in about of the the information stored in the partial repository. Increase the Queue and Queue manager MaxMsgLength attributes, Use segmented messages (Messages can be segmented by either the application or the Queue manager), use reference message. AIX (Advance Interactive X-change) AIX logs messages as specified in essay /etc/syslog.conf.
What is kproc? Is a kernel’s process. What is AIX? Advance Interactive X-change. A simple calculator, Dc command takes its input from the File parameter or standard input until it reads an day essay 2012, end-of-file character. Converts and copies a file, DD command reads the In File parameter or standard input, does the specified conversions, then copies the converted data to the Out File parameter or standard output. Deletes files if the request is confirmed, The del command displays the the purges list of specified files and asks you to confirm your request to delete the group of files.
Reports information about space on file systems. Compares text files, It can compare single files or the contents of directories. The du command displays the number of blocks used for files. Processes the command history list. What is grep command / fgrep command? Searches a file for a literal string. What is IKEYCMD command? Is a UNIX command line interface that you can use to thesis manage keys, certificates, and certificate requests. A semaphore is a special variable that takes only whole positive numbers and upon which only two operations are allowed: wait (P) and signal (V). They are used to ensure that a single executing process has exclusive access to a resource. A pipe is a half-duplex communication channel defined by the purges essay two file descriptors, one open for writing and one for reading, such that what is written in the former pops out in the latter.
Using pipes command can be joined so one input to another. Interacts directly with the HW and provides the service to the user programs. A shell is in nation, a command interpreter. That can interact with the Kernel through the the purges essay shell (program). We can write ASCII (text) scripts to be acted upon by the shell. A command is day essay 2012, a program that tells the unix system to do something. What will perform a long list on all files in the current directory and recursively perform the list through all sub-directories. Used to perform special functions on the command line or within editor. ps –e This command counts the the purges essay number of processes running on your computer system.
wc -l This command pipeline sort the output of thesis for childhood the. ps –ef This command counts the number of users logged into your computer system. who | wc -l The output of the who command is piped into the wc command, which counts the number of lines in the who output. grep This command as a search command (most people wish it was named search). It is used to search for text strings within one or more files. find This command is very powerful. It can search the entire filesystem for one or more files that you specify to look for. This is very helpful when a file has been lost .Ex: Find / -name Chapter1 -type f –print This command searches through the root filesystem (/) for the file named Chapter1.
If it finds the file, it prints the essay location to the screen. More about Vi editor: Three distinct modes of Vi Editor: Input mode Command mode Last line mode. Input Mode: Lets you type text into about the role in nation your document. Command Mode: Lets you enter vi commands(cut, paste etc..).
Last Line Mode: Lets you enter commands that appear on essay the bottom line of the screen, and can affect the editing environment or interact with the external environment. Notes: When you first open a file, your default mode is command mode. To switch from command mode to input mode use the command mode commands insert(i) append(a) open(o) i- insert a new text in front of a current character. a- append new text after a current character. o- Open a new line after the current line and start inserting text. For deleting text: These commands must all be entered from command mode. x - Delete the character at the current cursor position. dew - delete the conflict paper remainder of the current word. dd - delete the line.
ssndd - delete n number of lines (current line is line 1) d - delete to the end of the line. Searching for essay text: /text search forward through the document for text. ?text search backward through the document for text. n repeat the previous search. DQM: DISTRIBUTED QUEUEING MANAGEMENT. Setuping Controlling of Message Channel in Message Queuing for Q Managers on Distributed Systems. What is queue-sharing group for best for css essays z/OS ? The Client Application fails and gets return code? What is the essay SSL Version used in father's contest 2012 WMQ5.3? NPMSPEED FAST. What happens if the channel goes down?
Nonpersistent message speed (NPMSPEED) It is used to the purges essay specify the speed at which nonpersistent messages are to be sent. It can take on two values either ‘normal’ or ‘fast’. Conflict Research Paper? The default is the purges essay, ‘fast’, which means that nonpersistent messages on a channel are not transferred within transactions. Non persistent messages are lost if there is a transmission failure or if the channel stops when the messages are in for childhood obesity transit. Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a protocol designed to allow the the purges essay transmission of secure data over for css, an insecure network. SSL makes use of digital certificates to enable authentication of the the purges partner. Thesis? It also uses encryption to prevent eavesdropping and hash functions to enable detection of tampering. It can be used with both MCA channels for queue manager to queue manager communication and MQI channels for client applications connecting to a queue manager. A CipherSuite is a suite of cryptographic algorithms used by an SSL connection. A suite comprises three distinct algorithms: The key exchange and authentication algorithm, used during the SSL handshake.
The encryption algorithm, used to encipher the data. The MAC (Message Authentication Code) algorithm, used to generate the message digest. Some important MQSC commands that work with cluster. DISPLAY CLUSQMGR SUSPEND CLUSQMGR. RESUME CLUSQMGR REFRESH CLUSTER. What are the Advantages of clustering? Advantages: Reduced system administration. Increased high availability. Improved resource utilization. A cluster Queue manager is a queue manager that is a member of a cluster. A queue manager can be a member of the purges more than one cluster.
What happens when we give a Refresh Cluster mqsc command ? This command issued on a queue manager, the queue manager discard all locally held information about father's day essay a cluster except the essay FULL repository information. This enables you to perform a “cold-start” on the cluster. How to remove a Qmgr from Cluster? a Suspend queue manager. a Remove the CLUSRCVR channel definition from the cluster by setting the management paper CLUSTER attribute to essay empty.
a Stop the CLUSRCVR channel. a Delete the CLUSSDR channel definition. What happens when full cluster repository Qmgr goes down? If your queue manager is a full repository queue manager, alter the queue manager definition to set the nurse critical REPOS and REPOSNL attributes to the purges essay blank. This sends a notification to other queue managers advising them that they must stop sending cluster information to this queue manager.
When will we use RESET CLUSTER command? To forcibly remove a queue manager from the cluster and resets the cluster. How does a partial repository QM share information with other clusters when the full repos QM is down? The cluster continues to father's day essay contest work with information from the other full repository. If both the full repositories are down, still the cluster continues to work with available information from the partial repository. A repository handles the request whenever possible but if the the purges essay chosen repository is father's 2012, not available another repos used. When the first repository becomes available again, it collects the latest new and changed information from the essay others so that the queue managers are kept in synch. The repository queue manager send messages to each other to middle school be sure that they are both kept up to date with new information about the cluster.
How do I set up a cluster and the purges add a new QM to a cluster? Determine to nurse which full repository the qmgr has to point to get cluster information, Define the CLUSRCVR channel, Define a CLUSSDR channel on queue manager. The components of a cluster are. a group of queue managers.(more than one) Cluster receiver channel - to communicate with any cluster queue manager. Cluster sender channel- to communicate with any cluster queue manager. The cluster sender channel points to a full repository queue manager. Cluster transmission queue.
One transmission queue to essay transmit message to any cluster queue. A queue that is available to all cluster queue managers. Types of day essay contest cluster services ==============D. How many Transmission Queues are present in the purges a Queue manager present in nurse questions a Cluster? When defining a Cluster sender channel, for example if there is more than one instance in the cluster what will happen? How many cluster channel definitions are required for a QM in a cluster? TWO cluster channel definitions are required: Cluster Sender channel and Cluster Receiver channel.
What is Cluster queue how is it defined? A cluster queue is the purges, a queue that is hosted by a cluster queue manager and made available to other queue managers in the cluster. The cluster queue manager makes a local queue definition for the queue, specifying the name of the cluster where the queue is to nurse questions be found. This definition has the essay effect of showing the other queue managers in the cluster that the queue is there. The other queue managers in the cluster can put messages to a cluster queue without needing a corresponding remote-queue definition. Defining a cluster-receiver channel has the effect of introducing a queue manager to father's contest 2012 one of the full repository queue managers. The Purges? The full repository queue manager updates the information in conflict management research its full repository accordingly. Then it automatically creates a cluster-sender channel back to the queue manager, and sends the queue manager information about the cluster. Thus a queue manager learns about a cluster and a cluster learns about a queue manager. Types of aliases and essay remote-queue definitions with clusters? Queue-manager aliases, reply-to queue aliases, and queue aliases.
What is a gateway queue manager and advantages of using in a cluster? This enables workload balancing for thesis obesity messages coming from outside the cluster. How will you keep a cluster secure? Stopping the the purges essay unauthorized Queue manager sending message to your Queue manager. Stopping unauthorized Queue manager putting messages on your Queues. Stopping Your Queue manager putting messages to management research remote Queues. Preventing Queue manager from joining a cluster: Define a channel security exit program. Forcing unwanted queue manager to leave a cluster.
Adding a new Queue manager to a cluster? Determine the Full repository to which the QM should refer. Define the CLUSRCVR channel. Define the CLUSSDR channel on the purges the QM. Review the application for message affinities. Removing a cluster queue from father's day essay, a Queue manager? Indicate the Queue is no longer available – remove the CLUSTER name from the local queue definition (ALTER QLOCAL(localqueue) CLUSTER(‘’)) Disable the Queue – ALTER QLOCAL(localqueue) PUT(DISABLE) Monitor the Queue until it is the purges essay, EMPTY. Monitor the channel to critical thinking ensure that there is no in-doubt message. Delete the Queue.
Removing a Queue Manager form a Cluster? Suspend the QM (SUSPEND QMGR CLUSTER(clusname)) Remove the CLUSRCVR channel definition. Stop the CLUSRCVR channel. Delete the CLUSSDR channel definition. Converting an existing network to cluster? Alter two QM to make it a FULL repository MQ. Define CLUSRCVR channel on each Queue manager. Define CLUSSDR channel on essay each Queue Manager.
Delete all remote Queue definitions for the existing network. When a cluster contains more than one instance of the same queue, WebSphere MQ uses a workload management algorithm to determine the best queue manager to route a message. The algorithm uses a round-robin approach to finalize its choice between the suitable queue managers. Remove the book for css essays cluster queues from the the purges cluster. Stop all applications that have access to cluster Queue. Remove the repository attribute from the full repository Queue manager. Remove Cluster channels on each Queue manager.
Issue REFRESH cluster command on each Queue manager. - Which exit is used to perform compression during transmission?
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Unequivocal Gent? Review of essay, The Setting Sun by about the role, Bart Moore-Gilbert. Bart Moore-Gilbert has argued of the Jamaican-British author Mary Seacole that she sought to gain greater self-understanding by the purges essay, blending autobiography and travel writing in best book for css her magnum opus, Wonderful Adventures of Mrs. Seacole in Many Lands. By reflecting on her lived experience of death, migration, racial prejudice and the excesses of imperialism she was able to make some sense of the purges, her own identity and how it had been shaped by the world.
There are shades of Seacole’s approach in thesis for childhood obesity The Setting Sun , Moore-Gilbert’s own new book about a trip to India to investigate his late father’s conduct as a colonial policeman during the chaotic final days of the Raj. In the often painful process of learning about the purges essay, his father, Moore-Gilbert discovers much about himself, and management research paper he is essay, forced at every turn to question his own values, theories and memories. The thirteen-year-old Bart wakes up one night in the dormitory of his English public school, cringing at the cold as much as at the racist epithet a fellow pupil has just mouthed: ‘Get up, Nigger, quick.’ Having recently moved to Britain after a childhood spent in colonial Tanganyika, Bart sees himself as a ‘white African kid’ exiled to a country he can barely comprehend. Marginalised by his peers, he longs for the natural colour and boy’s own excitement of conflict, his life in East Africa, playing with his beloved boxer dog Tunney, defending chickens from assault by the purges, safari ants, and management taking jaunts through the the purges, bush to find honey with his minder Kimwaga. Most of all, though, the young Bart misses his father Bill, a gentleman game warden with the book essays, debonair integrity of a John Mills or David Niven. That night, Bart is led from the dormitory to his housemaster, who nervously informs him that his father has died in a plane crash. As Bart breaks down, the housemaster’s wife offers him a caramel eclair, in a pathetic act of consolation. Fast forward five decades to 2008 and the adult Bart Moore-Gilbert, now a professor of postcolonial studies at Goldsmiths College, receives an email from an Indian academic about Bill’s ‘significant role’ in suppressing nationalist rebels in the purges Satara District, western India.
Moore-Gilbert is shocked, as ‘this is the first independent reminder in ages that I once had a father.’ Questions start pinging around his head. What exactly was this ‘significant role’ his father played in this infamously dark chapter in research British imperial history? What if, like the policeman characters in George Orwell’s Burmese Days and Paul Scott’s Raj Quartet , Bill was guilty of intimidation, torture or worse? Moore-Gilbert decides he must fly to India and discover the essay, ‘father I did not know’. But the truth is about youth in nation, fiendishly hard to pin down.
Moore-Gilbert searches for it in police archives, university libraries, and takes testimonies both from the purges essay, Bill’s now-elderly colleagues and obesity from some of his enemies, such as the stormy, self-described ‘freedom fighter’ Lad. The Purges. ‘Gilbert was the for childhood, terrorist in that campaign, not us,’ Lad blurts out essay, during their interview, which understandably upsets Moore-Gilbert. But after hearing a condemnation of nurse critical thinking, this sort, Moore-Gilbert’s research will throw up a source that suggests the opposite: that Bill was, by community standards, a good cop. This feeling of oscillation provides one of The Setting Sun ’s many dramatic propellers. The son’s mental picture of the father keeps altering as new facts come in and hitherto buried memories resurface. Earlier in the purges the narrative, Moore-Gilbert remembers Bill in almost heroic terms: protecting a local woman from domestic violence, guarding the environment from poachers, or volunteering for a humanitarian mission to save beleaguered Tutsis in what has since become Rwanda (where his plane went down).
However, the more he finds out about Bill in India, the more morally hazy his reminiscences of Bill in thesis Tanganyika become, making him wonder, finally, whether his father was such an unequivocal gent after all. Amongst many other things, The Setting Sun is a penetrating comment on the ambiguity not only of subjective memory, but of other supposedly more “objective” forms of knowledge. For a scholar with Moore-Gilbert’s interests, this very personal quest is bound to have wider political and intellectual dimensions. To his credit, though, the essay, professor eschews theoretical abstraction, instead using his dramatic encounters with people and places as a device for examining complex issues, from the critical, Kashmir crisis to the double standards inherent in Western attempts to essay define terrorism. In one chilling sequence, Moore-Gilbert visits a tree beside Shalini Lake from which Sepoy mutineers were hanged after the 1857 rebellion and their corpses left out for the crows. Best For Css. ‘I have an awful vision,’ he writes, ‘of tar-black silhouettes against the blinding sky, hands tied behind their backs, rotating slowly in the purges essay the putrid breeze.’ While his ‘postcolonial political ethics’ are rightly offended by such atrocities of empire and their long-running consequences, he is also worried by vulgar brands of nationalist historiography that try to school blame all of the purges, India’s contemporary problems on contest, the Raj. Another of Bill’s former adversaries, a cheerful old-timer named Nayakwadi, has a more nuanced perspective.
Despite having been a committed nationalist, he praises the British for dismantling the caste system (even if their motives had more to the purges essay do with realpolitik than egalitarianism) and argues that Indian independence still hasn’t delivered basic ‘education, health and father's contest justice’ to working people. His country’s current malaise is mainly the fault of ‘the capitalist classes’ and he feels ‘no bitterness’ towards the essay, Raj now. To Moore-Gilbert’s relief, Nayakwadi holds no grudges against Bill either, and even seemed to enjoy escaping from the policeman once by essay youth in nation, dressing up as a woman. As his journey wears on, Moore-Gilbert starts to accept the impossibility of constructing a full and the purges fair picture of his father. However, what he does find out, what little he can claw back of the Bill he never knew, has a definite healing effect.
Originally published in The London Magazine, October 2014. Review of ‘A Month by the Sea: Encounters in Gaza’ by Dervla Murphy (originally published in the London Magazine) When the great Palestinian intellectual Edward Said was asked about his hopes for justice for his people, he paraphrased Antonio Gramsci: ‘I’m a pessimist of the intellect but an optimist of the spirit.’ While it’s hard not to be pessimistic about the shattered landscapes and tragic encounters of Dervla Murphy’s remarkable new book about Gaza, there are reasons to be optimistic too. Arriving in the shadow of Operation Cast Lead, in which the Israeli Defence Force (IDF) killed at least 700 civilians at the cost of 13 Israeli lives, Murphy’s worst fears about the essay the role of the building, plight of Gazans are confirmed. Wherever she turns are bombed-out ruins, shanty towns, desiccated lands, and essay malnourished and wheelchair-bound children. Shatti Refugee Camp has the worst human living conditions she has seen in seven decades of world travel. Everywhere on the Strip, the tap water is so contaminated that it can penetrate egg shells. The Israeli-Egyptian blockade has made ghost towns of once lively business districts. The blockade is just one reason why Murphy comes to conflict view Gaza as a prison, more literally than figuratively. Israeli soldiers make for essay sadistic wardens, brutalising and humiliating the inmates on the pretext of ‘collective punishment’. Farmers risk being shot by snipers from watchtowers as they walk through a free-fire zone to tend the crops their communities rely upon for survival.
The enforced isolation of book for css, Gaza from the rest of the world has compelled its people to build a network of essay, tunnels for the importation of management research paper, essential food, medicine and essay equipment. Book For Css Essays. Weapons are smuggled through “Tunnelopolis” too, but they are nowhere near as sophisticated or numerous as those at the IDF’s disposal. Near the Israeli border, Murphy visits one particular family who personify this condition of national captivity. They are living a nightmare of the purges essay, perpetual harassment by jeeps, helicopter gunships, warning shots from snipers and taunts through megaphones. Seemingly for the IDF, it is not punishment enough that two of this family’s children have already been seriously injured by shelling. A Month by the Sea skilfully segues between eyewitness travelogue and external analysis of the social, cultural and book for css political complexities of the Israel-Palestine conflict. Murphy eloquently deflates the myths of Israeli hasbara (propaganda) and the purges essay its ‘confusing misinformation that makes outsiders feel that they can’t really understand what’s going on – so they lose interest’ (37). While the United States and much of the rest of the world accepts Israel’s disingenuous casus belli – that its very existence is nurse critical thinking questions, threatened by Palestinian terrorism – the reality on the ground, as Murphy sees, is exactly the opposite: ‘For decades they [the Israelis] have been attacking defenceless populations through curfews, closures, sieges, house demolitions, olive-grove bulldozing, well poisonings, shootings, bombings, torture and indefinite imprisonment without trial’ (162). In considering the international response, she accuses ‘the duplicitous Tony Blair’ (107) – now Official Envoy to the Quartet on the Middle East (consisting of the UN, US, EU and Russia) – of the purges essay, personally enriching himself by brokering business deals between the Israeli government and the ‘quisling’ Palestinian Authority, whose collaboration with Zionism has driven so many Palestinians into the arms of Hamas and even more extreme factions. The Quartet is nominally committed to a two-state peace process but, so Murphy argues, this is in fact a smokescreen behind which Israeli settlers continue to steal land from the Palestinians.
While Murphy records the testimonies of many Gazans – including the erudite Hamas politician Dr Mahmoud Al-Zahar – it would have been interesting to have heard the opposing view in a close encounter with, say, a leading Zionist. About Youth In Nation Building. All the same, she is the purges essay, even-handed enough to criticise those tendencies within Gazan society that inflame the conflict and research paper inhibit international sympathy for the Palestinian cause. For Murphy, Hamas’s rule has a ‘flavour of dictatorship’ about it, buoyed by strong currents of Islamic fanaticism and anti-Semitism that have been flowing since the secular Egyptian occupation ended in 1967. However, such immoderation appears to essay be stoked by essays, Israeli false flag operations intended to divide and rule the Palestinians. When an extremist Syrian imam blew himself up in a Gazan mosque in 2009, the police found Israeli-made explosive vests in the rubble. Murphy is also concerned about the rights of local women, a quarter of whom are reported to be victims of physical violence. One of the most poignant encounters in the book is with Yara, a twenty-six-year-old who has suffered public ignominy after escaping from a forced marriage and losing custody of her children. One comes away with the sense that, for many Gazan women, there are other kinds of prisons within the prison.
It is a testament to Murphy’s character that she remains brave and essay upbeat in the face of all this danger and misery. This eighty-year-old grandmother has no qualms about essay the role of the building, accompanying a group of protestors into a free-fire zone because she has been told that, for PR reasons, the the purges, Israelis are less likely to open fire when they see a Western face. Conflict Research. Her positivity is more than matched by that of the Gazans themselves, whose philosophy of samoud is a ‘quality not understood by the Zionists, comprised of courage, obstinacy and a calm sort of pride’ (52). The bright young activists whom Murphy meets on the purges essay, Gaza Port’s breakwater believe that a combination of thesis obesity, samoud, binationalism and Boycott, Divestment and the purges Sanctions (BDS) against Israel (in the essay about the role of the youth in nation, mould of the global campaign against South African Apartheid) will finally achieve freedom and justice for all Palestinians. (Originally published in the London Magazine)
Travels in Old Asia review (originally published in the London Magazine) Western travel writing on essay, Southern Asia may have become a crowded market, but Eland Books has recently republished three of the contest, finest titles in the canon. Dervla Murphy’s Where the Indus is Young is an arrestingly vivid account of one stoical woman and her even more stoical six-year-old daughter’s treks through the Karakorum Mountains of Baltistan, an under-explored province of northern Pakistan. Travels into Bokhara concerns the adventures of Alexander Burnes, the Scottish spy, polyglot and orientalist who is regarded as a prototype of both Lawrence of Arabia and Wilfred Thesiger. An altogether more humorous – but no less evocative – read is Travels on the purges, My Elephant , Mark Shand’s quest to discover India from the saddle of a flighty but affectionate elephant named Tara. Essay About In Nation. Although these books differ in many ways, they share preoccupations with cross-cultural encounters, unlikely or unusual itineraries, and the impact of modernity on natural environments and ancient civilisations. Originally published in 1991, Shand’s travelogue begins on the kind of whimsical note that one associates with the English gentleman traveller-writers of earlier that century: ‘I had decided on a quiet jaunt across India on an elephant.’ After failing to buy an elephant from the wife of one of India’s greatest actors, Shand promptly heads to a small town in Orissa, follows a trail of dung to a camp of the purges essay, saddhus (holy men) and finds Tara, a young and fit – if malnourished – female of the species. It is love at first sight: ‘I knew then that I had to have her’. Recruiting a rum-sodden mahout (elephant master), Shand sets off on a six hundred mile ride to an elephant mela (market) in Bihar.
Despite the centrality of nurse questions, elephants to Indian civilisation (we are told that throughout the 13 th and 14 th centuries AD, epic wars were fought to secure ‘superior breeds’ in the purges Orissa), the for childhood, sight of one being ridden in the India of the late 1980s by a half-naked Englishman causes children to the purges essay panic, moped riders to crash and men to literally collapse with laughter. Such scenes prompt one to wonder how Britons might react to a half-naked Indian man exploring their country on the back of a shire horse. Thus Tara becomes a symbol of the old India in conflict with the new. Perhaps the funniest demonstration of this is when she, a representative of the most traditional form of transport in the Subcontinent, encounters a typically contemporary coach load of Russian tourists. Amid the essay the role of the building, cries of excitement, Tara proceeds to steal a bottle of vodka with her trunk and empty its entire contents into the purges essay her mouth. But there is a serious overtone to Shand’s story too, a real melancholy about the destruction of India’s heritage. Best Essays. He shares his brother-in-law Prince Charles’s distaste for modern architecture and essay is saddened to find the once-grand Maharaja’s palace of Kheonjar looted and stained with graffiti; ‘an opulence long gone’. Similar themes permeate Where the Indus is thesis obesity, Young . One of the remotest parts of the purges essay, Southern Asia, Baltistan in the late 1970s is a society resisting progress, and this is to author Dervla Murphy’s delight: ‘my reactionary heart throbs with love for Baltistan’.
Lack of outside influence has kept Baltis scrupulously honest, as Murphy realises when she is trusted to pay for some bootlaces by simply putting her money in an unsupervised box. When she opens the box she finds out that 500 Rupees – a considerable sum – is thinking questions, inside and that no-one would think to pilfer it. Homes are left unlocked and there is no need for watchdogs, ‘local standards of the purges, honesty being so high’. Every village Murphy and daughter Rachel arrive at they are showered with hospitality, even when the thesis obesity, inhabitants are in ill health and have only meagre food supplies. However, this is essay, not a state of about of the youth in nation building, affairs that can last, as an essay enlightening discussion with a local Raja reveals. He is concerned that the central government in Lahore’s road-building and father's day essay contest tourism development schemes will bring ‘disease-carrying’ aeroplanes and jeeps. Indeed it is the sudden approach of the purges, a jeep – a rare glimpse of day essay, modernity on a ‘rocky wall rising sheer out of the [River] Shyok’ – that causes Rachel’s pony Hallam to rear up and almost throw her over the precipice. This chilling moment will forever be engraved on her mother’s memory. Alexander Burnes also travelled in the purges essay the Indus region, although he did so some 150 years before Murphy and in very different geopolitical circumstances.
The ‘Great Game’ between Russian and British imperial interests in Asia is for css essays, afoot and Burnes is sent by the purges essay, the Empire to chart ‘a route so unfrequented’: the course of the Indus River beyond the borders of British India. His knowledge of nurse thinking, local languages and customs, his talent for disguise (so effective that Turkmenistanis mistake him for an Afghan) and his literary skills (his cousin was Robert Burns, even though the surname is spelt differently) make him the perfect man for the mission. In an act of what the travel writing scholar Graham Huggan calls ‘shadowing’, Burnes compares his own experiences of these lands to those of the purges, his hero, Alexander the Great, some two thousand years previous. For Childhood. At first, the comparisons are unfavourable. With an almost Byronic nostalgia for the oriental civilisations of yesteryear, Burnes regrets the ‘gradual decay’ of the ‘celebrated’ ancient city of Tatta, its beguiling architecture, substantial silk industry, and fertile land having tragically ‘passed away’. Earlier on in the the purges essay, journey, such an attitude seems to go hand-in-hand with patronising judgements about contemporary Asians (‘the cringing servility of the Indians’/‘ignorant barbarians’), but the more Burnes sees of this part of the world, the more impressed with it he becomes.
By the time he reaches Kabul he is moved to declare, ‘I do not wonder at the hearts of the people being captivated by this landscape’. For Childhood Obesity. To the erudite and open-minded Chief of Kabul he even goes as far as to the purges admit that he has become something of father's day essay, a cultural hybrid: ‘I informed him … that I was an Englishman, and that my entire adoption of the habits of the people had added to my comfort.’ Much the same can be said of the other two writers. After seeing India astride his darling Tara, Mark Shand falls in love with Indian wildlife in general and with Indian elephants in particular. Of visiting the eccentric Eurasian enclave of essay, McCluskiegunge, he writes, ‘perhaps the term Anglo-Indian represented what I was when I rode in’. Dervla Murphy starts integrating into Balti culture as soon as she arrives, embracing the ascetic lifestyle – dried apricot diet and all. Meanwhile, it takes Rachel several gruelling experiences – including a fall into a glacial torrent – before she is ‘completely adjusted to the oriental way of management, life’. From great travel writers we should expect great powers of physical description, and this trio does not disappoint. Dervla Murphy is a little hard on the purges essay, herself when she claims that words cannot do justice to the sublime wonder of the Karakorums, as she consistently succeeds in rendering the otherworldly formations of the frozen landscape in the intensely detailed and father's day essay 2012 lapidary style she is rightly famous for:
Much of the track was covered with thick sheets of ice, and. waterfalls had become towering, transparent columns, surrounded by the bizarre elegance of giant bouquets. of icicles formed around clumps of thyme. Fantastically. convoluted masses of ice hung from roadside rocks… In a similar vein, Mark Shand has a nature lover’s eye for the delicate balance of essay, Southern Asian ecosystems, and how – at least for the time being and in certain locales – peasants in ‘bright lunghis of emerald green’ can live in harmony with ‘piebald and blue’ kingfishers and ‘clumps of bamboo and about youth in nation palm trees’. Alexander Burnes’s cartographic expertise may have won him the Gold Medal of the Royal Geographical Society, but he is equally adept at bringing to the purges essay life such sumptuous spectacles as Maharaja Runjeet Sing’s meeting with Lord Bentinck, the Governor-General of India. Burnes writes beautifully of 2012, gold and essay silver-clad noblemen, ‘a lofty arcade of yellow silk’, ‘the richest carpets and shawls of thesis statement middle school, Cashmere’, and a velvet tent ‘glittering with every ornament’. The event concludes with the Maharaja offering the the purges essay, British fifty-one trays of lavish gifts, as well as the obesity, finest horses and elephants.
These three books may have been written in different historical moments, but their observations remain of interest today. Burnes, in particular, is essay, sometimes prophetic. He discerns a kind of globalisation taking hold in the ‘commerce extending uninterruptedly over such vast and remote regions’ and upbraids both the African and Islamic slave trades for breaching ‘human rights’. His curiosity about Southern Asia’s melting pot of unique cultures and subcultures prefigures the critical thinking, work of the purges essay, modern travel writers such as William Dalrymple, who fittingly provides the prologue and epilogue to thesis for childhood this edition of the purges, Burnes’s book. In the book for css essays, afterword to Travels on my Elephant , Mark Shand explains how he set up the Elephant Family, a charity that is still campaigning for the conservation of Asian elephants today. As for Murphy, it would seem that Baltistan has changed little in almost forty years, and its ‘diamond-brilliant summits’ and ‘fearsome peaks’ not at all. (Originally published in the London Magazine Feb-Mar 2013) Review of Animal Alterity: Science Fiction and the Question of the Animal.
Animal Alterity: Science Fiction and the Question of the Animal. By Sherryl Vint (Liverpool University Press, 2010, 269 pp, ?65.00) Reviewed by Tom Sykes, Lecturer at the University of the purges essay, Portsmouth. In recent decades, intellectuals in various fields have felt the need to critique conventional thinking about the relationship between humans and thesis handout school animals. Essay. In Straw Dogs (2002) – tellingly subtitled Thoughts on Humans and Other Animals – John Gray argues that humans have tended to arrogantly assume that they rule supreme over all other forms of life on Earth, with environmental catastrophe being the most dangerous consequence of this fallacy. The Australian moral philosopher Peter Singer has called for the extension of the thesis handout, utilitarian imperative (‘the greatest good for the greatest number’) to any creature that is able to the purges experience pain, while comparing the “speciesism” of Western thought to racism and sexism. In the area of literary studies, critics such as Carrie Rohman have turned their attention to “textual representations of animality, an animality that resides both in best book for css humans and in nonhumans, though humans have tended historically to the purges essay repress and youth in nation building disavow their own animal being” (Rohman 16). The stage has been set, then, for a critical re-examination of human-animal relations as they are constructed in sf, and Sherryl Vint’s Animal Alterity: Science Fiction and the purges essay the Question of the Animal steps up to the role with brio, urgency and originality. Essay About The Role Of The Youth Building. Taking her theoretical cues from the the purges essay, discipline of Human-Animal Studies (HAS) and its project to interrogate the “human-animal boundary” that all too often justifies the exploitation and destruction of “non-humans with whom we share the planet” (2), Vint argues that a number of sf texts make a progressive contribution to this project by dint of their non-anthropocentric sentiments, their imaginings of ‘other’ subjectivities, and their inventions of alternative ecologies, societies and essays value systems.
Into this category of progressive sf Vint places Karen Traviss’s Wess’har War (2004-8) cycle of novels. Its setting, the planet Bezer’ej, is protected by the wess’har , an environmentally-aware alien species devoted to equality with all other beings, including a colony of humans known as gethes . Furthermore, Traviss’s empathetic depictions of the social relations of non-human creatures accords, so argues Vint, with ecocriticism’s aims to “improve behaviours and the purges essay change minds” (149). Thesis For Childhood. Although it ends on a disquietingly ironical note, The Swarm (2004) by Frank Schatzing is the purges, commended for its representation of an thesis statement handout middle animal rebellion against humans that is the direct consequence of mankind’s failure to understand the the purges essay, interconnectedness of all nature. Other fictions try to bring human and animal subjectivities closer together in order to find some ethical and perceptual common ground. The Jonah Kit (1975) by Ian Watson concerns an experiment to project a human mind into thesis middle school a whale’s brain, while Roger Zelazny posits a “four-dimensional building” of combined human and animal consciousness in his tale of telepathy and dolphins, “Kjwalll’kje’k’koothailill’kje’k” (1973). However, Vint reminds us that such “thinking our way into the other” (7) is not a straightforward enterprise: “such communication is never … transparent and complete” (75).
To be sure, not all sf that engages with animal alterity can be termed progressive, and much of it is either ambivalent about the the purges, prospects of thinking, challenging the human-animal boundary or reinforces that boundary in deeply reactionary ways, though not without recognising “sites of anxiety” (27). In John W. Essay. Campbell’s 1938 novella Who Goes There? , the alien ‘thing’ that consumes the identities of humans appears to best for css problematise any easy attempt to essay demarcate the category of the human, but, by the end of the story, it is clear that Campbell is promoting a strict ideological conception of the human that is dependent on violence, patriarchy and scientism. Vint’s thesis draws upon a wide spectrum of issues and sub-issues related to the human-animal question. The first chapter, “Always-Already Meat”, shows us how sf has grappled with the ways in which human exceptionalism underpins the commodification of animals and their consumption as meat products, citing Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? (1968), Raccoona Sheldon’s 1985 short story “Morality Meat”, and H. G. Wells’ relativist rejoinder to the Martian invaders’ penchant for human blood in essay about youth in nation building The War of the Worlds (1896): “we should remember how repulsive our carnivorous habits would seem to an intelligent rabbit” (26). Another chapter, “The Animal Responds”, disputes the tendency in Western philosophy to claim that capacity for language sets humans apart from beasts (Heidegger: “’animals lack man’s specific relation to language’”) with evidence from the cognitive psychologists William A. Hillix and the purges Duane A. Thesis Handout School. Rumbaugh, which Vint finds echoed and essay imaginatively explored in sf thought experiments by the likes of thesis for childhood, Ursula K. Le Guin in her “The Author of the Acacia Seeds” (1974). Another strength of the purges, this study is its often revelatory affiliating of the question of the animal in sf with other critical concerns such as gender and postcolonialism. Thesis. Chapter 4 outlines how, in our culture, the male-female binary has often been propped up with the human-animal binary, as indicated by misogynistic insults that liken females – and female sexuality – to the purges animals or animal behaviour (‘dog’, ‘bitch’, ‘cow’ etc); it may be no accident, then, that women have tended to be at the forefront of animal rights activism. At the same time, bestial designations for men tend to best book for css positively evoke physical strength and sexual puissance (‘bull’, ‘stallion’ etc).
Perhaps the text that most interests Vint here is Leigh Kennedy’s “Her Furry Face” which won the Nebula Award for Best Short Story in essay 1983. In this offbeat yarn, a human male researcher’s carnal desire for a highly intelligent female orang-utan is rooted in a patriarchal fantasy of both women and animals as obedient, submissive and pleasure-giving beings. In Chapter 5, Vint contends that animals “occupied an obesity ambiguous and fluctuating third space” (113) in the European conquest of foreign lands and peoples. Wild and essay exotic creatures were brought from the colonies and displayed in zoos as representations of subjugated human cultures. Orientalists regarded the savagery of wild animals such as tigers as evidence of the savagery of humans native to the same regions; a preposterous excuse for colonial brutality if ever there was one. Returning to War of the Worlds , Vint finds the Martians showing the same indifference to the sanctity of British life as the British showed to the sanctity of oriental life – both animal and animalised human. Throughout Animal Alterity are fascinating segues into real-world events that strongly affect how and what we think about best book for css essays, animals.
Biotechnological gene-splicing and the purges essay diseases such as BSE that migrate from animals to humans are blurring the inter-species divide, though clearly not in the constructive ways HAS has in mind. Contemporary laboratory science denigrates the for childhood, value of non-human life and turns the “animal subject” into a “product” (188). In “The Mirror Test”, a chapter, in part, about how humans construct animals according to their own expectations and standards, Vint relates the anecdote of Clever Hans, a horse in nineteenth century Germany who appeared to be able to do sums by tapping his feet, but was in fact responding to the purges essay “subtle cues from book for css essays, his owner which informed him when he had reached the required count” (46). While the essay, German board of day essay contest 2012, education of the time refused to accept this as a valid demonstration of intelligence, Vint’s analysis is that Hans’s ability to follow the essay, cues untrained and his “sensitivity to social interaction” (46) are proof of other kinds of for childhood obesity, intelligence, even if they are not defined as such by the anthropocentric mindset. Some of Vint’s digressions away from essay, sf and into nurse thinking critical theory may seem a little long-winded, although she does always take care to come back and ground the abstractions of scholars such as Nagel, Derrida, Agamben and the purges Berger in essay about of the youth in nation close readings of the canon. Indeed, her concise precis of numerous novels and short stories work very well as reading recommendations for any sf fan. The Purges Essay. While we might question the practicality of HAS’s self-avowedly utopian political aims – chief amongst them the establishment of critical questions, a posthuman society of absolute human-animal equality – there is no doubt that Animal Alterity palpably succeeds in showing us how, as Vint puts it herself, sf “can stage the problems that confront us in the purges rich, concrete detail and thus potentially enable its readers to perceive the world and other species in new ways” (211). (Originally published in Foundation: The International Review of father's contest, Science Fiction)
Review of Letters from the Empire. Review of essay, Letters from the Empire: A Soldier’s Account of the Boer War and the Abor Campaign in critical questions India (The History Press Ltd) Meet Allan Marriot Hutchins: gentleman, wit and soldier. The Purges. At the essay youth in nation building, height of the British Empire, he served in the Boer War and essay the Abor Campaign in South Asia. He kept the proverbial stiff upper lip at all times, even when sustaining serious wounds and losing comrades.
Of repelling snipers at Oorlogspoort, he writes, almost casually, ‘We turned our attention to them and nurse questions shut ‘em up.’ Even in the most exotic of places, Hutchins – in true English style – dreams of essay, roast lamb and mint sauce and obsesses about the weather. On first glance, Hutchins’ life story evokes the boy’s own yarns of Rider Haggard or Kipling. Best Book Essays. The reality, however, is less romantic. Assembled from a recently-discovered trove of Hutchins’ letters from the front line, Letters from the Empire tells the gritty truth about colonial warfare. The battles come thick and fast, but there’s more disease than distinguished service, more grime than gallantry.
Hutchins must survive his own side’s field hospitals as well as the the purges, other side’s firepower. On other occasions, such as when he is first posted to for childhood obesity India, the problem is how to kill time rather than how to kill people. The Purges. Thus he dedicates himself to polo, gymkhanas, sergeant’s dances and heavy drinking (no one in father's the regiment is allowed to go to bed sober unless it’s a Thursday). Bored and having seen little action in South Africa, Hutchins starts to mythologise his war record: ‘Tell him how his Uncle Allen has slain many a Boer and marched from Bloemfontein to Pretoria dripping blood from every step.’ Although Hutchins is a lucid correspondent, amusing us with vernacular phrases (for ‘snaffling a mount’ read finding a reliable horse), some of his descriptions are a touch mathematical: ‘The garrison had 2 men killed and the purges essay 5 or 6 wounded and the Boers admitted to having 23 wounded…’ Then again, he could not have predicted that his letters – written primarily to inform – would one day be turned into a book.
Similarly, while the surfeit of names, ranks, regiments and makes of firearm will delight the military history buff, a few more explanatory notes would have helped the casual reader. Unsurprisingly, Hutchins’ views on nurse questions, race and culture seem reactionary today, but as the narrative unfolds, so his cynicism about the imperial project grows. The poverty of the soldiery is a recurring bugbear. The learned editorial commentary also highlights the abuses of empire, its war crimes and – making their horrific debut in the Boer conflict – concentration camps. All in all, Letters from the the purges, Empire is an engaging insight into both the minutiae of war and a complex yet charismatic man.
Originally published in the Bristol Review of Books, March 2012.
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10 Facts About The Adventures of the purges essay, Huckleberry Finn. On its surface, Mark Twain's The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is a straightforward story about a boy and a runaway slave floating down the Mississippi River. Thesis Statement Middle School! But underneath, the book is a subversive confrontation of the purges essay, slavery and father's contest racism. Essay! It remains one of the most loved—and most banned—books in American history. 1. Huckleberry Finn First Appears In Tom Sawyer. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is a sequel to Tom Sawyer , Twain’s novel about his childhood in Hannibal, Missouri.
Huck is the “juvenile pariah of the village” and “son of the town drunkard,” Pap Finn. He wears cast-off adult clothes and conflict management research paper sleeps in doorways and empty barrels. Despite this, the other children “wished they dared to be like him.” Huck also appears in Tom Sawyer, Detective, and Tom Sawyer Abroad , as well as the unfinished Huck Finn and Tom Sawyer Among the Indians . The Purges Essay! 2. Huckleberry Finn May Be Based On Twain’s Childhood Friend. Twain said Huck is based on Tom Blankenship, a childhood playmate whose father, Woodson Blankenship, was a poor drunkard and the likely model for Pap Finn. “In Huckleberry Finn I have drawn Tom Blankenship exactly as he was,” he wrote in Autobiography . “He was ignorant, unwashed, insufficiently fed; but he had as good a heart as ever any boy had. However, Twain may be exaggerating here. Essay About In Nation Building! In 1885, when the Minneapolis Tribune asked who Huck was based on, Twain admitted it was no single person: “I could not point you out the youngster all in the purges a lump; but still his story is what I call a true story.” 3. It Took Twain Seven Years To Write The Novel. Father's Day Essay Contest 2012! Huckleberry Finn was written in two short bursts. Essay! The first was in 1876, when Twain wrote 400 pages that he told his friend he liked “only tolerably well, as far as I have got, and may possibly pigeonhole or burn” the manuscript. He stopped working on father's day essay contest 2012, it for several years to write The Prince and the Pauper and Life on the purges essay, the Mississippi . Day Essay Contest! In 1882, Twain took a steamboat ride on the Mississippi from New Orleans to Minnesota, with a stop in Hannibal. It must have inspired him, because he dove into finishing Huckleberry Finn . In August 1883, he wrote: “I have written eight or nine hundred manuscript pages in such a brief space of time that I mustn’t name the number of days; I shouldn’t believe it myself, and the purges essay of course couldn’t expect you to.” The book was published in thesis 1884.
4. Like Huck, Twain Changed His View Of Slavery. Huck, who grows up in essay South before the management research paper Civil War, not only accepts slavery, but believes that helping Jim run away is a sin. The moral climax of the the purges novel is when Huck debates whether to father's day essay contest 2012 send Jim’s owner a letter detailing Jim’s whereabouts. Finally, Huck says, All right, then, I'll go to hell,” and tears the letter up. As a child, Twain didn’t question the institution of slavery. Not only was Missouri a slave state, his uncle owned 20 slaves. In Autobiography, Twain wrote, “I vividly remember seeing a dozen black men and women chained to essay one another, once, and middle lying in essay a group on the pavement, awaiting shipment to the Southern slave market. Those were the saddest faces I have ever seen.” At some point, Twain’s attitudes changed and he married into an abolitionist family. His father-in-law, Jervis Langdon, was a “conductor” on best book for css, the Underground Railroad and housed Frederick Douglass. 5. Emmeline Grangerford Is A Parody Of A Victorian Poetaster. The Purges Essay! Huckleberry Finn parodies adventure novels, politics, religion, the Hatfields and the McCoys, and essay about youth in nation building even Hamlet’s soliloquy.
But most memorable may be Emmeline Grangerford, the 15-year-old poet. Emmeline is a parody of Julia A. The Purges! Moore, the father's day essay contest “Sweet Singer of the purges essay, Michigan,” who wrote bad poetry about death. Father's Day Essay Contest 2012! So does Emmeline, according to Huck: “Every time a man died, or a woman died, or a child died, she would be on hand with her tribute before he was cold. She called them tributes.” Along with bad poetry, Emmeline paints “crayons” of dramatic subjects, such as a girl “crying into the purges, a handkerchief” over youth in nation building a dead bird with the caption, I Shall Never Hear Thy Sweet Chirrup More Alas. The Purges Essay! 6. A Penis Drawing Almost Ruined The Book. University of Virginia.
Twain, who ran his own printing press, hired 23-year-old E. W. Kemble to management paper illustrate the the purges first edition of Huckleberry Finn . Conflict Research Paper! Right as the the purges essay book went to press, someone—it was never discovered who—added a penis to middle the illustration of the purges, Uncle Silas. The engraving shows Uncle Silas talking to Huck and Aunt Sally while a crude penis bulges from his pants. According to Twain’s business manager Charles Webster, 250 books were sent out before the best essays mistake was caught. They were recalled and the purges publication was postponed for a reprint. If the full run had been sent out, Webster said, Twain’s “credit for decency and morality would have been destroyed.” You can view Kemble’s original illustrations here. 7. Many Consider Huckleberry Finn The First American Novel. Best Essays! “All modern American literature comes from one book by Mark Twain called Huckleberry Finn ,” Ernest Hemingway wrote in Green Hills Of Africa . “There was nothing before. There has been nothing as good since. While this statement ignores great works like Moby-Dick and The Scarlet Letter , Huckleberry Finn was notable because it was the essay first novel to be written in the American vernacular. Huck speaks in dialect, using phrases like “it ain’t no matter” or it warn’t no time to be sentimentering.” Since most writers of the time were still imitating European literature, writing the way Americans actually talked seemed revolutionary. It was language that was clear, crisp, and vivid, and it changed how Americans wrote.
8. The End Of The Book Is Often Considered A Cop Out. Father's Contest! University of Virginia. A major criticism of the purges, Huckleberry Finn is that the book begins to fail when Tom Sawyer enters the novel. Up until that point, Huck and Jim have developed a friendship bound by their mutual plight as runaways. We believe Huck cares about Jim and has learned to see his humanity. But when Tom Sawyer comes into the novel, Huck changes. He becomes passive and doesn’t even seem to care when Jim is captured. To make matters worse, it turns out essay about youth in nation that Jim’s owner has already set him free, and that Huck’s abusive dad is dead. Essentially, Huck and Jim have been running away from essay, nothing. Many, including American novelist Jane Smiley, believe that by slapping on a happy ending, Twain was ignoring the complex questions his book raises. University of Virginia.
Huckleberry Finn was first banned in Concord, Massachussets in 1885 (“trash and suitable only for for childhood obesity the slums”) and continues to be one of the most-challenged books. For example, it’s number 14 on Top 100 Banned/Challenged Books: 2000-2009. The objections are usually over n-word, which occurs over 200 times in the purges the book. Others say that the portrayal of African Americans is stereotypical, racially insensitive, or racist. In 2011, Stephen Railton, a professor at University of Virginia, published a version of the book that replaced that offensive word with “slave.” Soon after appeared The Hipster Huckleberry Finn , where the statement middle school word was replaced with “hipster.” The book's description says, “the adventures of Huckleberry Finn are now neither offensive nor uncool.” 10. Here’s How Twain Responded To Censorship. In 1905, the Brooklyn Public Library removed Huckleberry Finn and Tom Sawyer from the shelves because, as librarian wrote Twain, Huck is “a deceitful boy who said 'sweat' when he should have said 'perspiration.' Here’s Twain’s reply: I am greatly troubled by what you say. I wrote Tom Sawyer and the purges essay Huck Finn for adults exclusively, and it always distresses me when I find that boys and thesis for childhood girls have been allowed access to them. The mind that becomes soiled in essay youth can never again be washed clean; I know this by my own experience, and to this day I cherish an unappeasable bitterness against nurse critical thinking questions the unfaithful guardians of essay, my young life, who not only permitted but compelled me to read an unexpurgated Bible through before I was 15 years old. None can do that and ever draw a clean sweet breath again this side of the grave.
Ask that young lady—she will tell you so. Most honestly do I wish I could say a softening word or two in defence of Huck's character, since you wish it, but really in my opinion it is no better than those of Solomon, David, Satan, and essay about the role youth in nation building the rest of the sacred brotherhood. If there is an unexpurgated Bible in the Children's Department, won't you please help that young woman remove Huck and the purges essay Tom from that questionable companionship? Before he became a bestselling author, John Green worked for the American Library Association’s Booklist magazine for six years. Nurse Critical Thinking! Now, the novelist and Mental Floss YouTube host is returning to the stacks once more, delivering bibliophiles over two dozen trivia bits about the free repositories of essay, knowledge. Since Clearchus—the ancient Greek ruler and student of the philosopher Plato—founded the contest 2012 first-known public library around 364 BCE, readers from around the world have rifled through sacred Buddhist manuscripts in Bhutan’s unique temple library; felt equal parts awed and overwhelmed upon entering the Library of essay, Congress; and essay youth in nation paid homage to the purges Morocco’s gatekeepers of knowledge by visiting the world’s oldest still-operating library in Fez, which was founded by best book for css a woman named Fatima al-Fihri in 859 CE [PDF]. Essay! Learn more about about the role of the in nation building these fascinating libraries—along with which famous children’s author was once a librarian, which president was guilty of having a library book that was 221 years overdue, which Francis Ford Coppola film may never have been made without a school librarian’s petition, and more—by watching the video above, or by subscribing to our YouTube channel. Ernest Hemingway was a born writer, as seen in a newly rediscovered work by the iconic 20th-century scribe.
As Atlas Obscura reports, Hemingway’s earliest-known short story—a 14-page tale he wrote when he was just 10 years old—was recently found in the possession of family friends in Key West, Florida, where the author lived in the purges essay the 1930s. Written in a stained brown notebook—which was stored inside a Ziploc freezer bag and safeguarded inside an essay of the youth building ammunition box—the untitled story from essay, 1909 recounts a fictional trip to Ireland and Scotland, complete with descriptions of Hemingway’s journey to critical thinking Europe by train and the ocean liner RMS Mauretania . The narrative is established through a series of diary entries and letters to Hemingway’s parents. The author's precise attention to detail—ranging from the number of the purges essay, propellers on his ship to local landmarks, like Blarney Castle, that he encounters during his stay—initially makes the work appear to be a true-life tale. (The freezer bag the notebook was stored in thesis obesity was also labeled “September 8, 1909, EH diary to Europe.”) But according to Sandra Spanier, a Penn State professor and general editor of the Hemingway Letters Project, Hemingway didn’t make it to the purges Europe for 2012 the first time until he was much older. Plus, he never made the exact journey through Ireland and Scotland that he describes in the notebook. It’s a fascinating find, showing the young Hemingway’s interest in getting the details of place exactly right (even as he makes up the characters and incidents), Spanier tells Mental Floss. The short story was found among the collection of Telly Otto “Toby” Bruce, Hemingway’s friend and former employee, who inherited a portion of the prolific author’s personal archive from the writer's fourth wife and widow, Mary Welsh Hemingway. The collection of manuscripts, photos, and memorabilia is today managed by Bruce’s son, Benjamin “Dink” Bruce, and is occasionally used for essay local exhibits and scholarly research. In May 2017, Spanier and historian Brewster Chamberlin were combing through Bruce’s papers in thesis statement handout school Key West in preparation for the purges the publication of essay about the role of the youth in nation building, volume four of the 17 total volumes that will comprise The Letters of Ernest Hemingway . While their eyes were peeled for missing letters from the purges essay, 1929 to 1931, they ended up finding the notebook, which also contains snippets of poetry and grammar notes. It’s unclear whether Hemingway was writing the short story as a school English assignment, a literary contest submission, or simply for his own pleasure. Still, Spanier says that the find is “amazing; a real landmark piece of writing,” she told The New York Times . “It’s the first time we see Hemingway writing a sustained, imaginative narrative.” LIVE SMARTER BIG QUESTIONS WEATHER WATCH BE THE CHANGE JOB SECRETS QUIZZES WORLD WAR 1 SMART SHOPPING STONES, BONES, WRECKS #TBT THE PRESIDENTS WORDS RETROBITUARIES.
With Help From Photoshop and AI, No One Will Know You Blinked in contest That Photo. 5 Trouble-Shooting Tips to the purges essay Keep Your House Plant Alive. Why You Should Never Flush Dental Floss Down the thesis middle Toilet. Mental Floss store and essay save 15% on your first order?
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Explain the effects of the purges in the Soviet Union in the 1930s
define essayiste The Academic Essay. The academic essay is merely a specific writing genre#150;as is the love letter, newspaper editorial, or pop-fiction. As a genre, it functions within a set of norms, rules, and the purges essay, conventions. The purpose of this discussion is to make clear to you what those rules and for childhood obesity, norms are, and how to use them to express your argument clearly. The purpose of the the purges academic essay is to thesis middle persuade by reasoned discourse. Scholars use the essay amongst themselves to advance ideas. Its value as an instructional tool is to assist students in developing their critical thinking skills. The Purges Essay? As you recall, critical thinking is conflict paper, defined as: the ability to read theory accurately, appropriate it meaningfully, apply it independently, generate results based on that application, analyze the results, and form a clear argument based on those results that can be defended with a specific line of reasoning.
A good academic essay engenders this process and the purges essay, clearly demonstrates that the process has been performed successfully. With this in mind let's examine how to write an academic essay. Do you frequently find yourself struggling with the introduction to your essays? Do you not know how to begin the essay? Do you find yourself searching for a generalizing statement that will get things going, and trying to find a delicate balance between BS'ing and saying something meaningful? If so, that's because you are not following the thesis for childhood norms for the purges essay, the introduction to the academic essay. Following this norm actually makes introductions a piece of cake and gets you right into the body of the essay. Here is the norm: The purpose of the introduction is two-fold: 1. To introduce the theoretical framework that will guide your analysis. 2. To introduce the thesis statement that will organize your paper.
Following this norm allows you to cut to the chase. No more generalizing statements of philosophical speculation that you venture forth hoping that it won't get shot down. You know, crap like Hemingway was perhaps one of the essay about the role youth building most visionary authors of his time. Essay? or The Western is perhaps the most uniquely American of handout school all the genres. Rather, if the the purges purpose of the essay is to demonstrate that you have appropriated a theory and applied it independently to produce results, then the function of the introduction becomes more focused: to introduce the theory#150;or theoretical framework#150;that you have decided to thesis middle school use. Hence you will find that many essays begin with such statements as In his book. Or, In her essay. IMPORTANT NOTE: One of the main reasons that the norm of the Introduction developed this way is because of an important rule of the Academic Essay: Avoid making statements that you cannot prove. The problem with the generalizing/philosophical/BS'ing statements like Hemingway. The Purges? and The Western. is statement middle school, that they cannot be proven through reasoned discourse. Moreover, to even try and do so would require voluminous amounts of discourse for something that is not even your thesis: what you actually ARE setting out to prove. As a result, the genre of the Academic Essay has evolved into the above norm.
It still meets an introduction's purpose of orienting the reader, it just does so in essay a very specific manner. Having accomplished that, the expectation for an essay is thinking questions, that you will introduce a thesis statement that is directly related to that theoretical framework (or its application). As a result, a major convention of the academic essay is that: The introduction ends with the thesis statement. Having stated a thesis, you are expected to essay then go and prove it through the body of the essay. That said, it is best book for css, important to the purges discuss what's at thesis for childhood obesity, stake in making a thesis statement. There are four basic logical forms for a thesis statement: #149; A banal thesis statement. #149; A simple thesis statement.
#149; A complex thesis statement. #149; An impossible thesis statement. Let's discuss each of these quickly before moving on. A banal thesis statement is a statement that does not really say anything#150;it is in the purges essay fact meaningless because it is either so overly general or so evident as to not be of significance. Here's an example from literature. A frequent argument students will make is This author used symbolism to make his point.
The statement, however, is father's contest 2012, meaningless precisely because it is not of significance: every author writing literature uses symbolism of one kind or another, either using language metaphorically or metonymically. Thus, to attempt to single out or make a distinction of a piece for using symbolism is to not say anything that even needs proving to the purges essay begin with. A simple thesis statement is day essay, not quite what it may sound like. A simple thesis statement means that only one main point or argument is going to be proved. The term simple argument can thus be misleading because the argument itself can and the purges essay, frequently is very theoretically sophisticated. What makes them simple is that in terms of conflict management paper their logical structure, they only the purges take on one line of proof, and hence, their organization of proof will be simple.
One has to be careful, however, because sometimes one main argument may require SEVERAL supporting arguments. The example here would be the argument that Star Wars belongs within the Western Genre. Here the writer has only thesis for childhood one thing to prove, but in order to do so will have to establish the elements that comprise the Western Genre and demonstrate how the film embodies them--not a small task. Simple thesis statements are eminently preferable in essay terms of writing an essay for a course. It allows you to focus on your points and your proofs rather than getting lost in the organization of your arguments. A complex thesis statement means that the thesis has more than one point to prove. In this respect, the essay will have to organize more than one line of reasoning in so far that more than one thing has to be proven.
Complex theses are not necessarily more theoretically sophisticated than simple thesis statements, they are only more difficult to organize clearly. Conflict Management Research? In this respect, they are not worth what they entail and should be avoided. An example of a complex thesis statement would be something like: Faulkner's novels critique the ideologies of patriarchy and racism. This would be an appropriate analysis for the work of Faulkner, but I'm not sure it would be worth it. To begin with, it is not clear what the the purges essay writer has to gain in terms of proving BOTH of these aspects of the work rather than just the one. Instead, with this complex thesis, there are going to be long sections of the essay where half of father's what needs to the purges essay be proved will be left suspended while the other half gets discussed. In addition, the thesis picks the work of Faulkner which necessitates discussing every book, rather than just one. Thus it is that an important convention of the academic essay is that: A complex thesis statement can usually be restructured into contest a more theoretically sophisticated (if not interesting) simple thesis statement. Making an Argument. As stated earlier, the academic essay is an exercise in reasoned persuasion.
In this respect, the thesis statement is an the purges important organizational structure insofar as it establishes how the rest of the essay will be organized. Classical logic maintains that there are 3 basic kinds of persuasive statements: statements of fact, statements of value (or evaluation), and statements of policy (or action, which argue what we should do). Book? Unless otherwise specified, the first of these, the statement of essay fact, is the form that the thesis statement for an academic essay should take#150;the obvious exception being when you write evaluative criticism (which you will NEVER do in my course). Statements of fact can themselves be grouped into book essays two basic forms: arguments of essay classification, and arguments of operation or function. It is possible to make other distinctions, like for example, arguments of relationship (how to things relate to each other) but these distinctions can be readily subsumed into these two basic groups.
Arguments of classification are when you establish some sort of criteria, and then argue that something meets or fails to meet that criteria. The earlier example that Star Wars belongs within the Western Genre is an example of an best book for css argument of classification. Having established what comprises the Western Genre, the writer will then go on to prove how Star Wars embodies, contains, or possesses those elements. The writer will, in other words, prove that Star Wars meets that criteria. Arguments of operation or function argues in terms of what something does, or how it functions. The earlier argument that Faulkner's work critiques the ideology of patriarchy is an example of function. This statement argues that Faulkner's work DOES something: it criticizes the ideology of the purges essay patriarchy. Note that unlike the argument of classification, the writer of this essay SEEMS to have to do more to obesity prove their thesis. They will not only have to define what the ideology of the purges essay patriarchy is#150;and thus establish criteria#150;they will also have to demonstrate that Faulkner's work DOES something with that criteria.
The question of HOW leads to a discussion of the paper body of the essay. The Body of the the purges Essay. From a conceptual standpoint, the function of the body of the essay is to prove the thesis statement laid out in the introduction. Easy enough. Statement Handout School? This section discusses how the writer accomplishes that proof. In the discussion of types of argument, I made the point that the writer will have to establish criteria that can be used to prove their argument. The Purges Essay? The body of the essay is the thesis for childhood location where the writer accomplishes that. An introduction is the purges essay, precisely that: It INTRODUCES the theoretical framework and the thesis statement. It does not DESCRIBE or DISCUSS these two things. This is a fairly common mistake that beginning essay writers make.
They fear that they have not said enough in the intro and as a result, go on to discuss aspects of their theory or elaborate on a thesis. Thesis School? The problem with doing so is that it screws up your organization. What comes next is the purges essay, no longer clear to the reader. If you keep it clear to yourself that the purpose of the introduction to your essay is to only INTRODUCE your theoretical framework, and your thesis statement, then the function of the body of your essay will also become evident to the reader. They will expect you to establish criteria so that you can prove your thesis. As a result, another important norm of the academic essay is: A primary function of the body of the essay is to establish the criteria by which the thesis statement will be proven. Thus it is that having argued that Star Wars is a Western, the the role body of the paper is going to the purges essay have to first establish the elements that comprise the Western#150;it will have to establish the criteria by which the thesis can be proven.
To argue that Faulkner's work criticizes thee ideology of patriarchy is conflict research, going to require that the writer establish what the ideology of patriarchy is. Establishing the criteria by which the thesis statement will be proven leads to the next logical step: demonstrating how the object under investigation meets those criteria. Clearly it is essay, not enough for for childhood obesity, the Faulkner essayist to just define what the ideology of patriarchy is. Their thesis is essay, that Faulkner's work criticizes that ideology. As a result, they will have to point to day essay specific things within the the purges essay text and argue that they relate to those criteria IN A SPECIFIC WAY#150;in this case through a process of criticism. This process of relating the object of investigation back to the established criteria is another fundamental component of the best book for css essays body of the essay. Without it, the proof is not complete. As silly as that sounds, I kid you not that the the purges essay most frequent mistake of beginning essay writers is a failure to relate their analysis back to the criteria they have established. Thus it is that another important norm for essay about the role of the youth, the academic essay is: Relate the analysis back to the terms and concepts of the established criteria.
The Star Wars example brings up another fundamental logical task to this process. From the beginning you have probably thought the the purges essay Star Wars thesis to not be very feasible. The film is not set in father's day essay 2012 the West, and it occurs in the future. The question becomes, however, whether these are ESSENTIAL criteria to the Western, and if not, what is? In terms of proving that thesis statement, the writer is going to have to clearly establish what the elements of the Western Genre are, and then relate aspects of the film back to ALL of those criteria. Herein lies the essential importance of completeness to that process. If the Star Wars writer establishes the criteria but can only point to the gun-fighting that occurs in the film, then their essay will fail to the purges essay persuade. Their essay will fail to persuade precisely because it inadequately addresses the scope of the criteria. Thus it is that another important norm for day essay 2012, this process is: Fully address the established criteria. It is very important to note that fully addressing the the purges essay scope of the thesis criteria does NOT mean that the the purges object under discussion has to fully meet ALL the criteria.
To stick with the Star Wars example, the thesis statement handout writer can not IGNORE the issue of setting and even remotely hope to the purges essay persuade the audience. In some way, the writer is going to have to address the fact that both time and for childhood, place are out essay of the bounds of the Western. This is the point precisely. The author will have to ADDRESS that point#150;those criteria#150;not necessarily MEET those criteria. In this respect, the writer is going to have make a supporting argument about how these criteria relate to each other in terms of comprising the genre (or in a logical sense the whole). The important point is that all criteria are addressed adequately. Failure to address any of the established criteria creates a gap in logic. Subsequently, the reasoning process (and its ability to father's day essay persuade) fails. Fully relating the object of the thesis to the established criteria fulfills the logical requirements necessary to persuade reasonably and allows the writer to essay draw conclusions. Before that process is for childhood obesity, discussed, however, it is necessary to examine an important component of this relating back process.
The Role of the purges Description. Relating the best book for css essays object of investigation or the object of the thesis back to the established criteria is the purges, necessarily going to involve description. Description is frequently an unclear and thorny issue for writers of the academic essay#150;especially in nurse questions terms of scope (how much is enough?). The Purges? The purpose of nurse critical thinking questions description, however, clarifies the issue of scope. The purpose of the purges description to is to make clear, or establish WHAT in the object of investigation (the film, the nurse questions scene, the shot) relates to the criteria being used.
It therefore becomes important for the writer to use description in such a manner as to establish the basis of the relationship between the object and the criteria. Furthermore, the writer should LIMIT description to essay accomplishing only statement middle school this task. Added description is not only superfluous, but distracts from trying to prove your argument. As a result, another important norm for the body of the academic essay is: Subordinate description to the purpose of analysis. As stated above the process of the purges essay fully relating the object of the thesis to the established criteria has the effect of research paper fulfilling the logical requirements.
It is THAT task which ultimately persuades, not the conclusion itself. It is for this reason that, in some respects, the conclusion does not seem to have a FUNDAMENTAL role in the process of reasoned persuasion. That in itself probably accounts for the purges, how many dopey tips exist for what to do with a conclusion, like: repeat the statement middle thesis statement (like people have forgotten it despite the fact that you've been working to prove it the entire time) or some other such thing. What to do with a conclusion if the work of proof is already done? The most effective thing to do with a conclusion is to the purges essay first signal that the work is coming to close, and then close off the discussion itself by stating something definitive about the work. Like the thesis handout middle introduction, then, the conclusion has a dual role: to signal the transition to closure, and to close the discussion with a definitive statement. The work of the conclusion should reference the thesis, without necessarily repeating the thesis (or the steps by which it was proven) It should then say something definitive that signals closure by pointing to the implications of essay what you've discussed, by amplifying what you've discussed, or by contextualizing what you've discussed. In each case, you are striving to close discussion by being definitive, and you are taking caution not to violate rule #1 of the academic essay: avoid statements that you cannot prove. To stay with the running examples, the conclusion to the Faulkner paper could look something like this: . it therefore serves as an nurse thinking example of the purges how literary texts structure their criticisms of dominant ideologies. (pointing to the implications of proving your argument).
Thus, far from being a portrait of its time Faulkner's work demonstrates that literary works actively engage ideologies. (amplifying your argument) Rather than a story centered exclusively on war, Hemingway's novel instead participates in the reinforcement of dominant ideologies with American culture. (Contextualizing the argument) Note that the similarity here is how definitive these statements are. For Css? They draw upon the work that has been done, but say something different and final that is logically based upon what has been discussed. There are, of course, variations on the genre of the academic essay--some rather large difference exist, for example, between the social sciences and the humanites. This discussion is based on the humanties approach. Other variations can result from the idiosyncracies of the purges essay specific instructors. To the degree that what is written here sounds heavy handed and inflexible, I caution instead that such tone is trying to reflect the manner in which your own analysis and writing will need to sound precise and rigorous#150;the standards by which the academic essay is obesity, evaluated. The precision and rigor with which these norms and conventions are applied should function only to the purges demand that your own analysis and reason engender these standards. They are thus meant to father's day essay elevate your thinking, not control it. The principles by which the academic essay structures itself is designed to be a discipline that frees your thinking, not subjugate it.
Within its conventions is unlimited creative potential whose only demand, ultimately, is that you say something meaningful that others can be persuaded of via your logic. What I have attempted to do here is make the norms and conventions of the the purges essay genre explicit so that you can refine your skills working within it. Mastering this genre has the benefit of developing your skill to analyze situations using explicit criteria, and book, be able to make decisions based on that analysis. More than a few people have found that possession of such a skill is invaluable in life and professional endeavors.
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