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Biography Born: May 26, 1926 Died: September 28, 1991. Over six full decades, from his arrival on the national scene in 1945 until his death in 1991, Miles Davis made music that grew from an uncanny talent to researching paper hear the future and a headstrong desire to play it. From his beginnings in the circle of thesis statements, modern jazz, he came to a term intuit new worlds of sound and analytical words use essays challenge. While the researching a term paper vast majority of musicians jazz, rock, RB, otherwise – find the experimental charge and imperviousness of youth eventually running down, Miles forever forged ahead, trusting and following instinct until the end. In doing so, Miles became the standard bearer for successive generations of pictures speech, musicians, shaped the course of modern improvisational music more than a half-dozen times. This biography attempts to explain those paradigm-shifts one after another, through his recordings and major life changes. The factors leading to that process are now the foundation of the Miles Davis legend: the dentist’s son born in 1926 to middle-class comfort in East St Louis. A Term! The fresh acolyte learning trumpet in the fertile, blues-drenched music scene of his hometown. The sensitive soul forging a seething streetwise exterior that later earned him the title, Prince Of Darkness. The determined teenager convincing his parents to send him to New York’s famed Juilliard School of Music in 1944, a ploy allowing him to locate and join the edward said band of researching a term paper, his idol, bebop pioneer Charlie Parker. It wasn’t long before the headstrong young arrival grew from sideman to leading his own projects and bands of renown, from the restrained, classical underpinning of the essay format famous “Birth of the Cool” group (Miles’ first foray with arranger Gil Evans), to the blues-infused hardbop anthem “Walkin’”, to researching a term paper his first famous quintet (Coltrane, Chambers, Red Garland, Philly Joe Jones) with whom his recordings on muted trumpet helped him develop a signature sound that broke through to mainstream recognition.

His subsequent jump from pictures to help with speech therapy, recording with independent labels (Prestige, Blue Note) to Columbia Records, then the Tiffany of record companies, propelled his career further from a limited jazz audience and researching paper a series of late ‘50s albums ( Miles Ahead, Porgy Bess, Miles Ahead, Kind of fiction essay, Blue and Sketches of researching, Spain ) secured his widespread popularity. Miles’ group shifted and morphed through the early ‘60s until he settled for a four-year run with his classic quintet, a lineup that is still hailed today as one of the greatest and essay topics most influential jazz groups of all time. Paper! Their albums together — from Miles Smiles, ESP and Nefertiti , to Miles In The Sky , and Filles de Kilimanjaro — traced a pattern of unparalleled growth and thesis innovation. Had Miles stopped his progress at that point, he’d still be hailed as one of the greatest pioneers in jazz, but his creative momentum from the end of the ‘60s into the ‘70s would not let up. He was listening to the world around him — the amplified explosion of rock bands and the new, heavy-on-the-one funk of researching a term paper, James Brown and Sly The Family Stone. From the thesis statements for arumentative ambient hush of researching a term, In A Silent Way , to the strange and unsettling – yet wildly popular Bitches Brew , he achieved another shift in musical paradigm and a personal career breakthrough. Bitches Brew was controversial, a best-seller and attracted another, younger generation into the Miles fold. Thousands whose musical taste respected no categorical walls flocked to pictures therapy hear Miles, and a slew of fusion bands were soon spawned, led by his former sidemen: Weather Report, Mahavishnu Orchestra, Return To Forever. The studio albums that defined Miles’ kaleidoscopic sound in a term, the ‘70s included a series of words use essays, (mostly) double albums, from #8230; Brew to 1971’s Live-Evil , ‘72’s On The Corner and ‘75’s Get Up With It . The covers listed populous line-ups that reached up to 11 musicians, adding new names to an ever-widening circle of on-call talent. By the end of 1975, Miles was tired and researching a term sick. A period of seclusion ensued, full years to deal with personal demons and health issues, bouncing between bouts of self-abuse and to help with therapy boredom.

It was the longest time Miles had been off the public radar – only paper amplifying the appetite for his return. When Miles reappeared in 1981, expectation had reached fever pitch. Use Essays! A final series of albums for Columbia reflected his continuing fascination with funk of the day (Rose Royce, Cameo, Chaka Khan and later, Prince), and a term the sounds of synthesizer and drum machines (Great Miles Shift Number 8). The Man With A Horn, We Want Miles and Decoy found him still working with Teo Macero and use essays still surrounding himself with young talent, including bassist Darryl Jones (Rolling Stones). In 1985, his album You’re Under Arrest #8212; with unexpected covers of recent pop charters (Michael Jackson’s “Human Nature” and Cyndi Lauper’s “Time After Time”) brought the long Davis-Columbia association to a close. He embarked on a new relationship with Warner Bros. Records and producer Tommy LiPuma, scoring successes with Tutu (written in a large part by his bassist Marcus Miller), Music from Siesta (also with Miller), Amandla (featuring a new breed of soloists, including alto saxophonist Kenny Garrett, tenor saxophonist Rick Margitza, guitarist Jean-Paul Bourelly, keyboardist Joey DeFrancesco, and others) and Doo-Bop (his collaboration with hip hop producer Easy Moe Bee.) Those titles proved Miles’ farewell, still pushing forward, still exploring new musical territory. Throughout his career, he had always resisted looking back, avoiding nostalgia and loathing leftovers. “It’s more like warmed-over turkey,” the a term paper eternal modernist described the analytical use essays music of a term, Kind of Blue twenty-five years after recording it.

Ironically, in 1991, only weeks after performing a career-overview concert in Paris that featured old friends and collaborators from as early as the ‘40s, he died from a brain aneurysm. Like his music, Miles always spoke with an economy of words use essays, expression. A Term! And for computer papers, Miles, it had to be fresh, or forget it. “I don’t want you to like me because of researching paper, Kind of Blue ,” he insisted. “Like me for quantum computer research papers, what we’re doing now.” LEGACY and the L Legacy logo are registered trademarks of Sony Music Entertainment. Smooth move, exclusive deals and updates are coming soon!

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mary peeples resume Keynote Speaker: Carrie Boren Headington. The 196th Convention of the researching a term paper Diocese of Georgia will be held November 9-11 at The Patterson in Valdosta . The theme of the Convention: Fearless Faith, Boundless Love, serves as a prelude to the Revival which will be held January 20th at Honey Creek Retreat Center. The keynote speaker, Carrie Boren Headington will continue the work begun at said topics, last year’s Convention with Invite-Welcome-Connect as we discover how we share Fearless Faith and Boundless Love beyond the walls of paper, our church: as individuals in our daily lives and as parishes in our communities. Thesis Statements Research Paper. She will walk delegates through key ways of developing an invitation strategy for researching a term paper, their parish and every congregation will leave the Convention with clear next steps toward a plan for analytical words use essays, their church. Registration is now live and can be found by clicking here . Researching Paper. A discounted rate of $55 for registration is in effect until October 4, regular registration of $65 runs October 5-November 1 and late registration of $75 begins November 2 and continue until November 7 when online registration closes. It will be possible to register in person at Convention and pay the late registration cost also.

See the Accommodations page for information on our block of and methods section of a research, rooms at the Hilton Garden Inn and the Hampton Inn and Suites. A renovated turn-of-the-century S.H.Kress building, The Patterson is a new event space in downtown Valdosta. We will meet in convention close to the Episcopal Church of Christ the King . That congregation will bring their worship to The Patterson on the Friday evening of Convention, with a meal to follow. Researching. Thursday evening, we will worship together in an Evening Prayer liturgy at Christ Episcopal Church at 1521 North Patterson Street in Valdosta. The 196th Convention of the Diocese of and methods section research paper, Georgia will meet in the ballroom at paper, The Patterson in pictures to help with downtown Valdosta, Georgia. First Person: Helping Through the Red Cross. Episcopal Relief Flows to researching, Georgia Coast. “Healing a Hurting World,” the tagline for Episcopal Relief and Development will become a reality in the Diocese of words, Georgia with the a term award Thursday of a $15,000 immediate relief grant for families and edward said topics, parishes in the Diocese affected by Hurricane Irma. The Rev.

Charles Todd, Vicar and a term paper, Hispanic Missioner at the Collegiate Church of St. Paul the Apostle in Savannah and a Diocesan Disaster Coordinator said, “As evacuees began returning to said essay, their homes, the Diocese quickly became aware of numerous families in our various communities who do not have the paper means to handle the challenges of the coming days. The Diocese acted very quickly to secure the means to assist the most vulnerable among us and we are very grateful to Episcopal Relief and Development for acting so quickly to approve our request and to support us in our ministry.” Much as they did during Hurricane Matthew, funds will address needs such as helping provide funds for rental deposits for edward said essay, some displaced families prior to insurance claims; building supplies and tools; moving supplies; food, clothing, bedding and gas. The connections that our parishes have in some of the poorest, most affected communities means that we can move quickly to address needs. Initial funds went out today to Epiphany Savannah, Christ Church St. Marys, King of Peace Kingsland, and St.

Mark’s Brunswick. We are also working with other churches to assess needs in paper their areas and edward essay, will be disbursing more funds as needed in the coming days. “We’re thankful to Episcopal Relief and Development for their rapid response to our urgent need for researching a term paper, funds to help those who have crucial needs in our communities,” said Bishop Scott Anson Benhase. “The funds they’ve provided, along with funds given locally, will allow us ‘love our neighbor’ in very concrete and practical ways. Love is an action verb, not merely a state of being. We’re striving to make our love active.” Christ Church Frederica has prepared for Hurricane Irma. With Hurricane Irma now moving toward Florida, here are the latest updates: With Chatham County still under a mandatory evacuation, The Diocese of Georgia’s new emergency phone number: which allows us to fiction, communicate quickly in an unfolding emergency such as Hurricane Irma.

This phone number is for anyone to send a text message or leave a voice message for researching, Diocese of Georgia staff. Be sure to add this phone number to your phone contacts for easy access. Please text or call this number to let us know of: 1) Cancelled Sunday worship in a congregation. 2) Post storm condition of buildings and grounds. 3) To give us the quantum computer research papers name, email, and mobile phone number of the person who will first check on the church property.

4) Any other emergency communications for the staff. Cancelled Sunday Worship. The following congregations have cancelled their worship services for researching, Sunday, September 10 due to research paper, evacuation orders in researching paper their area: Christ Church, Savannah. St.

Francis of the pictures with speech therapy Islands, Savannah. St. George’s, Savannah. St. Researching Paper. Richard’s, Jekyll Island. If you would like to help with disaster relief in the Caribbean and other areas that may be affected by the storm, as well as those impacted by Hurricane Harvey, please visit Episcopal Relief and Development and make a donation. Almighty God, who calmed the storm tossing the disciples’ boat, calm the fears that beset us as we await Hurricane Irma: Grant us the peace that comes from said, you alone as we sit with the uncertainty of evacuation and in researching fear of damage to words, our homes and our communities, draw us ever closer to you, and give us the a term paper grace to comfort and aid others in essay topics need; through Jesus Christ your Son our Lord. Researching. Amen. O God, our heavenly Father, whose glory fills the whole creation, and whose presence we find wherever we go: Preserve those who travel during the storm; surround them with your loving care; protect them from every danger; and materials and methods section of a, bring them in researching paper safety to their journey’s end; through Jesus Christ out Lord. Amen.

The Book of materials section research paper, Common Prayer. A Statement on the Events in Charlottesville. We watched with horror the events of the weekend unfold in paper Charlottesville. As White Supremacists, Neo-Nazis, the format KKK, and researching a term, others with similar ideologies committed murder and other atrocities, many of those did so while at the same time professing to be Christians. As clergy in the Episcopal Church, we proclaim clearly and section, with certainty that they do not represent Christ or Christianity. Jesus said the first and greatest commandment is to love God with all our heart and soul and mind and to love our neighbors as ourselves. Researching Paper. Over the last few days we saw in Charlottesville our failure to follow those commandments.

As the clergy of Episcopal Churches of format, Savannah, we re-affirm our desire to paper, follow the life and teaching of Jesus Christ. In so doing, we are clear in our conviction that the overt racism, raw hatred, and horrific violence that we saw this weekend is contrary to all that he taught and did. We pray for edward, Heather Heyer and a term, her family, for Jay Cullen and Berke Bates, and quantum research papers, all those physically or spiritually harmed. We repent of our own complicity in the structures of our society that allow or support these behaviors and for our silence when we have lacked the researching a term will or courage to speak out. Words. We pray also, as Jesus taught us, for a term paper, the perpetrators, for James Fields, and for all those wielding the words and weapons of hatred and bigotry. We pray God’s blessing on edward said essay them, and researching paper, pray for their own repentance. White Supremacy, bigotry, racism are all sins, egregious ones. They deny the words humanity of those at whom they are directed and destroy the humanity of those who follow these ideologies. They are contrary to the teachings of Jesus, and they grieve the heart of God. While we recognize these attitudes and actions as evil, we also recognize those who displayed them this weekend are, even so, created in the image of God and are in the same need of a term, repentance and redemption as we are.

We commit ourselves again to the vows we made in our baptism and in our ordination – to seek and serve Christ in all places, to persevere in resisting evil, to essay, proclaim by researching a term Word and Example and the Good News of God in Christ. We call upon all the essay faithful likewise to commit themselves to prayer and researching a term, repentance for the things that have been done and for those things that we have left undone. O God, you made us in your own image and quantum papers, redeemed us through Jesus your Son: Look with compassion on the whole human family; take away the arrogance and hatred which infect our hearts; break down the walls that separate us; unite us in bonds of love; and work through our struggle and confusion to accomplish your purposes on earth; that, in your good time, all nations and races may serve you in harmony around your heavenly throne; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen. The Rt. Rev. Researching Paper. Scott A. Materials Research Paper. Benhase. Bishop of Georgia. The Rev.

Canon Frank Logue. Canon to the Ordinary (Assistant to the Bishop) The Very Rev. Dr. A Term. William Willoughby III. The Collegiate Church of St. Paul the Apostle, Savannah. The Rev. Charles Todd.

The Collegiate Church of St. Computer Research. Paul the Apostle, Savannah. The Rev. Michael S. White, Christ Church, Savannah. The Rev. Liam G. Collins, Christ Church, Savannah. The Rev. Helen S. Researching A Term. White, Christ Church, Savannah.

The Rev. Thesis Statements. Kelly Steele. Church of the Epiphany, Savannah. The Rev. Hunt Priest. St. Researching Paper. Peter’s Episcopal Church, Savannah. The Rev. James Parker. St. For Arumentative Paper. George’s Episcopal Church, Savannah.

The Rev. Denise M. Ronn, Ph.D. St. Philip’s Episcopal Church, Hinesville. The Rev. June Johnson. All Saints’ Episcopal Church, Tybee Island. The Rev. R. Kevin Kelly. St. Michael and All Angels Episcopal Church, Savannah.

The Rev. Lauren Flowers Byrd. St. Francis of the Islands, Savannah. The Rev. Guillermo A. Arboleda. St. Matthew’s Episcopal Church, Savannah. The Rev. Paper. David Rose.

Register for Revival: Fearless Faith, Boundless Love. Revival: Fearless Faith, Boundless Love is coming to format, the Georgia coast this September as Presiding Bishop Michael Curry visits the Diocese of Georgia. Find all of the information and researching a term, register for the event at. The Revival worship will use the propers for Deaconess Anna Alexander of Georgia (1865-1947) and words use essays, displays, handouts, and a video will tell the story of this Saint of Georgia. The last General Convention added the paper Deaconess to the observances in A Great Cloud of edward, Witnesses. The next General Convention will act on a recommendation of the Episcopal Church’s Joint Standing Commission on Liturgy and Music to add her feast day of September 24 to Lesser Feasts and Fasts. To find out more about Deaconess Alexander and the process for this saint of Georgia to receive recognition from the whole church, visit our Deaconess Alexander website.

Presiding Bishop Michael Curry. Known for his passionate preaching, the 27th Presiding Bishop of the Episcopal Church embraces his role as the Chief Evangelism Officer for our church. A cradle Episcopalian who well knows we are “God’s Shy People,” he calls us not to go two-by-two with copies of Forward Day by Day in hand, but to fully embrace the love of God as found in Jesus. His preaching is not typical fear-based evangelism that dangles sinners over the flames of Hell, but a compelling call to love God, and researching paper, love our neighbors as ourselves. This will be an event not to miss. Make sure to invite your co-workers and friends to join you. Stewardship Training in Every Convocation. “If Jesus came to essay, visit your church, what would make him say ‘WOW?'” Answering that question gets at the heart of the stewardship training Bishop Benhase will bring to the diocese this fall. As he visits parishes, the bishop will partner with those who attended the Atlanta training in order to extend Project Resource 2.0 training to vestries and laypersons throughout the a term Diocese. While vestries should become involved in this training, any member of the congregation may also take part in these three-hour sessions. “The Episcopal Church has designed this training to roll out edward essay, efficiently to parishes,” said Bishop Benhase, “with print and digital resources that will teach the essentials for all sizes of parishes.

After training, each vestry can customize the scope of the program to researching, their own context.” During the training last week, the Diocese of Georgia doubled the number of Project Resource Trainers. Bishop Scott Benhase; the Rev. Joshua Varner of St. Pictures With Therapy. Patrick’s Pooler, the Rev. Lonnie Lacy of St. Paper. Anne’s Tifton, and the Rev. Cynthia Taylor of Holy Comforter Martinez and for arumentative paper, Loretta Brandon, a lay representative from Trinity Statesboro, attended the training at All Saints, Atlanta. The three-day event trained teams representing 15 dioceses across the United States in the art and science of raising money, raising people, and developing planning and communications that support these initiatives.

Project Resource 2.0 is a collaborative project created by researching paper the Episcopal Church Foundation, in partnership with The College for Bishops and fiction, The Development Office of the Episcopal Church. The aim of Project Resource is to change the culture of resource development in our Church to be more fruitful for God’s mission. This started in the Diocese of Georgia last fall when Bishop Benhase, Canon for Administration Katie Willoughby, Canon to the Ordinary Frank Logue, the Rev. Kelly Steele, and Dade Brantley, Executive Director of Honey Creek, attended the first Project Resource Training. Those who attended Project Resource 2.0 will join their co-horts in training both rectors and laypersons throughout the Diocese of Georgia in the methods and best practices of stewardship, communications, and parish development. Once trained, members of parishes have the skills to build money, vision, and people–the three great resources of any church’s mission. Researching A Term. Success in carrying out Project Resource 2.0 will require each parish to have both a clear external purpose in its programs and a clear internal vision of its Christian faith. Purpose and vision, combined with increased congregational dialog and communication, will encourage success as Project Resource 2.0 is implemented. “One of the best questions I heard at essay, Project Resource training is researching paper, this,” said Loretta Brandon, stewardship chair at Trinity Statesboro. “If Jesus came to visit your church, what would make him say ‘WOW’?

Once you can answer that question, you’ll be ready for Project Resource 2.0.” St. George’s Savannah. Holy Comforter, Martinez. St. Mark’s Brunswick. Location to essay, be announced. A Game Changing Summer Camp Season. For 89 years the Diocese of Georgia has sustained a summer camp program as a decidedly Episcopal camp experience. Honey Creek has been a place where campers have come to develop lifelong friendships, explore nature, and just be together, but worship also forms the core of the camp sessions with daily morning and evening prayer times as well as priests, deacons, and lay persons teaching about a term, our faith in Jesus as a part of the camp day.

Summer Camp Director Thomas Greneker said, “This summer was a phenomenal success.” Getting at the difference, he added, “I have worked on analytical a lot of staffs in different capacities, but I have never worked with a unit that works so cohesively. I attribute all of that success to the spiritual formation that brought the camp staff together before the summer began.” During the researching paper staff training week prior to the first session, the Rev. Lonnie Lacy worked with the papers counselors to help them understand the spiritual work of serving on the camp staff. Honey Creek Executive Director Dade Brantley also noticed the impact of that spiritual grounding, “We added the Rev. Lonnie Lacy as a Spiritual Director for the camp staff and that was a game changer.

He worked with them for a week in advance of the season and checked back in during the year. The staff focused in each of their team meetings on where they had seen Christ during the day.” Photo above, the Rev. Michael Chaney working with campers. This summer, 204 campers enjoyed a week of Honey Creek Summer Camp. Five parents and six children also took part in researching a term the parent and child camp which runs from Sunday to Tuesday the week of the camp for 3-5 graders. Fiction Essay. The feedback from campers and parents has been consistently positive this year. Brantley added, “I don’t like to talk in absolutes, but in every aspect this has been the best Summer Camp during my tenure.” At left, the Rev.

Lonnie Lacy and the camp staff are pictured at the dock during their liturgy blessing the camp grounds and the dorms. At right, is the camp staff. Register for a term paper, Vicki Schuster’s Retirement Party. For 17 years, Vicki Schuster has been the first voice you hear from the Diocese of Georgia and fiction essay, the face that greets visitors to the office. on August 31, 2017, Vicki will retire. A Term. On September 1 from 4:30-7 PM, Bishop Benhase and the diocesan staff will host a retirement party at The Charles H. Morris Center, 10 E Broad St, Savannah, GA 31401. Click here to register , so that we have a head count for the event. “Vicki has been the heart and soul of the section of a paper Diocesan office for 17 years,” said Bishop Scott Benhase. Paper. “Although her job title said ‘Staff Secretary and Diocesan Registrar’ she has served in some many intangible ways.” “Beyond her other work, Vicki has shepherded every deacon and priest ordained during her tenure on the staff,” said Canon to the Ordinary Frank Logue, “She tracks the paperwork for the ordination process and prays faithfully for those in her care. She will readily say ‘I love my Holy Orders people’ and that love shows.” “For years Vicki’s voice on the other end of the phone–‘Diocese of Georgia, this is Vicki!’–has been such a source of comfort, kindness, and counsel to me,” said the Rev. Pictures With. Lonnie Lacy. “That was especially so back when she looked after me through the many stages of the ordination process, and it continues to be true today.” A true native of the Hostess City, Vicki is a Telfair Baby, born in the historic hospital.

Baptized in the Presbyterian Church, her family moved its membership early in her life. Bishop Albert Rhett Stuart confirmed her at the age of 12 in St. Thomas Isle of Hope in Savannah. A graduate of Jenkins High School, she married Ernest Schuster in a wedding ceremony at St. Thomas with a reception at St. John’s Savannah. Ernest was a lifelong Episcopalian who grew up at St. John’s and attended the school at St. A Term Paper. Michael and All Angels. The Schusters had three children-Allison, Meredith, and Ernie, and have three grandchildren Clair (10), Palmer (9), and edward said essay, Turner (7). Vicki transferred her membership to St.

Francis of the researching Islands on Savannah’s Wilmington Island in 1972 as the speech therapy Diocese founded that new congregation. She started working for the church in researching paper the mid 1980s and continued as parish secretary through 2000 when she started working for the Diocese as staff secretary. Vicki said, “It has been a very rewarding and enlightening experience to work for the church these 30 something years. I felt like I got to and methods section, the top when I started working for the Diocese.” Bishop Benhase said, “If something needed doing, Vicki just did it and always with the most generous and unassuming spirit.” Lonnie Lacy added, “Her warmth and generous spirit have been a true gift.” “The light of the Diocese will be dimmer without the radiance of Vicki’s energy and presence,” said Canon Katie Willoughby. “I am, and I know many others are, extremely fortunate to have worked with such an a term, incredible and passionate Episcopalian.” Reflecting on her work for the Diocese, Vicki said, “I think of the Episcopal Church as a flock scattered in pictures to help speech therapy a hundred places. We take care of researching, that flock.” She paused and added, “It has been a true blessing and one that I will treasure.” Register Now for thesis for arumentative research paper, Evangelism Training! In advance of the Presiding Bishop’s Revival coming to Honey Creek September 17th, some of the top people in the Episcopal Church who teach how to share our faith are coming to researching a term paper, the Diocese of Georgia June 24-25. The same 3-hour workshop will be repeated on the east and materials and methods section of a research, west sides of the Diocese, seeking to offer the workshops within 2 hours of every Episcopalian in the Diocese.

St. Peter’s Episcopal Church. 3 West Ridge Road, Savannah, GA 31411. 2411 Central Ave. N., Tifton, GA 31794. The Rev. Canon Stephanie Spellers is the Presiding Bishop’s Canon for Evangelism and Reconciliation.

Also from the Episcopal Church staff will be Carrie Boren Headington, a Missioner Evangelist, and Jeremy Tackett , Digital Evangelist. They have developed engaging materials to challenge all of us, depending on the gifts God has given us, to respond to a call we all share to spread the Good News of Jesus in a variety of ways. The training will cover an array of researching a term, ways, all true to our Episcopal way of analytical words, being, in which we can share our faith with those we already know both in person and on a term social media. Think this training isn’t for you? Then you may be exactly who the analytical words use essays trainers want to talk to a term paper, as they provide insights into how people without a gift for evangelism can still listen differently to those they love. 611 East Bay Street. Savannah, Georgia 31401-1296.

Phone (912) 236-4279. 611 East Bay Street. Savannah, Georgia 31401-1296. Phone (912) 236-4279. Click on the calendar image above to see the diocesan calendar of events.

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Indien er sprake is paper van meerdere ondernemers, zoals bij een V.O.F., vul dan voor elke ondernemer dit hoofdstuk in. Research Papers. De gevraagde gegevens zijn namelijk bedoeld voor alle ondernemers. Met onze whitepaper helpen we je welke bedrijfsvorm (rechtsvorm) je zou moeten kiezen. Hier vermeld je je privégegevens, zoals je adres, naam, burgerlijke staat, enzovoort. Researching A Term. Denk er ook aan dat je deze gegevens voor alle ondernemers aanlevert. 1.2.

Persoonlijke motieven en doelstellingen. Hierin beschrijf je waarom je een onderneming wilt beginnen. Said. Vertel iets over jezelf en je achtergrond als een soort persoonlijk CV waarin je benadrukt waarom je zo geschikt bent om een bedrijf op te starten én om dit bedrijf succesvol te laten verlopen. Ook al heb je de beste opleidingen en werkervaring, je zal nog steeds gemotiveerd moeten zijn. Paper. Schrijf op wat je motivatie is quantum research papers om met dit bedrijf van start te gaan en welke doelstellingen je jezelf hebt gesteld. Probeer voor jezelf na te gaan waarom dit bedrijf starten zo interessant voor je is. Wat zijn jouw sterke en zwakke punten? Probeer hier vooral eerlijk in paper te zijn.

Dit is analytical words met name voor jezelf van belang. Researching. Als je weet wat je zwakke punten zijn, kun je daar rekening mee houden. Use Essays. Op welke gebieden heb je coaching en begeleiding nodig? Om (meer) inzicht te krijgen in researching a term je sterke en zwakke punten kun je een ondernemerstest invullen. With Speech. De uitkomst van de ondernemerstest laat zien hoe je scoort op je ondernemerscompetenties. Voor elke product of researching a term, dienst is er een markt. Althans, heb je dat onderzocht? Welk product of thesis research paper, dienst ga je tegen welke prijs en op welke locatie aan wie verkopen?

Hoe kun je het beste je product of dienst op de markt zetten, wie zijn jouw klanten en hoe ga ik eraan verdienen? Als je dit lastig vindt kan onze e-learning verkoopplan schrijven je daarbij helpen. Hier zet je alle algemene gegevens van de onderneming op een rijtje. Een duidelijke organisatie is paper een belangrijke voorwaarde om succesvol te kunnen ondernemen. Ben je al wel of thesis statements paper, nog niet ingeschreven bij de Kamer van Koophandel? Heb je de benodigde verzekeringen en Algemene Voorwaarden geregeld? Voor welke rechtsvorm kies je, waar ga je je vestigen en wie doet de administratie? Dit is de kern van je ondernemingsplan. Hier leg je kort maar krachtig uit wat je wilt gaan doen en waarom. Probeer jezelf te verkopen.

Maak anderen enthousiast. Hoe heeft de markt zich in researching paper het algemeen ontwikkeld en wat is said de toekomstverwachting? Geldt de uitkomst hiervan ook voor dat deel van de markt waar je je op wil richten? Je markt bestaat uit de verzameling van gegevens over bestaande afnemers, potentiële afnemers en alle aanbieders van het product of paper, dienst of topics, vervangende product of diensten. Researching A Term Paper. Zijn er weinig aanbieders en geen vervangende product of fiction format, diensten, dan zit je natuurlijk goed. A Term. Zijn er veel aanbieders en zijn er ook nog eens allerlei vervangende producten of to help, diensten, dan heb je het als starter beslist moeilijk. Voor een starter is paper het van belang dat je jouw markt kent. Hier geef je aan hoe de markt zich ontwikkelt, zowel op landelijk niveau als op lokaal niveau. Materials Research Paper. Verschuift de behoefte van de potentiële afnemers of juist niet?

Wat gebeurt er met het aantal concurrenten en hoe ontwikkelt de prijs van het product of dienst zich? Het is a term belangrijk om uw doelgroep zo nauwkeurig mogelijk te omschrijven. Materials And Methods Section Of A Paper. Wie zijn je (potentiële) klanten? Wat zijn belangrijke kenmerken van deze klanten? Naarmate je jouw klanten beter kent, ben je ook beter in a term staat ze te bereiken en te bedienen. Je moet weten of edward said topics, er meer aanbieders zijn van jouw product of dienst. Paper. Denk daarbij ook aan concurrentie die een alternatief aanbieden.

Wat zijn de sterke en zwakke punten van de concurrentie? Weet welke prijs ze vragen en welke kwaliteit ze bieden. Materials Section Research. Richten ze zich op dezelfde klantengroep? Hoe zorg je ervoor om hiertussen op te vallen? Wat zijn de sterke en zwakke punten van je eigen onderneming en wat zijn de kansen en bedreigingen die zich in de markt voordoen of gaan voordoen? Met de marketingmix geef je je bedrijf een duidelijk eigen gezicht. Researching A Term. De marketingmix maakt je bedrijf herkenbaar voor de buitenwereld. Of A. De marketingmix bestaat uit de vijf P’s:

Product of dienst staat voor meer dan alleen een product of dienst. Wat is de toegevoegde waarde voor de klant? Welk probleem lost het op? Denk ook aan verpakking, garantievoorwaarden, uitstraling en merk. Researching A Term. Wat zijn de belangrijkste kenmerken van je product of dienst?

De prijs zegt iets over computer research, het product of dienst dat je levert, maar ook over researching a term, het deel van de markt waar je je op richt. Pictures To Help. Met een hoge prijs trek je een andere doelgroep dan met een stuntprijs. Welke prijsstrategie ga je hanteren? Leg je de nadruk op service of paper, ben je een prijsvechter? Hoe liggen de prijzen bij concurrenten? Hier maakt je duidelijk waar je je bedrijf vestigt. Thesis Statements Paper. Ga je huren of a term, kopen? Start je vanuit huis of kies je voor een bedrijfspand? Beschrijf ook hoe je bedrijfskolom eruit ziet. Materials Section. Hoe verloopt de distributie van leverancier tot klant? Waar ga je de producten of researching a term paper, diensten verkopen?

Wie zijn de leveranciers? Zijn er samenwerkingsverbanden? Promotie maken kan op allerlei manieren en via verschillende kanalen. Beurzen, nieuwsbrieven of and methods section of a research, internet zijn mogelijke promotiekanalen. A Term. Wanneer ga je wat precies doen?

Promotie hoeft zeker niet duur te zijn. Computer Research. Er zijn vele mogelijkheden: advertentie plaatsen, billboards, promotiefoldertjes, mondelinge promotie bij feestjes en verenigingen, mond tot mond reclame, gerichte promotiefolder, telefonisch contact, winkelinrichting, kortingsbonnen, persbericht, eigen website, webadvertising, sponsoring, beurzen (bezoeken of researching a term paper, eigen stand), etc. Alles begint met wie je wilt bereiken en wie jou moet begrijpen. Kun je het werk alleen aan, of papers, het nodig personeel aan te trekken? Personeel aannemen moet zorgvuldig gebeuren. A Term Paper. Het belang van de uitstraling van het personeel naar buiten toe is van groot belang en wordt regelmatig onderschat. Pictures Speech. Hoe kom je aan jouw personeel? Heb je behoefte aan hoog- of researching, laaggekwalificeerd? Wordt het personeel zelf opgeleid? Welke normen en waarden worden er gehanteerd? Een missie is essay format waarvoor we staan, een visie is waarvoor we gaan.

De missie heeft te maken met waarden en identiteit. Researching. Een visie geeft aan: hoe gaan wij de wereld van morgen beïnvloeden zodat wij succes hebben? Het is noodzakelijk om kort en bondig je missie en je visie te kunnen beschrijven. Pictures To Help Therapy. Grote lappen tekst met onderbouwing kunnen in het plan zelf terug komen. Researching A Term. Wel moeten ze duidelijk zijn. Thesis Statements For Arumentative Research Paper. Dat kun je vrij gemakkelijk doen via de SMART theorie.

SMART staat voor: Specifiek, Meetbaar, Attractief, Realistisch en Tijdgebonden. Researching A Term. Als aan deze voorwaarden wordt voldaan kan via het ondernemingsplan zelf nagegaan worden of thesis for arumentative research, deze missie en doelstellingen uiteindelijk met alle aanwezige achtergrond informatie werkelijk mogelijk zijn. Wie zijn we, wat zijn onze waarden, hoe willen we met onze klanten en medewerkers omgaan? Probeer ook zo reëel mogelijk in paper te schatten hoe groot de omzet is die je verwacht te gaan halen. Waar wil je over 5 tot 10 jaar staan met je onderneming? Wat ga je doen om te zorgen dat je succes hebt en houdt?

Het financieel plan is in feite het vertalen van de aannames uit het ondernemingsplan naar financiën/geld. With Speech Therapy. Je kunt onze gratis template financieel plan daarvoor gebruiken. Researching A Term Paper. Het financiële hoofdstuk bestaat uit de volgende onderdelen: Waar komt mijn kapitaal vandaan en waar is essay het geïnvesteerd? Ben ik - winstgevend? Kan ik op tijd voldoen aan mijn financiële verplichtingen?

Een bedrijf starten kost geld. Sommige investeringen zijn noodzakelijk om te kunnen starten, andere kunnen misschien beter nog even wachten. In de investeringsbegroting zet je op een rij wat je minimaal nodig hebt om te kunnen starten. De investeringsbegroting is researching a term paper onderverdeeld in vaste activa en vlottende activa. Statements For Arumentative Paper. Vaste activa, zoals een computer, machines, inventaris, en een bedrijfsauto, zijn bedrijfsmiddelen die langer dan een jaar in researching je bedrijf aanwezig zijn.

Deze middelen maken het mogelijk dat je de activiteiten kunt uitvoeren. Zij ondersteunen het bedrijfsproces. Bedrijfsmiddelen die korter dan een jaar in je bedrijf aanwezig zijn, zoals voorraden, vorderingen, voorfinanciering BTW en debiteuren, zijn vlottende activa. To Help Speech Therapy. Deze middelen zijn onderdeel van je bedrijfsproces. Aanloop- en openingskosten zijn kosten die je maakt voordat je kunt starten en/of omzet kunt maken. Voorbeelden: notariskosten, inschrijving Kamer van Koophandel, levensonderhoud eerste periode, marktonderzoek, advieskosten, visitekaartjes en briefpapier. Onderbouw de bedragen met offertes. A Term Paper. Vraag offertes op bij meerdere leveranciers om zo tot een juiste keuze te komen.

Houd rekening met onvoorziene kosten. In uw financieringsbegroting staat hoe je de benodigde investeringen gaat financieren. To Help Speech Therapy. Dit kan door middel van eigen vermogen of met vreemd vermogen. Het deel van de investeringen dat je zelf financiert heet eigen vermogen. Dit kan in researching a term vorm van geld zijn dat je hebt gespaard of bedrijfsmiddelen (auto, voorraad, computer) die je eerder hebt aangeschaft. Computer Research Papers. Het kan ook zijn dat een familielid of researching paper, kennis je geld wil lenen. Er is een regeling die het voor particulieren, zoals familie of kennissen, fiscaal aantrekkelijk maakt geld aan startende ondernemers te lenen. Pictures To Help Speech. Deze regeling biedt zo'n particuliere geldgever namelijk interessante fiscale voordelen. Researching A Term Paper. Zogenaamde `achtergestelde´ leningen of durfkapitaal wordt door een kredietverstrekker vaak gezien als eigen vermogen. Words. Andere voorbeelden van partijen die kunnen financieren en hun bedrag achter zouden willen stellen, zijn de huurbaas, of de vorige eigenaar van de zaak die je hebt overgenomen. Vreemd vermogen is a term geld dat zakelijke financiers (bijvoorbeeld banken en leveranciers) je willen lenen.

Er is materials of a research paper onderscheid tussen schulden met een looptijd van langer dan een jaar en korter dan een jaar. In feite zijn de langlopende leningen bedoeld om de vaste activa te financieren. Researching A Term. Hypothecaire leningen hebben als doel een bedrijfspand te financieren, met een (middellange) banklening (of lease) kun je een machine of for arumentative paper, inventaris aanschaffen. Dat betekent automatisch dat de vlottende activa met kort vreemd vermogen moet worden gefinancierd. Dit zijn voornamelijk het rekening-courantkrediet (of werkkapitaal) en crediteuren (leverancierskrediet). Researching Paper. In feite kan zelfs de belastingdienst je financieren, maar daar kun je beter maar niet te veel op leunen. Een balans is speech therapy een overzicht van de bezittingen, de schulden en het eigen vermogen van je onderneming op een bepaald moment. Anders gezegd: op een balans staat wat je hebt (activa, de linkerzijde van de balans), in researching a term de vorm van geld, goederen, enz., en hoe die gefinancierd zijn (passiva, de rechterzijde van de balans): met eigen vermogen of fiction essay, met vreemd vermogen (leningen). Researching A Term. Dus een balans is een momentopname van bezittingen en van de manier waarop deze zijn betaald. De solvabiliteit is de verhouding van uw eigen vermogen ten opzichte van het totaal benodigde vermogen. Dit geeft aan in hoeverre uw onderneming de schulden op lange termijn kan voldoen.

In je verkoopprognose moet je de omzet op een juiste en reële manier inschatten. Het maken van een verkoopprognose is computer research papers niet eenvoudig, maar wel noodzakelijk. Researching. Daarmee kun je namelijk inschatten wat je gaat verdienen en of dat voldoende is materials and methods research om alle verplichtingen te kunnen voldoen. A Term. Uiteindelijk bepaalt de omzet, minus de inkoopkosten en overige kosten je winst of essay, verlies. De berekening is researching paper simpel. Het aantal verkochte producten per maand wordt vermenigvuldigd met de prijs die voor het product vraagt. Als dienstverlener kun je het aantal uren invullen, wanneer je een vergoeding op uurbasis vraagt. De omzet moet je exclusief BTW opgeven. Fiction Essay. Je moet wel aangeven welk BTW tarief op jouw product of researching paper, dienst van toepassing is. Said Topics. (21%, 6% of researching paper, 0%). De belastingdienst geeft hier meer informatie over.

Omzet wordt gemaakt op het moment dat de factuur naar de klant/opdrachtgever wordt gestuurd. Words Use Essays. Dat wil in researching a term de meeste gevallen niet zeggen dat het geld direct wordt bijgeschreven op je rekening. Analytical Words. Betalen je klanten direct (contact of a term, PIN) zoals in de detailhandel, of essay format, moet je weken op je geld wachten. Researching A Term Paper. Deze periode noemen we de debiteurentermijn. Onderaan de verkoopprognose moet je invullen wanneer welk deel van je klanten gaat betalen. Zorg ervoor dat je prognose kan worden onderbouwd met cijfers uit de branchegegevens, je concurrentieanalyse en marketingmix. Use Essays. Houd rekening met seizoensinvloeden.

Ga je direct in je eerste maand omzet maken, of is a term er sprake van een aanloopperiode? Is het geplande aantal uren daadwerkelijk declarabel? Houd rekening met bijvoorbeeld reistijd, acquisitie, ziekte, administratie. Is deze omzet haalbaar (reëel), gezien vanuit de geplande investeringen en personeelscapaciteit? Om geld te kunnen verdienen aan producten die je verkoopt, moet je die producten eerst zelf inkopen. Het verschil tussen wat je verkoopt en de prijs die je zelf hebt betaald om die producten in pictures with therapy te kopen is a term je brutowinst. Er bestaat dus een direct verband tussen inkoop en verkoop. Pictures To Help With Speech Therapy. De inkoopprijs van alle verkochte artikelen hoort tot de inkoopwaarde van de omzet. Researching A Term. De formule om de inkoopwaarde van de omzet te bepalen is research als volgt: Beginvoorraad + Jaarinkopen Eindvoorraad.

Alle producten die je al wel hebt ingekocht, maar nog niet hebt verkocht, heb je op voorraad en worden daarom niet tot de inkoopwaarde van de omzet gerekend. Bedrijven die niet handelen in paper producten, maar hun kennis en tijd ‘verkopen’ aan de klant, hebben te maken met diensten. Materials And Methods Of A Research. Diensten hebben meestal geen inkoopprijs (of slechts zeer gering). Paper. Bij diensten kun je stellen dat de brutowinst (bijna) gelijk is edward essay aan de behaalde omzet. Er zijn meerdere factoren die de inkoopwaarde van de omzet kunnen bepalen. Researching Paper. Denk bijvoorbeeld aan het inhuren van andere bedrijven (‘diensten van derden’).

Deze worden meestal ook rechtstreeks van de behaalde omzet afgehaald. Pictures With Therapy. Andere voorbeelden zijn provisies die je betaald aan tussenpersonen of researching a term paper, agenten, het huren van materiaal die je nodig hebt om een dienst te kunnen verlenen. Dit zijn zogenaamde directe kosten. Heeft een bedrijf te maken met een werkplaats, dan worden veel van de bewerkkosten of ‘maak’ kosten ook rechtstreeks verrekend met de behaalde omzet. And Methods Of A Research. Eigenlijk alles met een rechtstreeks verband met de behaalde omzet! Om de inkoopprognose correct in a term paper te vullen, moet je invullen wanneer je daadwerkelijk voorraad moet gaan inkopen. Fiction. Afhankelijk van het product, de branche en de vraag zal de frequentie verschillen. Researching Paper. Is het nodig dat je elke dag inkoopt (bijv. verse levensmiddelen), of kun slechts één keer per materials and methods section kwartaal je inkopen doen (bijv. kleding)? Kun je inschatten hoe lang je product gemiddeld op voorraad ligt? En welke deel van je voorraad is a term paper niet meer te verkopen na verloop van tijd (incourante voorraad)? In je exploitatiebegroting schat je in said topics of je bedrijf rendabel is.

Door de omzet en kosten in een overzicht te plaatsen, kun je in researching paper een oogopslag zien of je bedrijf winst of thesis for arumentative research, verlies maakt. Researching. In de exploitatiebegroting staan de bedragen exclusief BTW vermeld. Uitgangspunt voor de exploitatiebegroting is de verkoopprognose (zie 3.3). Door de inkoopwaarde van de omzet af te trekken wordt de brutowinst zichtbaar. Quantum Computer Research Papers. De inkoopwaarde van de omzet wordt berekend aan de hand van de ingevulde inkoopprognose (zie 3.4). Door de brutowinst te verminderen met alle wederkerend bedrijfskosten, zoals huisvestings-, vervoers-, promotie- en personeelskosten, houd jij je netto bedrijfsresultaat over. A Term Paper. Dit bepaalt of je bedrijfsactiviteit op zichzelf rendabel is. Onder de bedrijfskosten vallen ook de afschrijvingen. Edward Said Essay Topics. Afschrijvingen zijn wel kosten, maar geen uitgaven. Paper. Afschrijvingen geven de je gelegenheid reserves op te bouwen om te kunnen (her)investeringen in de vaste activa van je bedrijf. Je geeft het geld pas uit op het moment dat je moet gaan investeren.

Je geeft je ook extra ruimte om je aflosverplichting te voldoen. Voordat jij je winst uit onderneming kan bepalen, moet je opgeven hoeveel vergoeding je aan de financiers, die je bedrijfsactiviteit mede mogelijk hebben gemaakt , jaarlijks moet betalen. To Help Speech. Dit wordt ook wel rente genoemd. Als je winst hebt gemaakt, moet je daarover belasting betalen. Researching A Term. Hoeveel dat is, hangt af van het winstbedrag en aftrekposten die je als zelfstandige mag opvoeren. Quantum Computer. Voor deze aftrekposten gelden wel diverse voorwaarden. Kijk daarom goed op de site van de belastingdienst. De nettowinst is de basis voor uw inkomen uit een eenmanszaak of VOF. A Term. In een BV staat de ondernemer als bestuurder/directeur van de BV op de loonlijst en ontvangt een salaris. Het salaris is computer papers een kostenpost voor de BV.

De omzet moet hoog genoeg zijn om ook het salaris van de directeur te betalen. A Term Paper. We bieden je gratis een eenvoudige template voor exploitatiebegroting. Aannames moeten gebaseerd zijn op goed doordachte veronderstellingen Omzet op basis van marktonderzoek en niet op alleen basis van aantal x prijs Check de samenhang met het Marketingplan Omzet moet met gewenst personeelsbestand en kapitaal vervaardigd kunnen worden. Kun je elke maand alle rekeningen betalen? Door het maken van een liquiditeitsbegroting bepaal je of fiction essay, er iedere maand voldoende geld op je rekening staat. Inkomsten en uitgaven kunnen gedurende een jaar sterk wisselen. Bijvoorbeeld door seizoensinvloeden, een vakantieperiode, belastingaanslag of a term paper, door klanten die laat betalen. Essay Topics. Met een liquiditeitsbegroting maak je inzichtelijk op welk moment extra financiën nodig zijn.

Vrijwel alle bedrijfskosten die zijn opgenomen in a term paper de exploitatiebegroting komen ook terug in said topics de liquiditeitsbegroting. Researching A Term Paper. Afschrijvingen vormen hierop de belangrijkste uitzondering. Quantum Computer Research. De liquiditeitsbegroting toont hoe de kosten over het jaar worden verdeeld en aan in a term welke maand de kosten daadwerkelijk betaald moeten worden. Computer Papers. Zeker in een groeiende ondernemingen zullen met de omzet ook de kosten maandelijks variëren (en toenemen). Naast de bedrijfskosten, worden ook de (maandelijkse) privéopnamen, inclusief inkomstenbelasting, en aflossingen staan niet in researching paper de liquiditeitsbegroting opgenomen. Papers. Via onze site kun je nu eenvoudig een sjabloon liquiditeitsbegroting downloaden. Op de exploitatiebegroting zijn alle bedragen exclusief BTW. Researching Paper. In de liquiditeitsbegroting reken je de BTW ontvangsten en uitgaven mee. Uit de exploitatiebegroting kun je opmaken of for arumentative research, je voldoende omzet genereert om de bedrijfs- en financieringskosten te dekken. De cashflow berekent vervolgens of jij je privéopnamen wel uit de onderneming kan halen en of paper, er daarnaast genoeg overblijft om leningen af te lossen, herinvesteringen te voldoen of edward essay, reserves op te bouwen. Grofweg is researching paper de cashflow gelijk aan de nettowinst plus afschrijvingen van een onderneming.

De cashflow is positief als er jaarlijks meer geld binnenkomt dan dat er uit gaat. Thesis Research Paper. De cashflow is negatief als er per paper jaar meer geld wordt uitgegeven dan er binnenkomt. Een positieve cashflow wil niet direct zeggen dat je onderneming liquide is, dat er het hele jaar door voldoende geld op je rekening staat. Dat moet blijken uit de liquiditeitsbegroting. Voordat je met je bedrijf begint, moet je weten hoeveel je maandelijks nodig om privé van rond te komen. Breng al je (huishoud)verplichtingen in kaart. Edward Topics. Vermeld ook alle inkomsten die je huishouding ontvangt, zoals het loon (inclusief vakantie geld en dertiende maand) van jezelf en/of je partner, uitkeringen, pensioenen en eventueel kinderbijslag. Het verschil tussen de privéverplichtingen en -inkomsten bepaalt het bedrag dat je maandelijks uit je onderneming moet halen om van te leven. Houd je zakelijke betalingsverkeer gescheiden van je privé-inkomsten en -uitgaven door het openen van een aparte rekeningen.

Een afschrijving is a term het in de boekhouding tot uitdrukking brengen van de waardedaling van een bedrijfsmiddel over statements, een bepaalde periode. A Term. Doordat je machines gebruikt zullen ze slijten. Fiction Essay. Ook zal de waarde van je gebouw of researching a term paper, vrachtwagens in and methods de loop van de jaren afnemen. A Term. De waardevermindering van deze kapitaalgoederen wordt ook wel afschrijving of afschrijvingskosten genoemd. Er wordt steeds afschrijving toegepast om de slijtage door het gebruik tot uitdrukking te brengen. Deze afschrijving vormt een kostenpost in pictures with de Winst- en Verliesrekening en leidt dus tot een lager resultaat. Bekijk de mogelijkheden van Qredits. Ondernemingsplan template downloaden.

Als je een onderneming wilt beginnen, is a term paper het verstandig eerst een ondernemingsplan te maken. Qredits wil je hier graag mee op weg helpen. E-learning Ondernemingsplan Schrijven. Deze e-learning laat jou nadenken over je onderneming. Thesis For Arumentative Research. Je krijgt volop inspiratie en voorbeelden. Researching A Term. Na afloop download je een kant en klaar plan. Vind je het moeilijk om je eigen ondernemingsplan op te stellen? Twijfel je of het goed is? Een coach helpt je bij het structureren van je ideeen.

Qredits helpt ondernemers bij het succesvol starten van en investeren in essay hun bedrijf. We bieden coaching, kennis in de Qredits Academy voor ondernemers en we verstrekken bedrijfskredieten tot ˆ 250.000. Qredits verstrekt de microkredieten mede dankzij twee programma’s van de Europese Unie: het EaSI, een Europees programma voor werkgelegenheid en sociale innovatie, en COSME, een programma dat de concurrentiepositie van midden- en kleinbedrijf verbetert. Lees meer.

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How to Write a Research Paper - A Research Guide for Students

Academic Writing Model Essay 562325. Paper? This topic contains 0 replies, has 1 voice, and was last updated by jorfilifekfo 1 week, 1 day ago. Research? Academic Writing Model Essay. Sample Harvard essay Monash University This resource is intended to help students develop skills to write essays at the university level. Expand menu. Academic writing · What is academic writing ? Sample essay Online Learning Resources UNE Key words: academic essay , essay question, paragraph, introduction, body, conclusion, Most books on researching a term paper, essay writing will supply you with a number of model SAMPLE ESSAY Essential Academic Skills Second Edition Oxford academic writing skills are being used in the essay , and statements paper page references for their sample as it was made up of a term paper a very particular group of students, with 72.5%. Academic essay writing Charles Darwin University Writing a thesis statement. 11. Writing an introduction. 12. A note on using headings.

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CHAPTER 4. Paper? OSSICULAR DISCONTINUITY. As discussed in Chapter 3, the middle ear serves to transmit sound energy from the ear canal to pictures to help with the cochlea. A Term Paper? In order to edward essay topics facilitate the efficient transmission of this energy, the eardrum and ossicles act as an researching a term paper, impedance-matching transformer, partially matching the high impedance of the cochlear fluids to the low impedance of analytical words air in the ear canal. Any process that reduces the efficiency of this sound-conducting mechanism results in conductive hearing loss . There are many causes of conductive hearing loss (Harris and Cueva, 1992); however, only hearing loss caused by discontinuity of the ossicular chain will be discussed in this work. The next section discusses the two most common types of ossicular discontinuities. Surgical techniques used to repair the ossicular chain are discussed in Section 4.3. In Section 4.4, some of the mechanical issues related to the success of surgery are discussed. 4.2 COMMON DEFECTS. The most common ossicular defect is researching a term, loss of the essay topics, incudal long process; the second most common defect is combined loss of the incudal long process and the stapes superstructure (e.g., Austin, 1971; Sade and Luntz, 1991). These situations are illustrated in Figure 4.1.

Austin (1971) has reported that loss of the incudal long process. Figure 4.1 Two types of researching paper ossicular discontinuities. a) Missing incudal long process. b) Missing long process and stapes superstructure. For clarity, the eardrum and other middle-ear structures have not been shown. From Donaldson et al . (1992, p.250). alone represents 59% of with all ossicular defects; the combined loss of the researching paper, incudal long process and the stapes superstructure accounts for another 23%. Erosion and the ultimate loss of these bones is often caused by chronic middle-ear disease such as otitis media (inflammation of the middle ear). Discontinuities of the ossicular chain result in conductive hearing loss since vibrations of the edward, eardrum can no longer be transmitted to paper the cochlea; moreover, the words, eardrum shields the cochlea from paper direct stimulation by said essay topics sound.

The extent of hearing loss in humans is measured in terms of the air-bone gap . By definition, this is the number of decibels (dB) by researching which the air-conduction threshold exceeds the bone-conduction threshold (Katz, 1985; p. 1060). The air-conduction threshold is measured by thesis research paper applying an air-conducted stimulus to the ear canal; it is affected by both the researching a term, conductive and the sensorineural components of the auditory system. For Arumentative Paper? The bone-conduction threshold is measured by applying a mechanical stimulus to the skull; it is affected by the sensorineural components of the auditory system. It is not possible to tell from the a term, air-conduction threshold alone whether hearing loss is conductive or sensorineural; however, the difference between the two thresholds, the air-bone gap, can be used as an indicator of for arumentative research conductive hearing loss. A large air-bone gap, say above 20 dB, indicates conductive hearing loss (Glasscock and Shambaugh, 1990). Vartiainen and Nuutinen (1992) measured hearing loss in 277 patients with chronic otitis media. Pure-tone audiograms (graphs of hearing threshold in dB versus frequency) were measured at 0.5, 1 and researching a term paper 2 kHz. The mean air-bone gap was determined from the audiograms by averaging the air-bone gaps at the three frequencies. They found that loss of the incudal long process resulted in a mean air-bone gap of 32 dB; loss of both the incudal long process and the stapes superstructure resulted in an air-bone gap of 38 dB.

In laboratory animals, hearing sensitivity can be determined by measuring the pressure required to maintain a constant cochlear microphonic (CM) over a range of frequencies. The CM is a stimulus-related electric potential generated by sensory receptors in the cochlea (Durrant and pictures to help with Lovrinic, 1984, pp. 152-156). Researching A Term? It can be measured by placing an electrode on the round-window membrane. Presumably, the larger the pressure required to maintain a constant CM, the lower is the hearing sensitivity. Wever et al. (1948) determined the said essay, hearing sensitivity up to 10 kHz in cats before and after interruption of the researching a term paper, incudostapedial joint. To Help With? They found that after such an encroachment, larger sound pressure was required to maintain the same CM as before; in fact, the sound pressure required was 60 dB larger than in the normal ear, indicating a hearing loss of 60 dB relative to the normal ear. 4.3 SURGICAL REPAIR. Methods of repair. The goals of surgery are to eliminate disease, prevent recurrent inflammation, and/or improve auditory function (Smyth, 1988). Only techniques for improving auditory function will be discussed here.

These techniques have been described by a number of authors (e.g., Austin, 1971; Fisch, 1980; Smith and McElveen, 1988; Lambert and McElveen, 1993 ). In the case where only the long process of the incus is missing, sound transmission is re-established by fitting a prosthesis between the manubrium and the head of the stapes; often a homograft or autograft incus or malleus head is used to make the paper, prosthesis (Emmett, 1989). (A homograft is a tissue transplanted between genetically nonidentical individuals of the same species. An autograft is a tissue grafted into a new position in thesis statements for arumentative research the body of the same individual. An autograft malleus head would be obtained by researching surgically removing it from its attachments to the ligaments and by cutting it from the manubrium.) Essentially, the graft is shaped to form a slim strut, a hole is drilled into the medial end of the with speech, strut to accept the head of the stapes, and a groove is carved into the lateral end to researching a term articulate with the manubrium. Glue is sometimes used to secure the points of contact of the manubrium and stapes with the graft (Fisch, 1980). This surgical reconstruction is pictures to help speech, called a malleus-stapes assembly (MSA) and is shown in Figure 4.2a. When both the incudal long process and the stapes superstructure are missing, a prosthesis is fitted between the manubrium and researching paper the footplate. This reconstruction is called the malleus-footplate assembly (MFA) and is shown in Figure 4.2b. In both the MSA and the MFA, the prosthesis is sometimes made longer than required so it exerts tension on the eardrum and the annular ligament of the footplate. This tension stabilizes the strut. Many variations of the basic MFA and MSA exist (e.g., Fisch, 1980; Wehrs, 1982; Frootko, 1987; Mills, 1991).

Some of these variations have come about because of differences in the geometry of the with speech therapy, ossicles among patients. For example, in some patients the manubrium is directly lateral to the stapes as shown in Figure 4.3a, but in (a)(b) Figure 4.3 Ossicular geometry. a) Manubrium directly lateral to stapes. b) Manubrium lateral and anterior to researching paper stapes. c) Horizontal MSA used in situation (b). Parts (a) and (b) are from Frootko (1987, p.249) and part (c) is from Mills (1991, p.477). others it is materials of a research, located anterior to a term paper the stapes as shown in Figure 4.3b. In the latter case, placing a strut between the manubrium and the stapes in the manner shown in Figure 4.2a could result in computer considerable tilting of the stapedial footplate, a situation that is thought to be undesirable since volume displacements of the cochlear fluids would be reduced (Vlaming and researching paper Feenstra, 1986b). Quantum Computer Research? To prevent this, the prosthesis may be positioned horizontally as shown in Figure 4.3c. Interest in a term the use of synthetic materials for middle-ear surgery has also resulted in a great deal of variation in prosthetic design since these materials, unlike autograft bone, are available to the surgeon before entering the and methods paper, operating room; thus, much time can be spent on shaping them. Synthetic materials are also more readily available than ossicular bone, and paper their sterility and bonding properties make them suitable for use as graft material.

A variety of graft materials have emerged in the past few years. Essay? Among them, Plastipore, an inert high-density polyethylene sponge, has gained some popularity (Emmett, 1989). Two types of prostheses have been designed using Plastipore: the PORP (partial ossicular replacement prosthesis) and the TORP (total ossicular replacement prosthesis). Both prostheses are shown in Figure 4.4. Paper? The PORP is speech therapy, similar to the MSA except that sometimes its platform makes contact with the eardrum, while the TORP is similar to the MFA. The porous nature of a term paper Plastipore allows tissue ingrowth, making the TORP and the PORP mechanically stable with age (Makek et al ., 1988). Recently, a modified version of the TORP, called the Fisch II Spandrel, has been developed (Williams and Lesser, 1992). It is to help speech, shown in a term Figure 4.4c. Figure 4.4 Synthetic ossicular prostheses. a) PORP (Partial Ossicular Replacement Prosthesis). b) TORP (Total Ossicular Replacement Prosthesis). c) Fisch II Spandrel. Parts (a) and (b) are from Frootko (1987, p.257) and part (c) is from Williams and Lesser (1992, p.263). Other materials used in middle-ear surgery include Bioglass, a chemically active glass (Merwin, 1986); Ceravital, a glass-ceramic material (Mangham and Lindeman, 1990); and hydroxyapatite, the main constituent of the mineral matrix of bone (Grote, 1986; Wehrs, 1989; Goldenberg, 1992).

Bioglass and Ceravital are bioactive, meaning that they are able to form chemical bonds with surrounding tissues. Hydroxyapatite comes in both bioactive and porous forms. These materials have been used to produce a variety of prostheses; however, the basic MFA and MSA designed from ossicular bone remain popular (Emmett, 1989) and will be the only prostheses to be modelled in fiction this work. The success of surgery in humans is researching, assessed in terms of the reduction of conductive hearing loss, which is often measured by the degree of closure of the air-bone gap. Format? However, there does not appear to be any consistent method of quantifying success. For example, Smyth (1987) has classified closure of the mean air-bone gap to within 11 dB as success; on the other hand, Goldenberg (1992) has defined success as closure to within 25 dB for the PORP, using other definitions for other prostheses. Moreover, patients and doctors may not necessarily agree as to what is successful (Smyth, 1987). In any case, some closure of the air-bone gap does result when the MSA and MFA are used. For instance, Vartiainen and Nuutinen (1992) reported closure of the air-bone gap to within 20 dB in 58% of patients when the researching, MSA was used.

The situation was worse for the MFA: only 30% of the cases resulted in closure to edward within 20 dB. Paper? Results obtained by quantum research other authors are shown in Table 4.1. The performance of the MFA has been found to be poorer than that of the MSA in all cases. Table 4.1 Post-operative hearing results for humans with two middle-ear conditions: 1) Absent incudal long process and 2) absent long process and absent stapes superstructure. Shelton and Sheehy used PORP's and TORP's; MSA's and MFA's made from ossicular bone were used in the other studies. N indicates the number of patients with the particular condition.

The percentage of a term patients with an air-bone gap of less than 20 dB is also indicated. The effectiveness of prostheses has also been determined in cats. Tonndorf and Pastaci (1986) measured hearing sensitivity over a frequency range of 10 Hz to words 15 kHz in anesthetized cats with normal middle ears. They then broke the incudostapedial joint and removed the crura. The ear was then repaired using an researching paper, MFA, and the post-operative hearing sensitivity was measured.

They reported a 20-dB loss in hearing sensitivity compared to and methods research paper the normal ear; this is an improvement over the 60-dB loss reported by Wever et al . (1948) in cats after interruption of the a term, incudostapedial joint. Benitez et al. (1974) determined audiometric thresholds at 0.5, 1 and 2 kHz in three normal cats. They then disrupted the thesis for arumentative paper, incudostapedial joint, fixed the ossicular chain using an MSA, and measured audiometric thresholds 31 to 33 months after surgery. They reported average hearing losses of 5, 11 and 26 dB in the three animals post-operatively. Once again this is an researching a term paper, improvement over the 60-dB loss reported by Wever et al . after interruption of the ossicular chain. 4.4 MECHANICAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE MFA AND MSA. Relatively little work has been done to assess the mechanics of the surgically corrected middle ear or the importance of computer research papers mechanical variables. Section 4.4.2 discusses the experimental work that has been done in this area, and Section 4.4.3 discusses the theoretical work that has been done. 4.4.2 Experimental Work. Several mechanical variables may be considered to be of interest in the application of the MSA and MFA: the researching a term, position of the prosthesis, the tension exerted on the surrounding structures, and the types of connections formed between the prosthesis and the surrounding tissues. Vlaming and Feenstra (1986b) studied some of these issues in human cadaver middle ears using a laser Doppler interferometer.

These authors measured the displacements of a few points on the stapedial footplate in the normal middle ear. They then disrupted the ossicular chain so that in some cases the words use essays, crura were left intact, whereas in other cases the crura were destroyed. They surgically repaired the former discontinuity using an MSA; the latter discontinuity was repaired using a TORP. The displacements of the footplate were then measured after surgery. They suggested that hearing sensitivity is related to the volume displacement of cochlear fluids so that post-operative volume displacements should be comparable to pre-operative levels for successful results. For the TORP at a term low frequencies, Vlaming and Feenstra found that the volume displacements of the cochlear fluids measured post-operatively were comparable to levels measured in the normal ear. On the other hand, volume displacements were lower than normal when the MSA was used, suggesting that the format, TORP should give better hearing results than the MSA. However, clinical results (see previous section) suggest that the MSA works better than the MFA. Since the MFA is similar to the TORP if the platform of the latter does not contact the eardrum, then, based on a term, clinical results, it would be expected that the MSA also works better than the TORP.

Vlaming and Feenstra did not report whether the analytical words use essays, TORP contacted the eardrum or not in all of their preparations, but from their discussion it is likely that it contacted the drum in researching a term some cases; nevertheless, in all cases, they found the TORP to work better than the MSA. The discrepancy between the findings of with speech Vlaming and a term paper Feenstra and those of clinicians may exist for several reasons. First, Vlaming and Feenstra used ears that were disease-free; however, when surgery is performed in living patients, the middle-ear is usually not free of disease. The extent of words middle-ear disease necessitating the use of the paper, TORP or the MFA is pictures to help with, probably more advanced than that requiring the MSA or PORP. Diseases such as otitis media can affect the researching paper, mechanical properties of the materials and methods section paper, middle-ear structures (e.g., von Unge et al ., 1992) and would thus account for differences between the results determined by Vlaming and paper Feenstra and those by clinicians. Second, it is possible that Eustachian tube function may be impaired in living subjects, thus affecting post-operative hearing results (Tos, 1979; Kumazawa et al ., 1993). Eustachian tube dysfunction results in pressures in the middle-ear cavities that are lower than normal (Tos, 1979); such changes could dampen eardrum vibrations (Vlaming, 1987), cause retraction of the quantum computer research, eardrum (Tos, 1979), and researching result in an increase in the incremental stiffness of the middle-ear structures, all of which affect the mechanics of the middle ear.

Third, clinical studies are influenced by hearing loss due to edward said essay sensorineural damage. The incidence of such damage is small (Tos et al ., 1984; Urquhart et al ., 1992) but could account for some of the discrepancies found between results obtained from cadavers and those from living subjects. Vlaming and Feenstra also studied how the position of researching paper a prosthesis affects the displacements of the footplate. They found that the position of the MSA along the manubrium was important. They suggested that the optimal orientation for quantum computer research papers, the MSA is such that it lies along an imaginary line passing through the head of the stapes and the centre of the footplate. In most cases this means that the MSA should contact the manubrium near the umbo. With respect to the MFA, Vlaming and Feenstra did not report the effects of researching paper positioning it along the manubrium. However, the position of the MFA on the footplate was varied, and and methods section it was found not to significantly affect the displacements of the footplate. For both prostheses, they found that tension exerted on surrounding structures was quite important: increased tension resulted in smaller displacements of the footplate. Researching A Term? Apparently, tension causes the annular ligament of the footplate to stretch, resulting in an increase in its incremental stiffness.

Other authors have studied the paper, effects of the mechanical variables just described in human cadaver middle ears by determining the amount of sound transmission that occurs pre-operatively and post-operatively. Andersen et al. Researching A Term? (1962) applied sound to the oval window and measured the resulting pressure in the ear canal; presumably, the higher the degree of sound transmission, the better is the quantum research papers, hearing sensitivity. In one of their experiments, the incus was removed and the degree of sound transmission was determined. The degree of transmission was then measured after placing a prosthesis between the drum and the footplate. They suggested that there is an optimal position for a prosthesis that can result in nearly normal sound transmission, whereas other positions may give poorer results. No detailed information was given as to how it should be placed. Elbrond et al . (1965) also measured sound transmission in the surgically corrected ear, using the MSA in their experiments. They applied sound to the ear canal and measured pressure variations in the vicinity of the paper, round window caused by vibrations of its membrane.

Like Vlaming and Feenstra, their results also indicate that tension in the MSA is edward essay, important: increased tension results in lower transmission, especially at low frequencies. Gundersen (1972) studied sound transmission in researching the reconstructed human middle ear, using a special prosthesis designed to replace the incus. No details were given except that sound transmission was reduced on the average by 4 to 5 dB than in and methods research paper the normal ear. Very few studies have been done in cats. Tonndorf and paper Pastaci (1986) found that the position of a prosthesis along the manubrium is relatively unimportant for the MFA as long as the connection between the manubrium and the prosthesis is inflexible'. No results were given for fiction essay, a flexible connection. Benitez et al . (1974) attempted to correlate post-operative changes in hearing sensitivity in cats with histopathological findings. Their results indicate that the connections between the researching a term paper, prosthesis and surrounding tissues are stabilized by the proliferation of fibres.

Hearing results were found to be the best in one cat in which the connections between the prosthesis and bones were deemed to be excellent'. This cat had a post-operative hearing loss of only 5 dB, compared with 11 dB and 26 dB in the other cats. 4.4.3 Theoretical Work. The only finite-element models of the reconstructed middle-ear are those of section of a paper Lesser et al. (1991) and Williams and Lesser (1992). Lesser et al . have developed a two-dimensional model of the MSA for the human middle ear using the plane-strain assumption. Results of their model for various placements of the prosthesis along the manubrium indicate that the stress levels at the prosthesis-stapes interface increase as the researching a term, prosthesis is moved down the manubrium. The results of their model are questionable as the plane-strain assumption may not be appropriate in this case: the eardrum is a three-dimensional structure which does not possess the type of symmetry required to permit the fiction format, use of this assumption. Williams and a term paper Lesser (1992) have developed a three-dimensional model for the Fisch II Spandrel prosthesis in fiction format the human middle ear. A Term Paper? One objection to their model is that the footplate has been represented by a single point, implying that it moves in a piston-like manner. It is possible for the footplate to tilt in the surgically corrected middle ear depending on research, the placement of the prosthesis, and tilting of the footplate may affect volume displacements of the cochlear fluids and hence hearing sensitivity (Vlaming and Feenstra, 1986b).

Other techniques have also been used to study the mechanics of the middle ear after surgery. For example, Wada et al. (1990) have used analytical techniques to model the mechanics of an a term paper, artificial auditory ossicle. Their model assumes a flat, circular eardrum; presumably, this was done to make the analyses manageable. However, the results of Funnell and Laszlo (1978) indicate that the three-dimensional shape of the format, eardrum is very important to its function. Peake et al . (1992) developed a lumped-parameter model of type IV tympanoplasty, a surgical technique used to shield the round window from acoustic stimulation when the eardrum, malleus and incus are missing; however, this technique is not in any way similar to researching paper the MSA or MFA.

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essay night twelfth (A portion of researching a term paper this essay was published in Midsummer Magazine , Summer 1991.) Shakespeare seems preoccupied with madness and folly in Twelfth Night . The word fool and its variants (foolery, foolish, and so forth) appear eighty times in the play, and section research paper the word folly occurs seven times. There are, in researching paper, addition, other means of indicating foolishness such as Maria's Now, sir, thought is free (1.3.67). As Feste suggests, Foolery . does walk about the statements for arumentative research orb like the a term paper sun; it shines everywhere (3.1.39-40). Robert Armin, who originated the analytical words role of Feste, was fascinated by fools and wrote Foole upon Foole , a book which treated this subject. David Wiles writes that Armin was a pioneering realist in his study of a term paper how fools actually behaved. His stage fools were based on observation rather than on the recreation of an emblematic stage type (158). He goes on to point out that Armin's interest in fools allowed Shakespeare to tap one of the richest veins in the medieval dramatic tradition: the idea that the Vice reveals vice to format, be folly (158). M. C. Bradbook notes that Armin did influence Shakespeare's writing. From the time that Armin joined the company Shakespeare very noticeably began to give his clowns the catechism as a form of jesting.

Feste catechizes Olivia on why she grieves and researching proves her a fool for doing so; later, in the guise of the curate, he catechizes Malvolio (228). Indeed, Shakespeare seems to have utilized this valuable resource for Twelfth Night , creating a broad spectrum of fools in this play. The actions and words of almost all the play's characters fit the recognized behavior patterns of quantum computer research papers fools. Feste is, of course, an allowed or professional fool; Sir Toby Belch, like Falstaff, is a Lord of Misrule who orchestrates the folly of his cohorts; Maria, with her mischievous practical joking, resembles the researching spiteful court fools whose malicious capers brought ruin upon many an unwary courtier; Viola in her disguise is a witty fool not unlike Feste; Sir Andrew Aguecheek qualifies as a natural fool; and with Olivia, Orsino, and Malvolio all suffer from melancholic folly, respectively derived from sorrow, unrequited love, and self-love. Robert Armin brought his observations of researching paper actual fools to the role of Feste. David Wiles points out that when Armin played Carlo Buffone in Jonson's Every Man Out Of His Humour , he was impersonating a real tavern fool by the name of pictures to help with speech Charles (i.e. 'Carlo') Chester (i.e. 'jester') (147). Wiles also sees a connection between this role and that of Feste: Carlo's most interesting routine is inspired by Armin's researches. Carlo plays the part of two courtiers simultaneously. A cruder and better known example of the technique is of course Feste/Topas (147). Thus it can be seen that Armin's research pervaded his roles and influenced Jonson's plays as well as Shakespeare's. In Reality in a term paper, a Looking Glass , a comprehensive historical study of fools and their roles in medieval and modern society, Anton C. Zijderveld describes and classifies the types of traditional medieval fools.

Feste, the most obvious of Twelfth Night' s fools, belongs to a class of jesters which, according to research, Zijderveld, were . in full command of their wits. They played at being foolish, often with much wit and paper ingenuity (92); as Feste himself proclaims, I wear not motley in my brain (1.5.56). He is the allowed fool who can criticize the two absolute rulers of the play#151;Olivia and analytical words Orsino#151;with impunity, and he does. He takes the liberty to prove Olivia a fool for her grief (1.5.56-71) and to chastise Orsino for researching a term, his changeability (2.4.73-79). Feste is the only member of this society who can find fault with his superiors without endangering his position. To Help With. When Malvolio rather nastily reproaches Olivia for enjoying Feste's jests, Olivia is quick to remind him of his place and to deliver some criticism of her own: she replies, You are sick of paper self-love, Malvolio, and taste with a distempered appetite (1.5.90-1). Fiction Essay. In this way Feste serves as an emotional and critical outlet for the subjects of researching a term paper absolute rulers. Zijderveld comments that the fool is and methods section irreverent in the face of authority and a term paper tries his best to materials section of a research paper, undermine the impression management that is staged by the powerful (28). He says of rulers, The more dictatorial they are, the more they need fools and folly (30).

If the researching Lady Olivia needs fools and folly, she has them in abundance. Sir Toby, Sir Andrew, and Maria form a society of fools, the sole aim of which is merry-making and the destruction of any impediment to their pleasure. This society is reminiscent of the ancient Roman Saturnalia, a day of celebration held in Saturn's honor. For this celebration the functions of normal society were halted and the regular order inverted: the slaves, one of whom was appointed lord of misrule, were freed for the day and exchanged social roles with their masters. Anne Barton notes the similarities between Epiphany#151;the Twelfth Night feast#151;and Saturnalia and explains, It was perhaps inevitable that a celebration which initially was wholly pious should, with time, alter its complexion, attracting to itself in the process a good deal of the licence and even the specific customs of the pagan Saturnalia (404).

Lois Potter indicates that the research paper Saturnalian customs which were adopted permitted the licensed irreverence through disguisings, parodies of solemn events, reversals of roles between men and women, masters and servants, clergy and laity (18). Accordingly, when Feste takes on the role of Sir Topas for the mock exorcism of Malvolio, he inverts the proper role of the priest (18). Sir Toby's society is a grotesque inversion of the established hierarchy, a looking-glass image of the status quo (Zijderveld 66), in which the drunken Sir Toby Belch serves as lord and a term paper master. Fiction Essay Format. Zijderveld writes that in the French city of Lyon there existed some twenty different societies of fools in researching paper, the sixteenth century, each having its own abbot, admiral, prince, king, court judge, or patriarch as Lord of Misrule (73). Accordingly, Sir Toby is the analytical use essays leader of his friends' drunkenness, the advisor of Sir Andrew's wooing of Olivia, and the director of the duel between Sir Andrew and Viola/Cesario. With this in mind, one may wonder why their main practical joke, the deception of Malvolio, is engineered by Maria rather than Sir Toby. One possible explanation for this is that Maria is researching modeled on the malicious court fools, some of whom were women. Fiction Essay Format. In fact, she strongly resembles Mathurine, the paper female fool of the French kings Henri III (1574-89), Henri IV (1589-1610), and Louis XIII (1610-43).

It is not unreasonable to suggest that Shakespeare would have known of this French fool. In Love's Labour's Lost , Shakespeare uses the political maneuverings and court occurrences of Henri III and Henri of Navarre (the future Henri IV) as the basis for his plot, demonstrating his knowledge of French affairs (David xxix). Also, as a man of the theatre, Shakespeare would have been interested in the actions of fools, and as an associate of Robert Armin, he would have been familiar with their activities. Materials And Methods Section. 1. Zijderveld writes of Mathurine, Her personality was not all that pleasant. He goes on researching paper, to say that She was as malicious as an old ape (96).

Just as Maria loathes Malvolio's austere Puritan behavior, Mathurine particularly hated the morally strict and stern Protestants (96). Yet another parallel between Maria and Mathurine is that both of them are associated with the Amazons. Sir Toby names Maria Penthesilea, queen of the computer research papers Amazons (2.3.177), and paper Mathurine often wore . the and methods section research paper outfit of an Amazon (96). Another characteristic of fools which Maria exhibits is researching paper her smallness. Materials Of A Research Paper. Viola mockingly says, Some mollification for your giant, sweet lady (1.5.203-4) after Maria, with a sailing metaphor, has urged Viola to get on a term paper, with her business. According to analytical words, Zijderveld, midgets and a term paper dwarfs occupied a very special position among fools, and they were valued by their owners (97). Viola is another type of female fool and also has much in common with the French fool Mathurine. To Help With. Feste commends her for her skill at word-play, exclaiming, A sentence is but a chev'ril glove to a good wit. How quickly the researching a term wrong side may be turned outward! (3.1.11-13).

Mathurine, one of the few fools who were obviously of good wit, was a smart fool who certainly knew her allies and foes (Zijderveld 96-7). And Methods Research Paper. Viola's cross-dressing also fits in with the behavior of Mathurine, who was sometimes seen dressed as a military officer with a huge sabre (96). Indeed, this sort of sexual ambiguity was not uncommon among medieval fools: They are never clearly male or female, but engage happily in transvestism (4). Maria calls Sir Andrew a natural throughout the play, a title which he thoroughly deserves. A Term. In Erasmus's In Praise of Folly #151;which Shakespeare may well have read at school (Levi 80)#151;the personified Folly characterizes the natural fool as that class of men whom we generally call morons, fools, halfwits, and zanies (47). 2 Even Andrew recognizes that people think him a fool at 2.5.82 after Malvolio refers to fiction, a foolish knight. A Term Paper. David Wiles maintains that when Sir Andrew is given 'a bloody cockscomb' by Cesario, the character's lank, hanging hair completes the effect of words use essays a fool's hood (156). Paper. According to Sir Toby, Andrew speaks three or four languages . and hath all the good gifts of nature (1.3.26-8), yet Andrew does not know the analytical use essays meaning of the word accost (1.3.58) nor of pourquoi (1.3.90). Andrew says, I would I had bestowed that time in tongues that I have in fencing, dancing, and bearbaiting (1.3.90-92), yet we find later on that, as Maria predicts, he is a coward and paper cannot fence well at fiction format all. In short, many do call (2.5.82) Sir Andrew fool, and they are right; he is all folly and no wit, unlike Feste, Toby, and researching a term Maria, who are deliberate in their foolery, beneath which exists a layer of wisdom.

3. Olivia and format Orsino are also unintentionally foolish, though less obtuse than Sir Andrew. Both are melancholic, and researching from this disorder arises folly; Zijderveld includes in his detailing of the spectrum of folly a kind of fool called melancholicus (35). It is easy to identify the thesis statements for arumentative research types of melancholy from which the Countess and Duke suffer. A Term Paper. Olivia's is research clearly derived from her excessive grief over her brother's death; she tells Valentine that she will mourn for seven years. Orsino's melancholy finds its origin in his obsessive, unrequited love for Olivia; he enacts the role of the despised courtly lover, surfeiting himself with music, bowers of flowers, and researching a term paper self-pity#151;indeed, he seems more in love with love itself than with Olivia. Robert Burton's wisdom, Douglas Bush suggests, is like Shakespeare's (298), and so it should be since Burton's treatise on psychology and humours drew on materials contemporary with Shakespeare and was published only seven years after the Bard's death. In the Anatomy of Melancholy , Burton calls grief the mother and daughter of melancholy, her epitome, and chief cause. Sorrow, saith Plutarch to Apollonius, is a cause of madness, a cause of many other incurable diseases (225).

Burton likewise says of love-melancholy that if it rage, it is no more Love, but burning Lust, a Disease, Phrensy, Madness, Hell. Quantum Computer Papers. (651). Feste recognizes Olivia's folly, dexteriously proving her a fool for mourning for her brother's soul, which is in heaven (1.5.57-71), and a term paper Olivia later compares herself to Malvolio, lamenting, I am as mad as he, / If sad and merry madness equal be (3.4.13-14). As Juliet Dusinberre writes, The texture of the play is use essays thick with references to Olivia's folly (47-8). Researching A Term. Feste also pinpoints Orsino's ailment, proclaiming, Now the statements melancholy god protect thee, and the tailor make thy doublet of changeable taffeta, for thy mind is a very opal (2.4.73-5). Paper. Erasmus writes, A man who is deceived not only in thesis for arumentative research paper, his senses but in the judgement of his mind . is bound to be considered close to madness (52). Olivia and Orsino, whose reactions are out of proportion with their troubles and who lack temperance in sorrow and love, certainly fit this description.

Malvolio's melancholic folly originates in his self-love. In In Praise of Folly , Folly asks, What is so foolish as to a term paper, be satisfied with yourself? Or to statements research paper, admire yourself? (29). Burton calls self-love a delectable frenzy, most irrefragable passion, this delightful illusion, this acceptable disease (253). Malvolio certainly thinks highly of himself, fantasizing about marrying Olivia at 2.5.23-81 and grouping himself with the truly wise men who despise all kinds of folly at 1.5.82-89.

Erasmus's Folly, however, has this to say about these supposedly wise men: Even those who arrogate to themselves the part and name of wise men cannot conceal me, though they walk about researching a term paper 'like apes in scarlet or asses in quantum computer papers, lion-skins'. Although they are wholly of my party, in public they are so ashamed of my name that they toss it up at researching a term paper others as a great reproach (10). The yellow stockings that Malvolio is duped into donning also connect him with fools. Robert Goldsmith writes in his Wise Fools in Shakespeare , Natural fools and idiots often wore long, yellow gowns (3), and Shakespeare and statements research paper Fletcher mention a long motley coat guarded with yellow (16) in their Prologue to The Life of King Henry the researching Eighth . Malvolio is also the only modern man in an essentially medieval society. He is the prototypical Puritan who threatens to wipe out folly altogether, in himself and in thesis statements paper, everyone else; he represents the researching paper rational man who is too one-dimensional to be able really to understand the fool (Zijderveld 27). Essay. He stands, as a result, in direct opposition to Feste, the traditional medieval fool who strives to bring out the foolishness in paper, all his acquaintances. M. C. Bradbrook comments that Feste is quantum Malvolio's first and principal antagonist, parish clerk to Lady Folly (231). That they despise one another is evidenced in Malvolio's insult, I saw him put down the other day with an ordinary fool that has no more brain than a stone (1.5.83-5). Researching. Feste's enjoyment of his revenge on Malvolio demonstrates that he returns a full measure of antipathy.

Twelfth Night becomes, in effect, a looking-glass for Shakespeare's society and our own. The play takes us from the routine of ordinary life to the realm of folly. As Zijderveld speculates, If one follows the fool into the reality of analytical words use essays his looking-glass, if one adapts to his 'language', his 'logic', his kind of 'reason', the routine and 'normal' reality of everyday life, with its structures and hierarchies, begins to a term, look genuinely foolish (27). Quantum Papers. Shakespeare shows us the reflection of ourselves and researching a term our society in the distorted mirror of Twelfth Night , and as a result, we reach a heightened awareness of our own shortcomings and absurdities. And Methods Paper. Paradoxically, we learn by laughing, passing beyond seriousness to a term, wisdom. 1 Queen Elizabeth was certainly familiar with European fools. David Wiles indicates that she followed in the tradition of the statements research paper sixteenth-century courts of Paris, Mantua and Ferrara when she kept a dwarf in her court from 1578 to the end of her reign (150). [Return to text.] 2 The possibility of Shakespeare having read In Praise of Folly seems great since the work was written in Thomas More's home, Erasmus was well known to many Oxford and Cambridge scholars (Coulton 664-6), and at least one of the masters (Simon Hunt) at researching a term paper Shakespeare's grammar school during his time there was an Oxford man (Speaight 10-11). [Return to text.] 3 Leslie Hotson comments that Set beside the therapy brain of researching a term Feste, the little wit of Aguecheek shrinks further into fiction essay format imbecility (91). Paper. [Return to text.] Barton, Anne. Introduction to Twelfth Night.

The Riverside Shakespeare. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1974. 403-407. Bradbrook, M. C. Robert Armin and Twelfth Night . Twelfth Night: A Casebook . London: Macmillan Press Ltd, 1972. 222-43. Burton, Robert. The Anatomy of Melancholy . Ed. Floyd Dell, New York: Tudor Publishing Company, 1927. David, R. W., ed. The Arden Shakespeare: Love's Labour's Lost . London: Methuen, 1951.

Dusinberre, Juliet. Shakespeare and the Nature of Women . London: Macmillan Press Ltd, 1975. Erasmus, Desiderius. In Praise of Folly . Trans. Fiction Essay Format. Hoyt Hopewell Hudson, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1970. Hotson, Leslie.

Shakespeare's Motley . New York: Oxford University Press, 1952. Potter, Lois. Twelfth Night: Text Performance . London: Macmillan, 1985. Shakespeare, William. Twelfth Night. The Complete Signet Classic Shakespeare , ed. A Term Paper. Sylvan Barnet, New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., 1972. Wiles, David.

Shakespeare's Clown: Actor and text in the Elizabethan playhouse . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987. Zijderveld, Anton J. Reality in a Looking-Glass: Rationality through an computer, Analysis of researching a term paper Traditional Folly . London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1982. Copyright © 1997 by Stephanie Chidester. All Rights Reserved.