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Past Thesis Projects - Institute of Environmental Science

land grabbing essay February 29, 2012 A new phenomenon is projects, taking shape across the developing world, threatening to heighten resource-related conflict, particularly in Africa. Referred to critical essay on utopia, as land leasing, land selling or land grabbing, it affects Africa more than any other region, where land is more than a factor of science projects production, but a lifeline to an individual’s wellbeing, the essay family unit, the community at large and the stability of the state. In this article, Patrick Mugo Mugo exposes the extent of the science thesis land grab phenomenon, arguing that while we debate over whether it is master thesis, land grabbing, leasing or selling, African countries are already stepping on a potential landmine. The story is often told that when the science thesis projects first Europe missionaries arrived to Africa, they had a bible in their hand, and that the African had land in his.

When the time came to essay about steve jobs microsoft, seek divine help, the ‘good’ missionaries are said to science, have ‘sweet- talked’ the African to cross his eyes and hold on beauty to the bible so that together, they could pray for the ‘uncivilised’ African’s salvation. Soon after, when the ‘obedient’ African did open his eyes, in his hand was the bible, and in the missionary’s hands, the land. This anecdote tells a tale of the science 18th and 19th centuries; now, let us fast forward to the 21st. In the last few decades, millions of hectares have been reported as being under negotiation for short essay lease or sale by developing countries to the rich countries. The land in question refers to 227 million hectares (561 million acres) of land – an science thesis projects, area the short essay size of projects northwest Europe –having been reportedly sold, leased or licensed, largely in Africa and about jobs microsoft mostly to international investors in thousands of science thesis projects selective deals since 2001(Oxfam, 2011).The World Bank estimates that in 2009 alone nearly 60 million hectares of nursing case study land were purchased or leased in developing countries all over the world – an area the size of France (Fisher, 2011). If you pay attention to all the conflicting information about this growing and controversial phenomenon, then one thing is for certain: land grabs by the rich countries reflect the reality that they have found it wise to export their food insecurity and/or industrial demands to developing countries. The scariest aspect of this unfolding phenomenon is that despite the foreseeable terrible consequences, the appetite among the rich countries to own a piece of this developing-country fertile land continues to grow, turning to an ugly competition. Allow me to put it plainly: it’s like witnessing criminal gangs arguing over whom has the right to rob which bank. The only difference in this case is that banks have insurance coverage helping them get back on their feet, while the losers in the land grab phenomenon have no fall back or safety net. Land Leasing or Grabbing: Contending Arguments.

The list of those blessing this on-going land grab business, which has the potential for precipitating conflict - if not heightening it in some regions like Sudan, Kenya, Nigeria, Sierra Leone and Mali - is no different than those who, a few decades ago, advocated for economic liberalisation (free market economics), structural adjustments programmes and commoditisation of food. We are all now aware of the consequences of these experiments and the price that affected populations have paid over time. Others argue that selling or leasing land could work towards taming drought or famine, which is now a common threat in most of the science African states slated to be part of the land-grabbing phenomenon. Land grab advocates argue that as the jobs global population continues to increase rapidly, there is the need to modernize agriculture and find innovative ways of maximizing the production of potentially fertile lands. The World Bank Group, since the 2008 food and financial crisis, has fronted the science thesis projects idea that large-scale land investment in developing countries is beauty of mother, a “win-win” situation, whereby investors profit and “host” nations benefit from science projects, economic development, improved agricultural infrastructure, and employment opportunities(Oakland Institute, 2011), an argument shared by USAID. But how leasing or selling fertile land will be an answer to of mother nature, the challenge of thesis projects food insecurity in master thesis, some parts of the world, at thesis projects, a time of plenty in the Western world, is a very different matter. Professor Reg Noble of Ryerson University in Toronto reminds us that there is patient, enough food in the world to feed the 7 billion-plus people at current food production rates, if the commoditisation of food was not the driving force of this phenomenon.

Anuradha Mittal, founder of the Oakland Institute argues that, according to his organization’s ground-breaking report on African land grabs, The land grab phenomenon is being done in the name of modernizing agriculture and science thesis expanding African economies, but it cuts out the core natural resources that support African livelihoods for the majority – land and water. Stroke Patient? This huge transfer of projects natural wealth to outside investors is eroding food security, water security and cultural integrity for local people.” Professor Noble, a research associate in food security and community development, blames the land rush on the increasing demand to notes, acquire fertile land by a corporate global minority seeking bio-fuel crops and the new frontier; the need for carbon credits has now turned into a lucrative business. Contamination of Information Flow. If you walk into any food security meeting and you happen to be seated next to a land leasing or selling lobbyist, your ears are to be bombarded with arguments in the form of supposed justifications. For example, that the new land rush has been triggered by the food riots of 2006-07, a series of harvest failures following major droughts, and Western investors moving out of the US property market in 2008. Indeed, this is science thesis projects, logical but not truthful and begs the question: as this sort of information flows and dominates the land grab debate, could it at the same time be contaminating our ability to understand this phenomenon and gauge its consequences? In its reports, Oxfam argues that the case of land leasing in Uganda clearly shows how land grab deals are slipping through the essay about steve jobs about net of existing safeguards. Oxfam challenges investors, governments and international organisations to prioritize putting an end to science thesis, land grabs by beauty nature, fixing current policies and regulations. The group says that such policies in the past have shown that local populations are not consulted or treated fairly.

Oxfam says that despite its bad reputation, new demand for agricultural commodities on the world market has the potential to provide opportunities to local communities in areas of increasing investor interest, if the power balance is to thesis, be shifted in favour of those most affected by land deals (Oxfam, 2011). On the contrary, World Bank Group policies and actions have glossed over essay about, critical issues, such as human rights, food security and human dignity for local populations, opines the Oakland Institute report. In its findings, the Oakland Institute observes that modern agricultural schemes are highly mechanized and provide relatively few jobs, which are often short-term or seasonal. For instance, in Western Equatorial and South Sudan, Equatorial Teak promised that it would create 6,000 jobs in the state. It initially hired about 600 people from the local community and paid just seven Sudanese pounds per day (which would be just a little more than $2 in the US).

By the time it stopped project operations in October 2010, Equatorial Teak was only employing approximately 250 people (Oakland Institute, 2011). Beneath the arguments and justifications advocated by land grab speculators and institutions like the African Development Bank, World Bank, Western University pension funds and science projects global agri-business corporations, is the steve jobs need to produce more food for the commodity market and raw materials for the biofuels industries. Yes, Western academic institutions are also part of the game. Land acquisitions in seven African countries suggests that Harvard, Vanderbilt and many other US colleges with large endowment funds have invested heavily in African land in the past few years; with much of the money being channelled through London-based Emergent asset management, which runs one of Africa’s acquisition funds, run by former JP Morgan and projects Goldman Sachs currency dealers (Population Matters, 2011). The Masters of scandal essays Double Speak. Oxfam argues that most of the land deals made in Ethiopia, Ghana, Mali, Mozambique, Senegal, and Tanzania have been to grow crops for export commodities, including cut flowers and biofuels. In Mozambique, where approximately 35% of households are chronically food insecure, only 32,000 hectares out science of the 433,000 approved for land deals between 2007 and 2009 were for food crops (Oxfam, 2011). On one side, you have universities carrying out on a serious research into science projects how to nature essay, tame African hunger; on science thesis projects the other side, you have the same universities taking away the fertile land that populations in Africa could use for that very purpose - taming hunger. Africa and Her Contradictions: Land Up for Sale to Lowest Bidder! Let’s cross over to Ethiopia, where the story cannot be concluded without talking about massive, fertile and arable lands, the River Nile which sustains Sudan and Egypt, as well as drought and about steve microsoft famine. These are contradictions synonymous with Ethiopia, and in the last few years, land selling and leasing has joined this list of challenges.

Ethiopia is one of the world’s largest recipients of humanitarian food and development assistance, and in 2011, received more than 700,000 tonnes of food and ?1.8bn in aid; at science thesis projects, the same time, it has offered three million hectares (7.4 million acres) of nature virgin land to foreign corporations, such as Karuturi (Population Matters, 2011). Sparsely-populated Gambella is at thesis, the centre of the global rush for cheap land, precipitated by the oil price rise in 2007/2008, when many countries racked by food riots encouraged their farmers to invest abroad to grow food. The Ethiopian government says that 36 countries including India, China, Pakistan and critical Saudi Arabia have leased farm land there. Science Projects? According to Population Matters (2011), the Gambella area has offered investors 1.1 million hectares, nearly a quarter of its best farmland, and 896 companies have come to the region in the last three years. They range from Saudi billionaire Al Amoudi, who is constructing a 20-mile canal to irrigate 10,000 hectares to essay steve jobs about, grow rice, to Ethiopian businessmen who have plots of less than 200 hectares. Speaking to thesis projects, the Guardian media team, Karuturi Global terms the deal it has with Ethiopia, “the deal of the century: ?150 a week to lease more than 2,500 sq. km (1,000 sq. Steve Jobs? miles) of science projects virgin, fertile land – for about jobs microsoft 50 years”. The lowest prices are in Africa, where, according to the World Bank, at least 35 million hectares of land have been bought or leased. Bangalore-based food company Karuturi Global says it had not even seen the land when it was offered by the Ethiopian government with tax breaks thrown in.

Karuturi snapped it up, and next year the company, one of the projects world’s top 25 agri-businesses, plans to notes scandal, export palm oil, sugar, rice and other foods to world markets from Gambella province – a remote region near the thesis projects Sudanese border. “It’s very good land. It’s quite cheap. In fact it is very cheap. We have no land like this in India,” says Karmjeet Sekhon, Karuturi Global Project Manager of what is expected to be one of Africa’s largest farms. Essay Steve Jobs Microsoft? “There you are lucky to get 1% of organic matter in the soil.

Here, it is more than 5%. Science? We don’t need fertiliser or herbicides. There is absolutely nothing that will not grow on about jobs about it. To start with, there will be 20,000 hectares of oil palm, 15,000 hectares of sugar cane and 40,000 hectares of rice, edible oils, and science thesis maize and cotton. We are building reservoirs, dykes, roads, towns of 15,000 people. “This is about steve jobs, phase one. Thesis? In three years’ time, we will have 300,000 hectares cultivated and notes on a scandal essays maybe 60,000 workers. We could feed a nation here.” While the science prospects that they can feed a nation remain undoubtedly real, the harsher reality in notes scandal essays, this case is that Ethiopia will not be that nation, as she will, for many years to come, remain a hungry nation unable to science thesis, drop the notes on a scandal essays begging bowl. Ethiopia’s population growth rate of 3.194 per cent is projected to hit 186 million by 2050 from its current 82 million today (CSA, 2011). As the populations of Ethiopia, Kenya, Mali, Ghana, Sudan and Tanzania grow, so does their appetite to lease or sell land.

However ironically, given the potential that this land could have for domestic food production, the expectation is that such nations would be agitating for reversing or cancelling existing leases or refraining from selling more land. Unfortunately, this is not the case. Kenya, Ethiopia, and Sudan, for example are key recipients of food aid, as they parade themselves as states capable of meeting the food security needs of developed countries, some of which need more agricultural products for science thesis projects industrial needs. From Land Grabs to Potential Landmines. Despite their massive numbers, at the end of the nursing case patient day no one is science thesis, paying attention to their cries or hallowing tales, after all. They are being perceived as obstacles or liabilities to the ‘newfound formula’ of turning mineral-less, but fertile agricultural lands into prime factors of thesis production for the global economy. A capitalist economic system that has been feeding on them, if not exploiting them to destitution for hundreds of science projects years, if we are willing to travel back in time.

An economy that perceives the billions of poor people in these countries as disposable elements in the name of maximizing profit margins, thanks to the commoditisation of food. The ugliness of the free market economy is its luring abilities: despite the hunger in many developing countries, lucrative farm investment offers from rich foreign companies may end up compelling them to master thesis, hand over thesis, their only assets to international investors through international contractual agreements (Mersha, 2010). Beyond that, while African governments can hardly meet their budgets, they are losing further revenue through the land grab by allowing tax breaks for landowners; tax breaks they hardly extend to their local populations who are the labour behind high food production; instead, their reward is making agriculture in their societies unattainable, expensive and heart-breaking, exacerbating food insecurity in notes on a scandal essays, the process. For example, profit tax in Ethiopia, estimated at $20 per hectare per year, is exempt for a period of five years. As a result, the 602,760 hectares allocated through documented projects, are estimated to entail a tax revenue loss to Ethiopia of $60,276,000 over projects, five years (Mersha, 2010). Moreover, the beauty of mother land that is thesis projects, being leased or sold is owned by the communities in critical essay on utopia, common, but held by government in trust; it is now being said to be ‘empty’ land up for trade at the whim of respective governments, with no consultation or consent from the communities. And where consultation or consent is said to have been employed, it is through disconnected and corrupt local and thesis national elites. End result: affected communities are being pushed far away from their fertile land, and are being boxed into short my hometown corners next to each other, heightening the probability of resource conflict, a common feature in many African countries. Beyond that is the science projects loss of land ownership while at same time remaining physically present, because there are large-scale agricultural activities next to displaced populations who have neither access to master thesis, nor the ability to science, benefit from the leased or sold land. Essay Jobs About? Nearly 10,000 people were displaced from the Namwasa and Luwunga reserve lands in Uganda, with no resettlement assistance and science projects no compensation (Oxfam, 2011). The contradiction gets even more complex according to Professor Noble, who argues that compensation for the leased or sold land is notes on a essays, poor or non-existent; likely jobs from land grabs do not materialize; the most vulnerable of the population, namely the women and children, suffer more; and there is irreversible damage done to ecosystems, such as draining of projects marshland and clearing of forest.

Africa: A Strange Place Indeed. While this land grab phenomenon is said to be global, all its trappings reveal that Africa is playing a greater role than all other regions of the world. Master Thesis Song? With her high degree of food insecurity and escalating cases of land-related conflict, many would expect Africa to thesis, be very allergic to such land grab issues. However, the opposite has proven true, and key target lands are those found within Africa due to many loopholes that exist when it comes to foreigners acquiring land or investing in Africa. On A? Since colonisation, from in the post-independence era to the age of economic liberalisation thanks to the World Bank and International Monetary Fund through their structural adjustment ‘treatment’, African leaders at both the community and national level have always shown a high degree of thesis propensity towards any investors who knock at notes essays, their door selling ideas of science thesis projects how to turn around the fortunes of their nations. But why would this be the case? Because Africa is a very lucrative area due to failed or dysfunctional political systems and a despicable crop of leaders who are easy prey for manipulation, if not exploitation, by any would-be investors. Thus, the blame game is not one-sided. After all, the political elites in African countries have a demeaning attitude towards a majority of case study patient their population, and thesis will stop at nothing when it comes to expropriating their people’s resources in short my hometown, an effort to make a ‘kill’ out of anything that previous regimes did not act on during their time in power. Science Thesis Projects? When one hears Western media stations preaching that Africa is ‘open for business’, it simply means that Africa hasn’t learned any of the lessons it should have after many years of master song exploitation, bringing misery to the continent’s vulnerable populations.

Even reliable records are hard to piece together, as few African governments are willing to provide full disclosure, making it difficult for their populations to benefit from indicator-targeted support. Research by projects, the Guardian ’s media team sheds light on the scale of the biofuels rush in sub-Saharan Africa – 100 projects and 50 companies in more than 20 countries (Population Matters, 2011). When we scratch the surface, we recognize the misconception of the notion that land leasing or selling stands to help poor Africa or to short essay, tame the twin evils of her time, drought and famine, as most of the direct and by-products of land grabbing are products for science projects which Africa has no need. Crest Global Green Energy based in about steve, the United Kingdom has the largest recorded landholding of 900,000 hectares in Mali, Guinea and Senegal. Tom Stuart, the company’s CEO says: “It is true in some cases [that biofuels displace food], but in our projects we ‘inter-crop’, planting as much food as biofuel on science thesis projects the marginal land we have brought into agricultural use. There is short essay, a large social element to science, our projects, with all the local people needing to master song, be in agreement, and that’s normally written into contracts at thesis, government level.” The appetite among British firms does not end there. Another UK company, Sun Biofuels, leased 8,000 hectares in master thesis song, Tanzania, where it grows Jatrophacurcas , a non-edible plant whose oil-rich seeds can be processed into biodiesel. “We’ll start harvesting and science thesis producing in two years,” says Peter Auge, Office Manager in beauty essay, Tanzania. “The main attraction for us is exporting to Europe.” British firms have acquired more land in Africa for controversial biofuel plantations than companies from science, any other country, a Guardian investigation has revealed. Half of the 3.2m hectares of biofuel land identified – in countries from Mozambique to Senegal – are linked to 11 British companies, more than any other country. Let’s breakdown the facts, the my hometown United Nations estimates that 70 per cent more food will be needed by the year 2050 to feed the world’s growing population, now estimated to be way over 7 billion. Those who argue that rising populations in China and India are demanding more food and thus turning to land leasing or buying must recognize that the same behaviour is science thesis, true for the Gulf States of Saudi Arabia, Qatar and United Arab Emirates, plus the United States, due to economic factors, has turned to farmland as investments of notes scandal choice.

No one can dispute that; however, it is also true that the Global South population is growing at an alarming rate, and the level of food insecurity across these countries is of concern and has, in the recent past, translated into social upheavals and unrest: Kenya, Uganda, Senegal are prime examples. Pandora’s Box: Are African Governments Dancing with the Devil? The Director-General of aid and development at science projects, the European Commission says, “We are very concerned because this is another way to exploit developing countries. The poorest countries are selling commodities, they are exporting migrants and now they are selling their land from beauty, which they will not take any kind of benefit in terms of food or whatever.” When we breakdown the figure about the ratio of people within developing countries who depend on farming or land for thesis survival, we realize that something is going terribly wrong. Why?

75 per cent of the world’s population makes a living from farming, observes Mersha (2010). The global rush for master land could trigger a new wave of civil unrest if governments fail to recognise the rights of those using land without formal legal titles. Science Thesis? Research recently published by the Rights and Resources Initiative (RRI) estimates that half a billion people rely on essay steve about microsoft 1.4bn hectares of communally held rural land in sub-Saharan Africa, which has attracted the lion’s share of investor interest. In Liberia, where 30% of the country’s land was reportedly allocated to investors between 2006 and 2011, local communities have temporarily blocked a Malaysian company’s plans to projects, plant oil palms on 220,200 hectares of land leased from the government. In late December 2011, two Liberian campaigners argued in the New York Times that “these concessions come at a delicate time, as violent local-level land disputes both between and within villages are still widespread” (Population Matters, 2012). South Sudan has also seen a surge of investor interest since the country’s independence in July last year.

The South Sudanese government, along with foreign aid agencies, has held a series of events to promote foreign investment in the country, including an international conference in Washington in notes on a scandal, December. But David Deng, Research Director of the South Sudan Law Society, says that a large number of potential investors have visited the country since the 2005 comprehensive peace agreement, which ended a 22-year civil war between the north and south. Science Thesis Projects? Last year, researchers estimated that around 9% of South Sudan’s land had already been leased or bought by investors before independence. Deng said, “Here we have a country that is probably at notes essays, the most unpredictable time in its entire history, faced with a very real possibility of a return to projects, war, with a government that is just getting on its feet, and notes on a essays it still manages to attract considerable amounts of interest from foreign investors”. The Oakland Institute contends that Egypt provides a perfect example of thesis how food and water insecurity stemming from land grabs can destabilize African nations and critical essay create international conflict between countries (2011). Egypt's revolution was exacerbated by food insecurity caused by the rising price of wheat. Food insecurity could get much worse for science Egypt soon because foreign investors are pushing Ethiopia to build a massive dam upriver along the Nile that could drastically decrease the water Egypt will have available for irrigation. Another example is essay about jobs about microsoft, South Sudan: The world's newest independent country was targeted for land grabs before it even gained its independence. The people of South Sudan fought for their land for decades. Now it's being taken away from science thesis, them by foreign corporations backed by the World Bank, creating anger and desperation among many of South Sudan's citizens that could lead to further destabilizing conditions (Oakland Institute, 2011).

Beyond that, political leaders from notes scandal, countries leasing land argue that it is prudent to lease land in the name of business and economic liberalization. Thesis? But the ‘voiceless’ and ‘powerless’ local farmers who bear the brunt of the essay on utopia consequences that come with land grabs have a different take. In short, their patience will run out science thesis as they quickly approach the edge with no options; they will either have to accept ‘falling off the cliff’ or step forward and beauty nature essay say enough is enough, and seek to reclaim the land. African land experts will tell you that this would be like opening a Pandora’s Box that has been steaming for several decades. Across Africa, the box is full of unresolved historical land grievances, so much so that no African government will withstand its ‘explosion’, as time and again, its ugly face has destabilized populations in thesis, Kenya, South Sudan and Zimbabwe. But as Kenya and South Sudan walk down the road of the land leasing business, one needs not be a rock scientist to expect the unexpected. (2011, June 7). The great land grab: India's war on farmers Land is a valuable asset that should be used to better humanity through farming and essay about ecology.

Retrieved February 2012, 2012, from (2011). Thesis? Ethiopia Population . Addis Ababa,: Central Statistical Agency (Ethiopia). DiPaolo, J. Short My Hometown? (2012). Science Thesis Projects? GLOBAL LAND GRAB- Studies Suggest Weak Land Rights Worldwide Promote Land Rush; In Africa, Lands of Estimated 480 Million Viewed as “Un-owned”. Rights and of mother Resources Initiative. Fisher, S. (2011, September). Africa For Sale: Land and Water Grabs Spell Disaster for Rural People and Rivers.

Retrieved February 27, 2012, from thesis, http://www.internationalrivers: Kachika, T. Notes Essays? (n.d.). Science? Land Grabbing in Africa: A Review of the Impacts and the possible Policy Responses . Pan-African Programme of Oxfam International. Mersha, G. (2010, January 3). International agricultural land deals award Ethiopian virgin lands to foreign companies Experts worry about negative consequences.

Retrieved February 13, 2012, from Noble, R. (2012). Land Grabs and Livelihood Security. Case Study Stroke? Upeace Institute Lectures at Universitry for Peace- 16th January - February 3th, 2012 (p. 11).

San Jose: UPE ESP 6090 Hunger and Food Security class during the 2012 Upeace Institute Lectures at Universitry for Peace from January. (2011). Science Projects? Understanding How Land Deals Contribute to Famine and Conflict in Africa. Oakland, CA: Oakland-Institute. (2011). Land and Power: The growing scandal surrounding the new wave of investments in land.

Oxford: Oxfam International.

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Philippians 4:13: Did Paul Write #8220;Christ#8221;? As the apostle Paul closes his immediate words acknowledging a recent gift from the Philippians (Phil 4:10-12), Paul interweaves a statement which transcends gifts and the encouragement to thesis endure that they provide. My Hometown? In Philippians 4:13, Paul#8217;s words read, #8220;I can do all things through#8230;#8221; [1] It ellipses into a scene from a role playing game. At this point, the verse breaks out into science projects, three possibilities (variant readings) as to how the verse ends. The first two are represented by mainline translations, but the third is my translation (AT) since there are none that I am aware of to represent it: (A) I can do all things through Christ who strengthens me. (NKJV; CEV, FHV4, KJV, NLT, Tyndale) (B) I can do all things through him who strengthens me. (ESV; ASV, Barclay, CEB, HCSB, NASB95, NET, NIV, NRSV, Phillips, RSV, Weymouth, Wycliffe) In truth, Paul#8217;s point is transparent regardless of the textual problem. In them, Paul, at notes scandal bottom line, concludes his statement with a powerful declaration that #8220;Christ/God gives me the strength to face anything.#8221; Yet, at times questions are asked as to why a translation has this word or is missing that word, so this aspect of the text will be explored here. [2] So here, in this note, we are not so concerned with the sense of the passage than we are with the original wording of the passage. For while these variants are theologically harmonious, they differ but in two ways; case in point, did Paul label Christ as his enabler, or did he leave it undefined for a reason? Let us consider the textual question, then attempt to put the most probable words in thesis projects context.

Don#8217;t Get Jittery, We Love the Bible. My Hometown? Every early Sesame Street kid remembers the lyrics: #8220;Three of these things are kind of the same; Can you guess which one of thesis projects these doesn#8217;t belong here?#8221; Sometimes when the topic of textual criticism emerges upon the scene of our faith it feels so flippant and cruel. #8220;You mean to tell me that it was God#8217;s Word in the time of my grandma but now #8216;scholars#8217; know [sarcasm] it isn#8217;t.#8221; But the study and search for the earliest wording of the biblical text is an act of devotion to God#8217;s word and not some academic display of nerdiness. While there are areas of subjectivity to the evaluation process of the textual variants, so much as been done to critical essay minimize them as much as possible. Why? Because for the most part textual criticism shows a love for the Bible.

So in the words of the late Dr. Dowell Flatt, let us be clear that the search for the earliest wording of the biblical text is not (1) a liberal versus conservative issue, (2) a high view versus a low view of inspiration debate, nor is it (3) a study of the varied English versions, or (4) a study of thesis projects what the providence of God should have done or not done. Nursing Case? [3] However, variants make it necessary to “arrive at nearest thing we can have to that which” is God-breathed; [4] “it is, after all, somewhat difficult to study or interpret a document accurately unless one first knows exactly what the document says.” [5] This is, then, a necessary element of biblical interpretation. How can one explain the text if there is an uncertainty in the wording of the text? Unfortunately, the everyday student of the science thesis projects, Scriptures (versus someone like an academically trained student of the Scriptures) rarely walks through these ancient halls and so it becomes something of a mystery. Nursing Patient? It does not need to be so. An Evaluation of the science, Textual Variants. There are a few things that should be said at the beginning about some general assumptions I am making. There are more refined treatments of this subject to beauty of mother essay be sure, [6] but these will at science projects least give some reason for master the approach taken here.

First , this evaluation is based upon the premise that (within reasonable limits) the closer a manuscript is in age to science the timeframe of its composition, then the more probable it is that it represents its autographic wording (i.e. original wording). The closer one is the source it is typically regarded more pure. Second , wide geographic distribution is a vastly important consideration of the nursing case stroke patient, evidence, [7] but it is not as weighty as the date of the projects, manuscript evidence. For example, a reading may have a significantly wide geographic distribution, but if an earlier reading exists also having a wide distribution, then (all things being equal) the oldest reading is more probable to be the notes on a essays, autographic wording. Third , in most cases one must consider what is the variant which is the hardest to explain and science projects would be most likely create a need to correct or clarify a difficult reading. Sometimes, for example, the shorter reading is taken to be the most probable reading since variations are often additions rather than deletions. There are many exceptions to these general assumptions, but these are laid out in full disclosure. Let us, then, turn to study the three textual variants of Philippians 4:13b. From the projects, Least Likely to the Best Supported. First , the (C) variant has the weakest evidence to be the probable reading of the early text of thesis song Philippians 4:13.

It is only mentioned in the UBS4 textual apparatus. The only manuscript supporting this reading in the apparatus is from the twelfth to thirteenth century (minuscule 1573). This variant can be easily dismissed due to its weak and science late support, but it is an master interesting combination of the next two variants. It is also weak since because variants (A) and (B) are more difficult to explain than the (C) variant. [8] Second , the (A) variant is perhaps the most well-known among the three to the English reader. This is due in large part to the influence and dominance of the science thesis projects, King James/Authorize Version tradition (1611). Song? It is well known and science it clearly establishes the source of Paul#8217;s endurance Christ. I can do all things through Christ who strengthens me. Short Essay? Manuscripts . The strongest manuscript evidence is seen in thesis projects second hand #8220;corrections#8221; to the text of both Aleph (4th century) and Claromontanus (6th century). Yet, since they are second corrections the master thesis, Christo notes are from about 7th century (Aleph) and 9th century (Claromontanus) respectively. [9] Despite support in the later Byzantine text ( Byz ) and in church lectionary readings ( Lect ), the reading is found in the ancient versions of the Syrian Peshitta (5th century) and Ethiopian tradition (6th century). The evidence in the early church leaders (i.e.

Church Fathers) is mixed. The mid-4th century finds roughly about half of Eusebius#8217;s manuscripts which include #8220;Christ,#8221; and several late 4th and early 5th century Greek writers with verifiable references to 4:13 (Basil, Gregory, Chrysostom, Cyril, Theodore in latin). Four-fifths of Jerome#8217;s unstable Latin text (419-20) and Paulinus-Nola (481) are witnesses of the projects, Latin church. Distribution . While this variant has a wide geographic distribution among its witnesses (Western, Alexandrian, Byz ), the strongest and earliest examples are substantially late and master thesis statistically problematic. David A. Black calls us to be open-minded to the possibility that “a later MS may preserve an thesis early reading. Beauty? It is the date of the reading and not of the MS, that is important.” [10] Still, the science thesis projects, strength of this variant reading is short my hometown its wide geographic distribution. Probabilities . The earliest witnesses for this reading come from science thesis projects ancient translations and quotations from church leaders in both the Latin and Greek church and are omitted in the body of earlier Greek manuscripts. Instead, they exist in much later corrections notes.

This leads to the probability that the reading emerged as “a later addition for scandal essays the sake of clarity,#8221; perhaps due to influential church leaders and the lectionaries harmonizing Philippians 4:13 with other passages with similar wording (2 Tim 4:17 and Eph 6:10). [11] In other words, the reading emerged to identify the one who strengthens Paul and all subsequent Christians. Further, as Metzger observes, #8220;If the word [ Christo ] had been present in the o riginal text, there would have been no reason to omit it.#8221; [12] One would more likely need to explain the #8220;elusiveness#8221; of the text rather than to delete Christ from the verse, as such, it would be a #8220;predictable#8221; variant. Science Projects? [13] Third , on the whole, the evidence for the (B) variant is decidedly better to be the wording of the essay, earliest text of verse 13. Science? It#8217;s vagueness better explains (A) and (C) because it is the about steve jobs microsoft, most difficult reading between the three. Projects? I can do all things through him who strengthens me. Manuscripts . This reading has a strong representation from the manuscripts regarded as the most reliable witnesses of the New Testament. They date from the 4th century (Aleph*, [14] Vaticanus) and the fifth century (Alexandrinus).

Also, it is represented in the fragmented Freerianus (5th century) and the Claromontanus (D* 6th century) manuscripts. It is also represented by early third-century text of Clement of Alexandria (before 215). It is insightful that statistically there are alternative texts among fourth-century church leaders Eusebius (1/3) and Didymus (1/3) with this reading. This shows a similar instability of their texts which include variant (A) above. Still, various fourth and fifth-century witnesses to this reading are from Latin church leaders. Distribution . Essay About Steve Jobs About Microsoft? Witnesses to this reading are geographically broad.

It is found in Alexandria and Western manuscripts to eastern translations (Armenian, Vulgate, Coptic), and as far West as Britain (Pelagius after 418). This distribution weighs stronger for the (B) variant due not only to its distribution but also due to thesis projects its earlier witness. Probabilities . The evidence of the manuscripts and early church leaders indicates strongly that this variation is older and is in thesis the best position to explain variants (A) and (C) . The later #8220;scribes#8221; understood Paul#8217;s intent to be Christo (#8220;Christ#8221;), no doubt because Paul, as Gerald Hawthorne observes, #8220; paradoxically gained all by losing all for Christ; he who longed to know Christ and the power of his resurrection (3:7-10), and so on, could only envision Christ as his true source of science thesis inner strength.#8221; [15] So we conclude here that the text reads, #8220;I can do all things through him who strengthens me#8221; (ESV). The evidence above explains why the majority of modern translation have the #8220;unspecified#8221; reading in the body of their texts (ASV, Barclay, CEB, HCSB, NASB95, NET, NIV, NRSV, Phillips, RSV, Weymouth, Wycliffe). So if this is the text, who then is #8220;the one who strengthens#8221; Paul? Let us start with a verb.

The verb endunamao used in thesis song Philippians 4:13 (#8220;I make strong#8221;) is used approximately 7 times in the New Testament, the majority of time by Paul (Rom 4:20; Eph 6:10; 1 Tim 1:12; 2 Tim 2:1, 4:17). The balance is one reference about Paul gaining strength as an early Christian (Acts 9:22) and those whom the world was not worthy due to their faith (Heb 11:34). The verb itself is part of projects a larger word family (based on the duna- stem), [16] but we will limit ourselves to endunamao . Abraham, Paul argues, #8220;grew strong in his faith as he gave glory to God#8221; (Rom 4:20). Before Timothy, Paul evokes in prayer #8220;him who has given me strength , Christ Jesus our Lord#8221; (1 Tim 1:12). In his last letter, Paul both encourages Timothy and acknowledges the role of about microsoft #8220;the grace that is in Christ Jesus#8221; and #8220;the Lord [who] stood by#8221; has in science projects their lives to strengthen them (2 Tim 2:1, 4:17).

Moreover, in Ephesians Paul empowers his readers with, #8220; Finally be strong in the Lord and in the strength of his might#8221; (Eph 6:10). The title #8220;Lord#8221; ( kurios ) is critical essay predominately a title for Christ Jesus in the letter. Aside from Paul#8217;s discussion of Abraham#8217;s faith in Romans, Paul is science thesis clear to connect the empowering force in his life with the Lord Jesus Christ, his grace, and God his Father. This leaves us with Philippians 4:13b and its #8220;vagueness.#8221; The phrase, #8220;the one who strengthens me,#8221; requires explanation who is that? The truth is that Paul was not vague, elusive, or unspecific. Paul was perfectly clear. The articular particple ( to endunamounte ) points back to my hometown the #8220;Lord#8221; ( kurios ) in 4:10a. Again, consistent with Paul#8217;s use in Ephesians, #8220;Lord#8221; ( kurios ) is used throughout the Philippian letter for #8220;Jesus Christ#8221; (Phil 1:1; 3:20). There is thesis perhaps no greater example in Philippians that #8220;Lord#8221; refers to Jesus than 2:11: #8220; every tongue confess that Jesus Christ is Lord , to the glory of God the Father .#8221; In the immediate context of 4:13b, Paul already expresses his great joy to be #8220;in the Lord#8221; (4:10; 3:1).

Paul repeats this locative phrase #8220;in the Lord#8221; several times in Philippians (1:14; 2:19, 24, 29; 3:1, 4:1-2, 4) and such a phrase is unique to Paul. It is one of those phrases that he seems to have just made up to convey a Christian concept where the Lord Jesus#8217; presence dwells within an about steve microsoft immanent Christian context. [17] #8220;In the Lord#8221; means, then, #8220;Jesus is here#8221; or #8220;in the presence of Jesus.#8221; So contextually, #8220;the one who strengthens me#8221; (4:13b) goes back to the presence of Jesus (#8220;in the thesis, Lord#8221;) in 4:10a and it is my hometown obvious that this is Paul#8217;s intended meaning, even though it is not Paul#8217;s words. But why the so-called #8220;vagueness#8221;? Perhaps it is simply a matter of style or syntax convention. Consider one example along these lines. In Philippians 1:6, there is a similar example of projects a #8220;vague#8221; articular participle, #8220;he who began a good work in you#8230;#8221; The context begins with #8220;God#8221; (1:3). #8220;God our Father#8221; is always connected to the work of Jesus Christ (1:1). Even in the context of 4:10-13, Paul calls upon God to #8220;supply every need#8221; of the nursing case, Philippians #8220;according to this riches in glory in Christ Jesus#8221; (4:19) as part of science thesis his gratitude for their gift (4:18). But it is God who is the source of our salvation (1:28) and the exaltation of the Lord Jesus (2:9). It is God who consummates the work He begins in His children at the day of on a essays Christ (2:13-16). So contextually, the #8220;vague#8221; articular participle, #8220;he who began a good work in thesis projects you,#8221; goes back to #8220;God#8221; in 1:3.

This is a parallel to 4:13b and leads me to conclude that Paul is not being vague, elusive, or unspecific. In both cases, Paul leads with God or the Lord, then references back with an articular participle. It is God #8220;who began a good work in you#8221; (1:6) and it is the Lord through whom Paul can #8220;do all things#8221; (4:13). These participles are functioning as anaphoric abstract adjectives for God and for the Lord. [18] In other words, it points back up the text and to notes on a essays a previous referent (God, Lord). In seeking an answer to the textual variant in the Greek text of Philippians 4:13b, we walked through some history of the text in thesis the early church. Christians seem to nursing case stroke patient have needed a stronger sense of the one through whom Paul was empowered to thesis projects endure all things. Was it a slip of the pen? Was it a theological harmonization with other passages using so many similar words? Hard to say. But the history of the text shows a few things.

Theologically, the variant is insignificant because all three variant readings are essentially harmonious. They say the same thing just with a difference in nuance. Still the question remains: why so vague Paul? The answer is most likely a matter of critical essay on utopia convention . It is not that Paul is thesis projects purposely elusive as if he wishes the Philippians to guess. We see a parallel in 1:6 and 4:13 using the articular participle to tell us more about God and Jesus. Short Essay My Hometown? So what Paul wants his readers to know is that Jesus is here, in his life, manifesting the power of the resurrection and it gives Paul (1) insight to be content in the face of real challenges and (2) the capacity to endure all things that come his way (Phil 3:7-11, 4:10-13). This is the grace and source of science strength for beauty of mother nature essay all those whose citizenship is in heaven (Phil 3:20). The Greek texts and apparatuses used are the thesis projects, following: (NA28) Barbara Aland, et al., eds. My Hometown? Novum Testamentum Graece , 28th ed. Science Thesis? (Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 2012); (UBS5) Barbara Aland, et al., eds. The Greek New Testament , 5th revised ed. (Germany: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 2014). Notes Essays? Bruce M. Metzger, A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament , 2 d ed. Thesis? (Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 2001), 11*; Jack P. Lewis, Questions You’ve Asked about Bible Translations (Searcy, AR: Resource Publications, 1991), 91; David Alan Black, “Textual Criticism of the New Testament,” Foundations for Biblical Interpretation , eds.

David S. Nursing Case Study? Dockery, et al. (Nashville, TN: Broadman Holman, 1994), 396-97. Sonship, Spiritual Formation, and Eschatology: A Reading of Romans 8:12-17. The initial basis for looking into Romans 8:12-17 was due to an interest in Paul’s use of “adoption” ( huiothesia ) in his Christian application of a legal technical term. Projects? Paul’s use of the term is not limited to Romans (8:15, 23; 9:4) for it is also found in the letters to the Galatian (4:5) and the Ephesian (1:5) Christians. This is the combined data of Paul’s use of the term in critical essay on utopia particular and in the New Testament in general. In Romans 8:15 Paul assures his readers that they had received “a spirit of adoption”; similarly, but with a different nuance, in Galatians 4:5 Paul writes of an “adoption” dependent upon the redemptive work of Jesus as he frees those under the law (4:4).

In Ephesians, Paul again establishes the connection between “adoption” and Jesus; specifically, the saints are to understand their “adoption” was preordained and accomplished through Jesus (1:5). However, in Romans 8:23 “adoption” is something yet to come when the body will be delivered. Science Projects? Lastly, Romans 9:4 calls attention to the fact that “adoption” is a possession of the beauty of mother essay, Israelites along with “the glory, the science thesis, covenants, the giving of the law, the worship, and the promises” (cf. Exod 4:22). It appears that “adoption” is an important term in Paul’s argumentation in Romans to explain sonship which belonged to Israel “according to critical essay the flesh” (9:5), but belongs also to “the children of the promise” (9:8). Nevertheless, the science thesis projects, limited use of huiothesia demonstrates that “adoption” has a specialized context of application and is not widely used by other New Testament authors. Although huiothesia holds a striking image which reflects the full inclusion of the Christian into the family of God with all its benefits, a reading of steve jobs about Romans 8:12-17 demonstrates that “sonship” ( huiothesia , huioi theou , tekna theou ) requires spiritual formation (8:13) with a view to a joint glorification with Jesus (8:17). There are many subordinate points to be sure; however, these three generalizations serve as a critical bridge to carry Paul’s argument further from Romans 8:1-11 to 8:18 which continues a discussion about living in thesis the spirit (contra kata sarka 8:5) and anticipating a “glory that is to be revealed to us.” These points will be borne out in the translation and reading prepared below. [12] So then, brothers, we are not debtors to the flesh (namely, to live according to the flesh). [13] For if you live according to beauty the flesh then you are destined to die, but if you put to death, by thesis the Spirit, the deeds of the master thesis song, body, then you will keep yourself alive. [14] For all who are led by science projects God’s Spirit, these are God’s sons. [15] For you have not received again a spirit of slavery towards fearfulness, but you received a spirit of adoption in which we cry out: #8220;Abba-Father!” [16] The Spirit testifies along with our spirit that we are God’s children, [17] and if we are children, then we are heirs as well on song, the one hand, God’s heirs, and on thesis projects, the other hand, joint heirs with Christ if, after all, we suffer together in steve jobs about order that we may share in science glory. Exegesis and critical essay on utopia Reading of projects Romans 8:12-17.

According to the 28th edition of the Nestle-Aland text, Paul begins this with the strengthened phrase Ara oun (“so then”), which is a combination of short my hometown two “inferential conjunctions” [1] designed to link it with the thesis, preceding rhetoric written against living kata sarka . In Romans, Ti oun (3:1, 9; 4:1; 6:1, 15; 7:7, 13; 8:31; 9:14) or oun (5:1; 6:12; 11:1, 11; 12:1) are used to string large sections of questions and rhetoric along; [2] moreover, ara appears in the letter in its basic function as an inferential particle (“So” 7:21; “therefore” 8:1). [3] Interestingly, Ara oun marks significant shifts to capture both the inference and notes on a essays the transition in the text (5:18; 7:3, 25b; 8:12; 9:16, 18; 14:12, 19). [4] Consequently, Paul is doing two things in 8:12. He is science thesis affirming an inference while transitioning his argument forward to oppose living kata sarka : “brothers, we are not debtors to on utopia the flesh (namely, to science thesis live according to the flesh)” (8:12). [5] In reading opheiletai esmen ou te sarki Paul’s main point is established; namely, “we are not debtors with reference to the flesh.” Daniel B. Wallace states that opheiletai is a verbal-noun of personal interest formed from its cognate verb opheilo (“I owe”) which requires the steve jobs about microsoft, dative to complete its thought ( te sarki ); moreover, te sarki also limits the state of the subject and verb (“we are not debtors”) which suggests this is a Dative of Reference, or Dative of Respect. [6] The next clause tou kata sarka zen is translated parenthetically because it appears best understood epexegetically. Stanley E. Porter makes two helpful points. First, Porter writes, “when an science projects infinitive is critical essay on utopia used as part of a prepositional phrase, this syntactical construction must be taken seriously.” Second, when the infinitive follows tou it may function “epexegetical or appositional.” [7] Since the infinitive draws out the meaning of “we are not debtors to with reference to the flesh,” it seems best to regard it epexegetical and thesis projects parenthetical. This is in complete accord with his argument in nature Romans 8:5-8. At this point the projects, reader is directed ( gar ) to beauty nature a series of thesis cohesive conditional statements, marked off with ei , which portray the curse of living according to the flesh (8:13a) and about steve about the blessing received when led by the Spirit of God (i.e. spiritual formation; 8:13b-15). It is thesis important to rehearse that conditional statements are two clauses which are combined to portray a contingency; they are not necessarily portrayals of reality. On A Scandal? [8] Usually, the first clause contains the contingency under consideration (protasis); meanwhile, the second clause is a statement – the portrayal – about what will happen, or not happen, should the contingent action occur (apodosis). In 8:13a, then, ei … kata sarka zete, mellete apothneskein , is a portrayal of the contingent curse upon unfaithful Christians: “if you live according to the flesh” (contingent), then “you are destined to science thesis projects die” (portrayal). There exists a cause and notes on a scandal essays effect relationship portrayed in this conditional statement: death will occur if one lives fleshly.

Wallace debates the idea of whether this should be viewed exclusively spiritual or literal. Science Thesis? Although he is probably right to lean towards a literal view, this is not a grammatical question. Nevertheless, sin is accompanied with both a physical and spiritual curse of death (Gen 3:3; Rom 5:12, 6:23). In Romans 8:13b, the text reads: ei de pneumati tas praxeis tou somatos [9] thanatoute, zesesthe . The de provides a hint that the forthcoming text is adversative but not so strong it is unrelated to the previous words. This is beauty of mother essay quite helpful, since the contingency under consideration, “if you put to death, by the Spirit, the deeds of the body,” is designed to science counter life kata sarka . The verb thanatoute (“you [pl.] put to death”) is an active verb, which is significant for an understanding of how the dative pneumati functions in the apodosis. Initially, one must consider if the Dative is of Agency or of Means. There is a key to distinguish between the two, though both, as Porter observes, “label a relationship by which (normally) a thing (and occasionally a person) brings about or enters into an action with respect to something else.” [10] The main key is found in the verb thanatoute , being a present active verb, which places the burden of the action (“I kill”) upon Paul’s readers not upon the Spirit. In order for the dative pneumati to be a “clear” grammatical demonstration of agency, Wallace states the verb must be perfect passive. [11] The protasis reads, then, “if you put to death, by means of the Spirit, the deeds of the essay my hometown, body.” As in the previous conditional statement (13a), there is no structural marker establishing the thesis, “then” clause (apodosis); however, the semantics of the thesis song, construction is obvious.

The middle verb Zesesthe completes the “if-then” clause, portraying the effect: “you will keep yourself alive.” The reader should understand there is a cause and effect relationship portrayed in science projects this conditional statement: The Christian’s life will be kept, if the Christian employs the instrumentality of the short essay my hometown, Spirit to kill off the body’s “sinful” actions. Clearly the Christian participates in their spiritual formation when they embrace the life-giving relationship of the science thesis, Spirit. Study Stroke? [12] The reader is directed ( gar ) again to a series of cohesive statements (8:14-15) which provide reassurance to Christians regarding their inclusion into the Father’s family. Verse 14 appears to be an implied conditional statement since the grammatical markers are lacking to introduce the contingent clause. [13] If this is the case, there may be an ambiguity which is at play in the text. The verse reads: hosoi gar pneumati theou agontai, houtoi huioi theou eisin (“for all who are led by God’s Spirit, these are God’s sons”). In the assumption of an implied contingency, “If you are all led by God’s Spirit,” is followed by, “then, you are God’s sons.” Or, as Wallace states the converse, “If you are the sons of God, you are led by the Spirit.” [14] In either case, what is at the core in this implied contingency is spiritual formation (as “sons of God”) not conversion. Projects? Moses E. Lard, taking eisin in notes on a a durative sense, translates and observes: “these remain sons of God. For the Apostle is not speaking of originally becoming sons, but of continuing such.” [15] The means by which this occurs is stated in science projects the present passive + Dative of Means clause, pneumati theou agontai . The agent of Christian spiritual formation is, then, God’s Spirit – not the my hometown, deeds of the body ( tas praxeis tou somatos ) or the flesh ( sarka ). In verse 15, then, Paul extends ( gar ) this argument to further intertwine spiritual formation with the science, assurance of my hometown sonship: ou gar elabete pneuma douleias palin eis phobon alla elabete pneuma huiothesias en ho kradzomen: abba ho pater (“For you have not receive again a spirit of slavery towards fearfulness, but you received a spirit of adoption in science which we cry out: Abba-Father”). In both cases of the master thesis song, aorist active elabete , the verb functions in science a culminative sense (resultative, perfective, effective aorist), which places a “slight emphasis” upon case study patient, “the conclusion or the science thesis, results of the scandal essays, completed action.” [16] Particularly is thesis projects this true with verbs having roots which “signify effort or attempt or intention or process, and it indicates the completion or attainment of such things.” [17] In the first instance, elabete is modified by the negative particle ou and the adverb palin ; whereas pneuma douleias is the condition (“benefit”) not received. [18] On the contrary ( alla ), Paul affirms the conclusive nature of what they have received: pneuma huiothesias . This is a statement regarding a status change. Christians are not merely “slaves” who had been freed from the servitude to scandal essays sin (manumission) but are huioi theou , because they have received pneuma huiothesias . There is a logical connection between pneuma huiothesias and the prepositional phrase (taking the dative) en ho and the governing dynamic of their outcry ( kradzomen ). Thesis? Does en ho suggest “within” (Locative), located “within the sphere of influence, control…” (Spherical), or is it manner or cause (Instrumental)? [19] Despite the short essay, overlap in many respects, Dative of Sphere – an extension of the Locative – retains the emphasis of the science projects, Spirit’s influence. The result is spectacular for the content of the Christian outcry is: abba ho pater . [20] This is where spiritual formation and sonship/adoption interlock; namely, in affirmation. The Christian not only beauty of mother affirms sonship, but “the Spirit himself” ( auto to science projects pneuma ) is involved in affirming the on utopia, Christian’s status before God.

Paul writes: auto to pneuma summarturei to pneumati hemon hoti esmen tekna theou (8:16). The verse emphasizes the Spirit’s identity with the thesis, predicate construction auto to pneuma (cf. Rom 8:26). [21] The Spirit is involved in essay about steve affirming “we are God’s children” ( esmen tekna theou ). Science Thesis Projects? There is no question Whom the subject of the verb is; however, there is a question regarding the relationship between the verb summarturei (“he testifies” to/for) and the dative-genitive construction to pneumati hemon (“to/for our spirit”). [22] On the beauty of mother, one hand, the Spirit’s testimony may be viewed in terms of Dative of projects Association which renders the essay my hometown, reading “the Spirit testifies alongside with our spirit”; on the other hand, maintaining the dative-genitive as the indirect object the reading is “the Spirit testifies to our spirit.” Wallace states that grammatically, Dative of Association is usually based upon projects, verbs compounded with sun but this is master thesis not an science projects exhaustive rule. The reason being, sun may also be intensive rather than associative. Wallace, following Cranfield, recoils at the notion of the associative since the Christian spirit “has no right at of mother essay all to testify” along with the science thesis projects, Spirit. [23] This is a theological exacerbation of the grammar.

Trevor Burke responds, “the compound verb… with the critical, dative expression would more naturally mean ‘bears witness with our spirit’ as two witnesses linked together indicating that we are God’s sons.” [24] It would seem consistent with the science thesis projects, movement of the overall thrust of the passage that the of mother nature essay, Spirit’s leading crescendos in a united confirmation (“The Spirit itself testifies along with our spirit”). Adoptive sonship is at science the heart of verses 16-17, so much so that Paul transitions from essay huioi theou (“God’s sons”) to tekna theou (“God’s children”) after assuring his Christian readers they have received pneuma huiothesias (“the spirit of adoption”). The transition is significant and is the basis for science the eschatological conclusion of this segment of Romans 8, picked up in master thesis verse 18. The text, structured semantically as a conditional sentence, [25] reads: ei de tekna , kai kleronomoi: kleronomoi men theou , sungkleronomoi de Christou , eiper sumpaschomen hina kai sundoxasthomen . As in verse 13b, de is science adversative but not so strong it is unrelated to the previous words. In fact, it further develops the argument from the previous verse with the conditional clause: “if we are children [ tekna ], then we are heirs as well.” The protasis is evidential not causal, and the apodosis is inferential not effectual; moreover, heirs as children is further explained: “on the one hand, God’s heirs, and on the other hand, joint heirs with Christ.” Paul concludes this pericope with an intensive form of ei ( eiper ) meaning “if indeed, if after all, since, if it is study stroke patient true that.” [26] The strength of the closing clause is in its eschatological connection. Spiritual formation through the Spirit, and adoptive sonship with its inheritance, are connected to a joint-glorification through suffering: “if after all we suffer together in order that we will share [27] in glory.” Romans 8:12-17 is thesis a tremendous contribution to the Gospel’s appropriation of essay steve about microsoft all those freed from the lordship of sin and redeemed by the blood of Jesus. Where they were once flesh led, now Christians are Spirit led. Where once they were outside of the family of God, they are made adopted sons and confirmed as children with an science thesis inheritance. On Utopia? Christians are given the resources through the Spirit to use “death” to kill the deeds of the science, body in order to have life. The Spirit provides the context for critical essay spiritual formation. Science? The model of slavery and emancipation from stroke slavery were probably very vivid the Roman Christians, but perhaps the most eye opening is thesis God taking former slaves and embracing them as members of his own household as sons and children.

This is about not a token adoption, but a full investment complete with inheritance, making the science thesis projects, Christian a joint heir with Christ in suffering and glorification. Archibald T. Robertson and W. Hersey Davis, A New Short Grammar of the Greek Testament , 10th ed. (1933; repr., Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker, 1979), 317. Essay On Utopia? Stanley E. Porter, Idioms of the Greek New Testament , 2d ed. (London: Sheffield Academic Press, 1999), 305. BDAG 103. Science Thesis Projects? BDAG 104; Robertson and Davis, New Short Grammar , 317.

Unless specified the critical essay on utopia, translation used in the body of this paper is that of the author. James A. Brooks and Carlton L. Winbery, Syntax of New Testament Greek (Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1979), 36; Harvey E. Science Projects? Dana and Julius R. Mantey, A Manual Grammar of the Greek New Testament (New York, NY: Macmillan, 1957), 85. Porter, Idioms , 198. Daniel B. Wallace, Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1996), 680-87. The Nestle-Aland textual apparatus notes the variant reading: tes sarkos . Although there is some antiquity to the variant reading, and nursing patient some linguistic consistency ( sarx ); in science thesis projects keeping with the more difficult reading which would require such a scribal adjustment, tou somatos is viewed as the best wording. Notes On A? Porter, Idioms , 99. Wallace, Greek Grammar , 163-166. Wallace concedes that a passive verb would be sufficient.

The two conditional sentences portray the outcomes of the two paths of spiritual formation. Living kata sarka leads to death, but living pneumati maintains life by killing sin at thesis its source tas praxeis tou somatos . About Steve Jobs About? This is in thesis projects keeping with Paul’s overall argument in Romans 8: “To set the essays, mind on the flesh is death, but to set the projects, mind on the Spirit is life and peace” (ESV). Wallace, Greek Grammar , 685-86. Wallace, Greek Grammar , 686. Moses E. Lard, Commentary on Romans (1875; repr., Delight, AR: Gospel Light, n.d.), 264. Brooks and Winbery, Syntax , 100.

Brooks and Winbery, Syntax , 100. Master? This is an science adamant declaration: “you are not slaves again for you have been freed from sin” (cf. Steve About Microsoft? Rom 6.17-18). Porter, Idioms , 156-58. Robertson and Davis, New Short Grammar , 215.

Robertson calls this idiomatic construction, “The Articular Nominative as Vocative”; meaning, a “vocative of address” is thesis formed in the nominative yet its case is vocative. Porter, Idioms , 120; Dana and about steve jobs about Mantey, Manual Grammar , 129 Wallace, Greek Grammar , 160 Wallace, Greek Grammar , 159 Trevor J. Burke, “Adoption and science projects the Spirit in Romans 8,” EQ 70.4 (1998): 322. Wallace, Greek Grammar , 683. My Hometown? Porter, Idioms , 209; Barclay M. Newman, Jr., A Concise Greek-English Dictionary of the New Testament (Stuttgart: German Bible Society, 1993), 53; Dana and Mantey, Manual Grammar , 262; Richard J. Thesis? Goodrich and Albert L. Lukaszewski, A Reader’s Greek New Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2003), 344. Brooks and Winbery, Syntax , 103. The grammatical reading of the my hometown, passage takes the aorist passive verb as “I am glorified with,” but the hina and the anticipation inherent in the clause would suggest the aorist is science projects functioning as a Futuristic Aorist.

Ascertaining the notes scandal, Date of Daniel: A First Look. Discussion concerning the date for the composition of Daniel is controversial. The traditional view is that it is of 6 th century B.C. origin, while the critical view argues for a late 2 nd century B.C. time frame of completion. On the surface, it seems that critical scholars have removed any thought of retaining a traditional view towards the science projects, composition of the book of Daniel. Supporters of the stroke, traditional view, however, have responded in numerous scholarly ways. Yet, it appears to be the case that the majority of biblical scholars, i.e. the critics, agree that the traditional view is saturated with egregious errors (interpretive and historical) and consequently is not a feasible alternative. Traditionalists have combated further by exploiting the weaknesses of projects critical approaches to date the critical essay on utopia, composition of Daniel.

The controversy, though, still wages and the effects of the implications of each model are felt in biblical academia. The roots of each model run deep into certain presuppositions relative to supernaturalism. While each view will be given consideration below, here it seems necessary to make mention of science this because it plays such a vital role in case study stroke patient evaluating the science thesis, available evidence. Generally speaking, the critical approach brings to the evaluation of the evidence the supposition that the production of Biblical books is solely the product of human enterprise to the exclusion of Divine guidance and revelatory intervention. This view is in practical terms, deistic. Meanwhile, traditionalists usually believe that Divine guidance and revelatory intervention coupled with the utility of man are possible and the means by which God makes his will known to humanity. Issues such as predictive prophecy and inspiration are therefore readily accepted by traditionalists, but this is denied by the critics, for they take a naturalistic (or rationalistic) approach because they view supernatural intervention as incapable of essay steve occurring. The two approaches are diametrically opposed.

Ultimately, one is thesis false and the other is the correct approach. The proposition under discussion here is that although the critical position of a late Maccabean period for the date of composition of the book of on utopia Daniel is predominately accepted by biblical scholars, the traditional position that the projects, book of critical on utopia Daniel is of an science projects early 6 th century B.C. Short My Hometown? composition is science thesis projects adequately supported by the linguistic and historical evidence. The approaches for dating the beauty of mother nature essay, composition of the book of Daniel are composed of numerous methods of argumentation, with varying degrees of complexity. In general, though, the two basic approaches can be condensed with some generalizations. The traditional approach for ascertaining the date of composition for the book of Daniel argues that the book is science a literary product of the 6 th century B.C., composed by Daniel (the book’s hero) by the inspiration and guidance of the God of study stroke patient Israel. According to this approach, the story is both a historical and a prophetic document; consequently, it is not a mythological book of imagery. The historical setting of the thesis, book and its composition, then, is in Babylonian captivity and nursing study stroke subsequently into the early years of Medo-Persian imperial rule (c.

603-536 BC). [1] This view is the earliest extant view held between Hebrew and Christian writings to date. Harold Ginsberg, who is in favor the science projects, critical approach, concedes in notes scandal the Encyclopaedia Judaica that the traditional view is the science thesis projects, earliest position concerning the date of master thesis song composition for Daniel. He writes: Both the rabbis of the Talmudic Age and the Christian Church Fathers accepted the book’s own statements that the four apocalypses of Daniel B [chapters 7-12] were written by a man named Daniel in the last years of the Babylonian Age and in the first ones of the thesis, Persian Age, […] and they did not question the historicity of essay about steve jobs about any part of Daniel A [chapters 1-6]. Thesis? [2] Even though no other position is known earlier than the critical on utopia, Hebrew tradition, it has not remained unchallenged by critical scholars. Raymond Dillard and Tremper Longman, however, observe that it was not until the 1900s that things changed, because up until the 20 th century the book of Daniel was viewed as being composed by the historical Daniel (statesman and prophet of God) who ministered prominently in the 500s B.C. and who revealed the future political progression of four kingdoms and the implementation of God’s kingdom. [3] In contradistinction to the traditional approach stands the thesis projects, critical approach for ascertaining the date for the composition of Daniel.

As the antagonist to the traditional view the critical position affirms that the book of Daniel is a rather late production by some unknown author or editor of the 2 nd century B.C. Critical scholars view the book of Daniel as a pseudepigraph (a false writing) [4] and consequently cannot have been written by Daniel nor capable to predict the future, because the critical approach does not believe that predictive prophecy can occur. Instead of relating history and future events, Daniel was written to inflame the patriotic muscles of the Israelites in order to essay confront Antiochus IV Epiphanes (a Seleucid) and his people from Syria for thesis projects Antiochus’ desecration of the temple in Jerusalem. The prophecies are said to be written “after the event” ( vaticinium ex eventu ). The earliest denial of the traditional view is found in the writings of my hometown a Neoplatonic philosopher named Porphyry. About 2 centuries after Jesus Christ had described Daniel as “the prophet” (Matt 23:15), Porphyry put his stylus to the maximum level of labor and produced a 15 volume work entitled, Against the Christians . [5] According to Jerome’s commentary on Daniel, which is the only source which reproduces Porphyry’s arguments, in his 12th volume Porphyry attacks “the prophecy of Daniel” and affirms that there are characteristics of the book which betray a late 2 nd century B.C. Thesis? period for composition. [6] Prominent critical scholar J.J. Collins observes that while Porphyry’s argument was resisted for about a millennium, modern critics from the 18 th century to today acknowledge their “validity” and his “insight.” [7] Yet those who still resist Porphyry’s work do so principally on the grounds that his reasoning is nursing case based upon the a priori supposition that predictive prophecy is impossible. [8] With these two approaches being considered, a working knowledge of both the approach to the book and the evaluation of evidence are acquired. The burden to provide adequate evidence to substantiate the claims made above falls upon the shoulders of each approach.

Majority consensus is not to be confused with absolute certainty, and the term “conservative approach” need not blind one’s eye of discernment in projects the evaluation of the data. The case must stand based upon beauty of mother essay, the evidence available and science thesis projects proper critique of what it means and substantiates. This shall presently be done. There are numerous avenues of approaches to scandal essays dating the materials in the book of Daniel. For example, the science, earliest extant tradition of the nature essay, date of composition can greatly aid in approaching the problem, however, there are more issues to deal with than just tradition. As is typical with the science thesis, critical approach, various issues are raised dealing with the history of essay both the text and its composition, linguistic analysis, theological development, and any possible discrepant exegetical material. Edwin Yamauchi has discussed some on these issues in 1980. [9] The scope of this discussion is large, so attention will be given to the issues relative to linguistics and science history. Short Essay? Linguistic analysis is a broad field of analysis that looks at the languages employed, the grammar used, the literary genre implemented to science carry out the essay on utopia, production of the document.

As in practically every book placed under the thesis projects, scalpel of criticism one of the areas of essay on utopia discussion and controversy is the literary characteristics of the given book. Daniel is no exception. Critics argue that the language and stylistic materials in Daniel betray a late date. In staunch disagreement stand scholars taking the traditional approach, asserting that the literary content of Daniel is thesis projects best explained by an early date. The last century and a half (roughly) reflect this debate. Nursing Stroke? It seems evident, however, that the growing data relative to the literary content of Daniel weighs in strongly for an early date. In 1976, Bruce K. Waltke observed: From [S.R.] Driver’s classic statement of the thesis projects, linguistic evidence in case stroke 1897 to thesis the commentary by [Norman W.] Porteous in 1965, there has been no reappraisal of the evidence by the literary critics of Daniel in spite of the increasing mass of evidence that the language of essay about microsoft Daniel can no longer be regarded as belonging to the second century B.C. [10] It is, therefore, important to analyze this line of science thesis reasoning to observe the nature of the evidence and make a conclusion as to what the details suggest in thesis order to make an educated assertion. Two major areas of contention are the mixture of Hebrew (Dan 1:1-2:4a; 8:1-12) and Aramaic (2:4b-7:28) languages in the book of Daniel and the loan words from the Persian and Greek languages.

The book of Daniel is the product of two languages; Hebrew and Aramaic. Thesis Projects? This book does not stand alone in having this admixture of languages, however, for the book of essay Ezra is of similar composition (Aramaic sections Ezra 4:8-6:18; 7:12-26). Science Thesis? [11] Critical scholars allege that the thesis, book was originally composed in Aramaic and later the present transitions (1:1-2:4a and 8:1-12) were translated into Hebrew. [12] Neil R. Science Thesis Projects? Lightfoot remarks that the Hebrew to Aramaic and Aramaic to Hebrew sections in on a scandal essays Daniel has been confirmed by the Dead Sea Scrolls (DSS). Projects? [13] While Lightfoot does not identify the specific fragments, Gerhard Hasel identifies them in his work as 1QDan a (Dan 2:2-6), 4QDan a (7:25-8:5), 4QDan b (Dan 7:26-8:1-8). [14] Overall, “we have at our disposal from the on utopia, Dead Sea scrolls parts of all chapters, except Daniel 9 and 12.” [15] This is striking information because when the scrolls were discovered one of the main questions was concerning what precise sections were preserved. Moreover, the earliest extant text before the projects, DSS was the Masoretic Text (MT c. A.D. 980), the accuracy of which was seriously challenged by critical scholars because of the great gap between the case stroke, MT and the autographs. The transitions in Daniel received equal criticism; however, there is thesis projects no reason to argue against, except if one is short essay my hometown biased toward the critical view, that the Hebrew and Aramaic sections are authentic. The authenticity of the composition of Daniel argues strongly that the book is one whole unit. [16] Critics typically argue that Daniel is the result of a long process of composition. They argue that Daniel A, that is thesis Daniel 1-6, is the first and oldest unit of the book, and Daniel B, that is Daniel 7-12, is on a principally of late authorship or redaction. [17] The critical scholar John G. Gammie has argued that there have been three stages in the growth of the book. [18] Hasel observes that the oldest scroll published before 1992 is 4QDan c dating to the late 2 nd century B.C. The manuscript evidence for Daniel is 50 years closer to the supposed Maccabean date of composition than anything extant. [19] Moreover, “there is great harmony between the science, MT and the Cave 4 finds of the book of notes Daniel” and Hasel notes 4 powerful lines of supporting material. [20] The unity and early date for the DSS is far more problematic to thesis projects the critic than the traditionalist because: Is there enough time for the supposed tradition-historical and redaction-critical developments [as mentioned above] allegedly needed for critical essay on utopia the growth of the book? […] The verdict seems negative, and an earlier date for Daniel than the second century is unavoidable. [21] The rather simple observation is that the language transitions are original and a mark of an authentic production, and consequently of an earlier date than is supposed by critics.

Yet the critic is not content with this conception; instead, it appears that the critic must contrive another hypothesis. The book of Daniel has Persian and Greek loanwords along with one Egyptian loanword. This has served as a source of contention between both approaches. The only agreement as of yet is that they exist; the science thesis projects, evidence that they provide is interpreted distinctively. Critics argue that these words reflect a late period.

In fact, it has been argued that their placement in Daniel is the result of critical essay a deliberate desire to give the impression of being really from the 6 th century B.C. but not done consistently. [22] According to S.R. Driver’s classical arguments, critics argue that Greek loanwords objectively support the case; moreover, as Peter W. Coxon argues, it is the science, “strongest evidence in favor of the second century B.C.” position. [23] Traditional scholars are not impressed with such assertions on the grounds that there is no need to limit the utility of the each respective language to the 2nd century B.C.; therefore, the argument (based upon a precise but faulty linguistic chronology) falls by the wayside as compelling “proof.” The Egyptian word is hartummin (Dan 2:10, 27; 4:4), another formation is rab hartummayya (Dan 4:6, 5:11), which is the Egyptian word for “magician.” [24] L. F. Hartman, in “The Great Tree and Nobuchodonosor’s Madness,” argues that this loanword should “strictly” only critical essay on utopia apply to “Egyptian magicians” who would are not to be found in the Babylonian court of Nebuchadnezzar. [25] In response, Yamauchi suggests two lines of evidence to demonstrate how frail the argument is. First, the Jehoiachin ration tablets illuminate the setting by noting that among other nations “Egyptians were given provision by the royal court.” Second, I. Eph’al demonstrates that there were Mesopotamian Egyptians professionally serving as lu bare (“diviners”) and science thesis projects lu hartibi (“dream interpreters”) in the 5 th and 6 th centuries B.C. Lu hartibi is a cognate of the word in case stroke patient question. Projects? While Yamauchi argues that the word does not necessarily have to master thesis song be a reference to Egyptian nationals, “the idea that there were Egyptian magicians and soothsayers in Mesopotamia is not so far fetched as Harman believes.” [26] The Persian and Greek loanwords are said, respectively, to “presuppose a period after the Persian empire had been well established” and “ demand […] a date after the conquest of Palestine by Alexander the Great (B.C.

332).” [27] Yet, Montgomery is said to thesis point out that allowance must be made for the influence of cultures to be more widespread than earlier presumed . [28] In other words, the classical linguistic argument is not as strong as it used to be. In fact, Driver’s famous linguistic conclusion abbreviated above included Aramaic that is now known to be difficult to distinguish between early and late periods. Beauty Nature Essay? [29] Nevertheless, some would still use this argument in support of a late date, but to this there is an answer. Yamauchi has completely crippled this notion by chronicling the channels of transmissions (i.e. Science Thesis Projects? musical notation, merchant exchange, and beauty of mother nature essay that of foreign captives). [30] Moreover, he has demonstrably chronicled there has been Grecian contact with Mesopotamia from even before 1000 B.C. to at least the 400s B.C., [31] and science any appearance of these Greek words “is not proof of Hellenistic date, in view of the abundant opportunities for contact between the Aegean and the Near East.” [32] The Persians words fare no better as evidence of a late date. Waltke gleans three observations from Kenneth Kitchen’s 1965 work “The Aramaic of Daniel” published in Notes on Some Problems in essay the Book of Daniel . [33] First, by way of objectivity, it must be noted that the thesis, Persian words are “old Persian words” which typically are found in the 300s B.C. Second, it is scandal essays egregious to assume that it would take an absorbent amount of time for Persian words to be borrowed into Aramaic, because if Daniel did exist he would have become acclimated to the Persian vocabulary sooner rather than later.

Third, four of nineteen Persian words the old Greek translations are mere guesswork which bears this implication: “if Daniel were wholly a product of science projects 165 B.C., then just a century or so in a continuous tradition is short surely embarrassingly inadequate as a sufficient interval for that loss (or change) of meaning to occur by Near Eastern standards.” [34] In 1976, Millard, citing this work, notes that these loanwords are “quite at home in a sixth century context” and that Kitchen’s observations “have been accepted by leading linguists.#8221; [35] Based upon the placement of Daniel among the Ketubim (Writings) of the Hebrew Bible and not among the Nebhim (Prophets), critics dismiss Daniel because it is mere wisdom literature with no true prophetic import instead it is a pseudepigraphic work utilizing vaticinium ex eventu prophecy (i.e. Projects? utterances appearing prophetic but were composed post-event). Klaus Koch notes that by study “presupposing” an early date for the completion of the canon around c.200 A.D., “scholars made the thesis projects, incorporation of Daniel among the writings a cornerstone of the on a scandal essays, so-called Maccabean Theory.” [36] First, the placement of the book does not illegitimate it from being both wisdom and prophetic. David Malick argues that Daniel is historical literature along the lines of Ezra (an accepted book by the critics) and therefore “applies because the prophetic visions are also a record (in advance) of the sovereign work of projects God in history.” [37] Second, after evaluating the positive and negative evidence of the placement of essay my hometown Daniel, Kloch argues that there is the negative evidence is inconclusive, [38] while the thesis projects, positive evidence suggests an earlier “Jewish diaspora canon” [39] and “at some point the rabbis transferred the book from the prophetic corpus to the last third of their collection of Holy Scripture. That probably happened long before the fifth century” A.D. [40] In other words, there appears to be a strong case that Daniel was initially in essay the Nebhim and was later transferred to the Ketubim , which is in total disagreement with the critical attack.

Since the historical issues is thesis directly related to short the issue of the date of composition, it is science important to evaluate the faulty view that archaeology has revealed everything relative to on utopia historical studies of the biblical narratives. It must be understood that not all of the desired archaeological data is available to the Bible student. However, what is available impressively agrees with the biblical narrative. In discussing the science, fragmentary nature of the beauty of mother, archaeological evidence, Yamauchi briefly and candidly lays out the situation. In summary, he lists 4 factors. [41] First, artifact remains (written or manufactured) are minute. Thesis Projects? Second, a small fraction of the possible sites were surveyed or excavated. Third, generally speaking only a small fraction of these sites are even excavated. Fourth, a small percentage of what has been found has been written upon, and beauty of mother essay even when they are there is typically a great delay of science thesis projects time between excavation and publication.

This is song important to recognize because it is typically the case that the critics argue that “since we do not have certain corroborative evidence for something mentioned in the textual tradition, the reference must be anachronistic.#8221; [42] For example, Daniel 5:30 mentions Belshazzar, a person whom for years was a personage relegated to myth by critics, therefore being a serious divergence in the biblical account from historical veracity. Thesis? However, as Gonzalo Baez-Carmargo writes “the problem continued until new archaeological evidence showed that the two reports [from history and the Bible] could be reconciled.” [43] It is beauty not being foolish to suggest, therefore (when there is a lack of evidence on a given point of contention) that one must wait for new evidence to arrive. Sadly, that is not what typically occurs, and instead as H. C. Leupold observes whenever the Bibles is the sole source for reporting history, the “prevailing tendency is to discredit the biblical statement” never mind that in other situations single statements from other sources are received without much alarm. Science Projects? [44] Robert A. Anderson, taking the critical approach, comments upon Daniel 1:1 and writes that #8220;reference is often made to a historical inaccuracy within these opening verses.#8221; [45] Anderson refers to the alleged contradiction between Daniel 1:1 and Jeremiah 25:1. Master Thesis? Anderson also represents the naturalistic critical mindset when he writes that #8220;historical inexactitudes are not infrequent in#8221; Daniel. First among the supposed historical blunders to be considered is the invasion into Judah by Nebuchadnezzar. Bruce K. Waltke asks the following question: How can one square the statement in Daniel 1:1 that Nebuchadnezzar in his first year as king besieged Jerusalem in the third year of Jehoiakim with the statement in Jeremiah 25:1, 9; 46:1[-2] that Nebuchadnezzar defeated Pharaoh Necho in the fourth year of Jehoiakim? [46] After all, if they cannot be harmonized then this is an occasion of projects a #8220;historical inexactitude#8221; which would underscore a purely human enterprise in the composition of essays either Daniel or Jeremiah which implicitly affirms that there was not a supernatural guidance in their production as the dogma of inspiration necessitates. Waltke suggests that the superficial discrepancy between Daniel and Jeremiah is the result of comparing the use of two distinct systems of dating, citing Edwin Thiele#8217;s work The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings . Waltke further writes: In Babylonia the year in which the king ascended the throne was designated specifically as #8220;the year of accession to the kingdom,#8221; and this was followed by the first, second, and subsequent years of rule. In Palestine, on the other hand, there was no accession year as such, so that the length of projects rule was computed differently, with the year of accession being regarded as the first year of the king#8217;s reign. [47] Likewise, based upon on a scandal essays, R. K Harrison#8217;s 1973 work on Jeremiah and Lamentations (Tyndale Old Testament commentary) Wayne Jackson notes that critics #8220;once alleged that this passage was in thesis conflict with Daniel 1:1, but archaeological discoveries have demonstrated that Jeremiah used the Jewish method of computing reigns, while Daniel employed the thesis, Babylonian system.#8221; [48] If this harmonization is correct then it becomes a line of argumentation for the early 6th century B.C. date of composition because the science thesis projects, dating is not in conflict. [49] The next issue under consideration encircles the identity of the illusive personage of song Darius the projects, Mede. Beauty Nature? Critics basically assert that “no such figure as Darius the science thesis projects, Mede is known to history,” [50] or as Frost words it, Darius the Mede “never existed.” [51] Collins argues that it is the master song, confusion by the Maccabean author for Darius I of science thesis Persia (522-486 B.C.). Essay Steve About? [52] Frost notes two options that are: this illusive one does not exist or he “is known to projects history by some other name.” [53] Frost lucidly summarizes Rowley’s work on ascertaining the on a scandal essays, Mede’s identity and notes that it could not be Astyages (too early), Cambyses (not a Mede), Gobryas (either Babylonian or Persian), nor Cyaxares (a fictional person). [54] Since no one fits that description, coupled with the science projects, discovery of two dated overlapping Babylonian tablets by two months depicting that after Nabonidus reigned, succeeded only by Belshazzar, Cyrus ruled; consequently, Frost’s either-or scenario seems to of mother nature essay imply that the illusive Mede is fictitious. However, Dillard and Longman present the work of Shea conducted from 1971-1982 which affirms that there was a unique situation in the 1 st year of the reign of science thesis projects Cyrus noting that he did not take on notes on a scandal essays, the title “king of Babylon” only until as late as the end of his 1 st year. This has led Shea to conclude that there is space to thesis projects put in a possible vassal, biblically identified as Darius the Mede. [55] Moreover, there is room for debate, however, Shea’s second option is that consistent with the Babylonian dating system, the Cambyses-Cyrus co-regency is “dated to the latter’s second year,” which is consistent with “Cambyses’ participation in the Babylonian New Year’s festival” placed at the beginning of Cyrus’ second year of reign.

This is, as Shea writes, “tantamount to designating him as king.” [56] The point is, the issue can be given a soluble response enmeshed in essays historical facts. Science Thesis Projects? This answers Frosts either-or position, leaving another possible persona Rowley’s work perhaps had not considered. The last historical evidence is the testimony of short my hometown Jesus, the founder of the Christian religion. Jesus regards exilic Daniel as a prophet (Matt 24:15), and many have seized upon this as proof that Daniel is prophetic, thereby arguing for a 6 th century B.C. date of thesis projects composition. Samuel A. Cartledge, observing this, affirms that this is not definite proof that Daniel is the author of the book which bears his name. Nature Essay? “Jesus may have known that the thesis, book was written by someone else and still have spoken of notes on a essays it in thesis projects a popular way.” [57] For Cartledge it may conceivably be this or another occasion where the Lord has limited his knowledge as in the case of the essay my hometown, time of his return. [58] However, the grammar of the passage is rather vivid. It is observed that dia with the science thesis projects, genitive (as is the essay my hometown, case in verse 15) #8220;is common for thesis the intermediate agent in contrast with#8221; hupo with genitive (“the immediate agent”) as in hupo kurioo dia too profetoo #8220;by the my hometown, Lord through the thesis projects, prophet.#8221; [59] This intermediate agency of Daniel in the predicting of the #8220;abomination of desolation#8221; (Dan 9:27; 11:31; 12:11) has made Gleason Archer observe the following: Christ was not simply referring to some book in the Old Testament named #8220;Daniel#8221; but rather to the agency of Daniel personally, since dia with the genitive always implies personal human agency [emphasis added]. If these words of Christ are reliably reported […] we can only conclude that Christ personally believed that the historic personage Daniel was the author of the book that contained this eschatological phrase. [60] It must be conceded that the context must determine that human participation is in view; however if Archer’s argument is sound in nursing study stroke general (and it appears that it is) then this is a strong case for Daniel to be regarded as a prophet.

Also, it underscores what the science, Apostle Matthew and the church under his leadership believed concerning Daniel’s prophetic office. Daniel would consequently satisfy the prophetic criteria of Deuteronomy 18:22. It seems appropriate to suggest that Cartledge assumes far too much when he provides his fanciful options. He also explains away what would be obvious to the 1st century reader of the Greek text. In brief, the major linguistic issues are not demonstrably in favor of the late 2 nd century B.C. view. Essay My Hometown? The evaluation of such data is not easy and is meticulous; however, the linguistic transitions from Hebrew to Aramaic and Aramaic to Hebrew are only separated (if taking the critical approach) from the autographs by 50 years; thus, the earliest extant testimony to their authenticity and thesis projects the early unity of Daniel.

The Egyptian, Persian, and Greek loanwords do not demonstrably prove that the essay about microsoft, composition is science of a late date. Instead, there are vast amounts of opportunities for these terms to be used throughout the captivity, exploding the small window of opportunity for usage provided by the critical position. The evidence does not prove or substantially support the critical approach, meanwhile the traditional view in light of the on a scandal, data the science, foregoing research does, however, stand in a stronger position. Likewise, the controverted historical data, while at times difficult to sort through, can be harmonized to the point that it does not contradict history. It must be recognized that everything available from archaeology is not uncovered, and that even that which is recovered is a small fraction of a bygone world.

Consequently, patience and beauty nature watchfulness must be given in affirming a conclusion based upon that evidence. Be that as it may, the historical data relative to Daniel better supports for the traditional literal approach to Daniel. The relegation of Daniel to a mere wisdom literature with no true prophetic import is fallacious at best and science thesis a biased interpretation at worst. Attacks upon the biblical account of the invasion of Jerusalem can be harmonized satisfactorily. The great difficulty of essay about steve jobs about identifying Darius the thesis, Mede is not insoluble, but critical scholars have no demonstrable right to affirm that this character must be relegated to mythology as a historical confusion. Finally, the testimony of Jesus affirms that Daniel is considered a prophet by the 1 st century Jews which, at least for the Lord, had unfinished prophecy to be fulfilled. At worst this is the testimony of a Rabbi living earlier than the Christian antagonist Porphyry and a little under two millennia earlier than the modern critics, and at master thesis best the thesis projects, testimony of the God in the flesh. One might conclude with the #8220;Danielic#8221; words “MENE, MENE, TEKEL” (Dan 5:25), but instead consider some observations by Robert D. Wilson and Harry Rimmer. Rimmer writes that a scientific approach to the Bible inquiry is to short essay adopt a hypothesis and then to test it and see if there is supportive data that establishes it.

Rimmer writes: If the hypothesis cannot be established and if the facts will not fit in with its framework, we reject that hypothesis and science thesis proceed along the line of another theory. If facts sustain the hypothesis, it then ceases to be theory and becomes an established truth. [61] Wilson makes a similar argument and ties an ethical demand to it. After ably refuting a critical argument against Daniel, Wilson remarks that when prominent critical scholars make egregious affirmations adequately shown to be so, “what dependence will you place on him when he steps beyond the bounds of knowledge into on a essays, the dim regions of conjecture and fancy?” [62] This important to consider when the science thesis, Bible is supported by beauty of mother abundant evidence of its authenticity (as is the case for Daniel), for “upon what ground of common sense or law of evidence are we to be induced to science thesis projects believe that these documents are false or forged when charges absolutely unsupported by evidence are made against them?” [63] There is no reason to. Yet many will be subdued by critical scholarship spouting that it holds the majority view of the date of composition. Nature? For those who look at the evidence, there really is no cause to accept the critical view of projects a late date of Daniel. Short Essay? J. Carl Laney, Concise Bible Atlas: a Geographical Survey of Bible History (Peabody: Hendrickson, 1998), 153. Harold Louis Ginsberg, #8220;Daniel, Book of,#8221; in Encyclopaedia Judaica (Jerusalem: Judaica, 1973), 5:1281. Raymond B. Dillard and Tremper Longman, III, An Introduction to the Old Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1994), 330.

For a strong critique see Gleason L. Archer, #8220; The Aramaic of the ‘Genesis Apocryphon’ Compared with the Aramaic of Daniel,” in New Perspectives on the Old Testament ., ed. J. Barton Payne (Waco, TX: Word, 1970), 160-69. Bruce K. Waltke, “The Date of the Book of science projects Daniel” BSac 133 (1976): 319. J. J. Collins, “Daniel, Book of,” Anchor Bible Dictionary , ed. David Noel Freedman (New York, NY: Doubleday, 1992. 29-37), 2:30. Collins, #8220;Daniel, Book of,#8221; ABD 2:30. Beauty Of Mother Essay? Waltke, #8220;The Date of the Book of projects Daniel,#8221; 319.

Edwin M. Yamauchi, “Hermeneutical Issues in the Book of Daniel,” JETS 23 (1980): 13-21. Critical? Waltke, #8220;The Date of the Book of Daniel,#8221; 322. Neil R. Lightfoot, How We Got the Bible , 2 d ed. (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 2001), 30. Robert A. Anderson, Daniel: Signs and Wonders , eds. George A. Thesis? F. Knight and Fredrick Carlson Holmgren (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1984), 13. Lightfoot, How We Got the Bible , 30. Gerhard Hasel, “New Light on short my hometown, the Book of Daniel from the Dead Sea Scrolls,” Archaeology and Biblical Research 5.2 (1992): 45-53. Thesis? Hasel, “New Light on the Book of Daniel from the Dead Sea Scrolls,” 46. On this point, see Hasel,“New Light on the Book of Daniel from the Dead Sea Scrolls,” 50. Collins, #8220;Daniel, Book of,#8221; ABD 2:31, 33.

John G. Gammie, “The Classification, Stages of Growth, and Changing Intentions in the Book of Daniel,” JBL 95.2 (1976): 196-202. Hasel, “New Light on the Book of case study stroke Daniel from the Dead Sea Scrolls,” 47. Hasel, “New Light on the Book of Daniel from the Dead Sea Scrolls,” 50. Hasel, “New Light on the Book of Daniel from the thesis projects, Dead Sea Scrolls,” 48. Gammie, “The Classification, Stages of Growth, and Changing Intentions in case the Book of Daniel,” 199. Edwin M. Yamauchi, “The Archaeological Background of Daniel.” BSac 137.545 (1980): 11. Gammie, “The Classification, Stages of Growth, and Changing Intentions in the Book of Daniel,” 199. Yamauchi, “The Archaeological Background of Daniel,” 10. Yamauchi, “The Archaeological Background of science thesis projects Daniel,” 10. Stanley B. Frost, “Daniel,” Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible , ed. Essays? George Arthur Buttrick (New York, NY: Abingdon, 1962), 1:768.

Frost, “Daniel,” IDB 1: 763. Frost, “Daniel,” IDB 1: 763. Edwin M. Science Projects? Yamauchi, “The Greek Words in Daniel in essay steve the Light of Greek Influence in the Near East,” in science thesis New Perspectives on the Old Testament , ed. J. Barton Payne (Waco, TX: Word, 1970), 176. Yamauchi, “The Greek Words in Daniel in the Light of my hometown Greek Influence in the Near East,” 177-92. Yamauchi, “The Greek Words in Daniel in the Light of Greek Influence in thesis projects the Near East,” 192. Waltke, #8220;The Date of the Book of Daniel,#8221; 323-24. Waltke, #8220;The Date of the short essay, Book of Daniel,#8221; 234. Allan R. Millard, “Daniel” in The International Bible Commentary , rev. ed., ed.

Frederick F. Science Thesis? Bruce (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1986), 848. Klaus Kloch, “Is Daniel also Among the Prophets?” Int 39 (1985): 118. Essay About About Microsoft? David Malick, “An Introduction to thesis the Book of Daniel.” . Nursing Study Patient? 2015. Kloch, “Is Daniel also Among the science projects, Prophets?,” 119-20. Kloch, “Is Daniel also Among the Prophets?,” 121.

Kloch, “Is Daniel also Among the Prophets?,” 122. Yamauchi, “The Greek Words in Daniel in the Light of Greek Influence in the Near East,” 171-74. Yamauchi, “The Greek Words in Daniel in the Light of Greek Influence in the Near East,” 170. Gonzalo Baez-Carmargo, Archaeological Commentary on the Bible , trans. American Bible Society (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1984), 180.

H. C. Leupold, Exposition of nursing case study stroke Genesis: 1-19 (repr. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1975), 365-66. Anderson, Daniel , 1. Waltke, #8220;The Date of the Book of Daniel,#8221; 325-26. Waltke, #8220;The Date of the Book of Daniel,#8221; 326. Wayne Jackson, Jeremiah and Lamentations (Stockton, CA: Courier, 1997), 61. Waltke, #8220;The Date of the Book of Daniel,#8221; 326. Collins, “Daniel, Book of,” ABD 2:30. Frost, “Daniel,” IDB 1: 765. Collins, “Daniel, Book of,” ABD 2:30.

Frost, “Daniel,” IDB 1: 765. Science? Frost, “Daniel,” IDB 1: 765. Study Stroke? Dillard and Longman, An Introduction to science thesis projects the Old Testament, 336. Dillard and Longman, An Introduction to the Old Testament , 337. Samuel A. Cartledge, A Conservative Introduction to the Old Testament (Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1944), 221. Cartledge, A Conservative Introduction to scandal the Old Testament , 221. Archibald T. Robertson and W. Hersey Davis, A New Short Grammar of the Greek Testament , 10th ed. (repr. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1979), 254. Gleason L. Thesis? Archer , New International Encyclopedia of Bible Difficulties (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1982), 284.

Harry Rimmer, Internal Evidence of Inspiration , 7 th ed. (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1946), 36. Robert D. Wilson, A Scientific Investigation of the Old Testament , rev. ed., ed. Edward J. Young (Chicago, IL: Moody, 1967), 98. Essay? Wilson, A Scientific Investigation of the Old Testament , 99. On one occasion in the ministry of our Lord, Jesus accepted a dinner invitation from a Pharisee named Simon (Luke 7:40); interestingly, a woman with a reputation for being a “sinner” had heard of science thesis Jesus’ arrival and song interrupts the dinner by cleaning his feet with her tears and hair, and anointing them with oil (Luke 7:36-38). Simon recoils at the woman’s act, and has an internal monologue which essentially questions the validity of the science thesis projects, Lord’s ministry: “If this man were a prophet, he would have known who and what sort of woman this is who is touching him, for she is a sinner” (Luke 7:39 ESV). As in other occasions, Jesus answers this unspoken criticism (Luke 7:40; cf. Matt 9:4, Mark 2:8). Essay? The Lord responds with a “parable of two debtors” (Luke 7:41-43), which has as its main thrust the point that “our sense of forgiveness will evidence itself in love and service.” [1] There are points in the narrative which suggest that the woman and the Lord had known each other previously.

The woman’s act of projects service and love (Luke 7:44-46) is a demonstration of her gratitude. This gratitude is based upon study stroke patient, the fact that her sins “are forgiven” (Luke 7:47-48). In the first instance, Jesus speaking to Simon the Pharisee states that this woman’s sins “stand forgiven” (v. 47). The phrase is one word in the original and is in the perfect passive indicative form. The verb reflects that her sins were forgiven at some point previous to science projects their encounter at Simon’s house, and remain to be so.

This would explain her great demonstration, of which Simon was critical. In the second instance, Jesus turns to the woman and speaks the exact same phrase (v. 48). This time, the Lord encourages her – your sins remain to be forgiven. The woman “stands saved” (Grk. sesoken ) because of her faith in the Lord; consequently, the Savior could send her into thesis, a life of science thesis projects “peace” (v. 50). The Lord emphasizes the abiding results of her forgiveness received prior to this dinner. Moreover, Jesus concedes the point that the woman’s life had been ravaged by sin: “her sins, which are many” (v.

47). This strikes at stroke one of Simon’s criticisms raised by the woman’s action, and Jesus demonstrates his full knowledge of the situation. He knew “what sort of woman” she was . Now, she is different; now, she is science thesis projects saved and forgiven, commissioned to live a new life embraced by the peace of God (Rom 5:1). If Service is the notes on a scandal essays, Symptom… Stay Sick. Science Thesis? It ought to nature go without saying that this encounter with our Lord is one that should pull at our heart, for we share, as Christians, the same plight as this woman. Knowing the science projects, debt of forgiveness we owe to our God, knowing that the Lord went behind enemy lines to rescue us from a calamity worse than death, we too should be of essay about steve about microsoft similar passions to science projects show our love through service. The idea of about steve jobs about microsoft service is not an abstract notion that we subscribe to, service is an expression of thesis love. It is a symptom of thesis song our love for thesis projects God. Consequently, if service is a “symptom,” then love and critical gratitude generated by salvation is the “infection.” And in science thesis projects this analogy, we would rather be sick than cured.

The Christian, therefore, should never be complacent in their service to God. Packed pews look nice, but if that is short essay my hometown all we offer to thesis projects God, we have failed. Service, as demonstrated by this woman, sacrifices time, resources, energy, and offers it to her Lord. Can we do any less? When there are cards to mail, people to visit, broken hearts to help mend, and master thesis song souls to invite to our Father’s promises in projects the Gospel, it should be done by our hands – not by on a scandal the hands of another. The most natural explanation for this behavior is our gratitude and love for science thesis our Lord.

Besides the principle emphasis from this passage that forgiveness leads to a sense of essay steve about microsoft gratitude which showcases itself in acts of love and service, there are a few other lessons which may be observed. (1) This passage highlights the divinity of Jesus, bearing witness that He has the right to forgive sin . Science Thesis? Jesus’ claims to divine authority are well documented in the New Testament, and even was a basis for the plots against his life (John 5:17-18; 7:1). In Luke, Jesus declared that the woman’s sins stand forgiven (7:47-48), and this offended the master thesis song, group of Pharisees among the dinner party. Science? They reasoned, “Who is this, who even forgives sins?” (v. 49). They understood Jesus’ claims were not idealistic (mere wishful thinking), but were literal claims to divine authority (cf. Luke 5:17-26). (2) A person’s new life may be overshadowed, for a time, by their past moral failures . We know virtually nothing about this woman only that she is labeled as “a woman of the city” (v. 37) and “a sinner” (vv.

37, 39). This is not just a note from Luke, the narrator, but this was the Simon’s understanding of scandal who this mysterious woman was. Projects? Nevertheless, critics will come and go, but the notes scandal, peace of thesis projects God lasts forever (v. On A? 50). The unrelenting critics who so often affirm, “you’ll do it again”, will be silenced and science projects shamed by service to God (1 Pet 3:13-17; 2:11-12).

We do not serve to critical essay prove others wrong, we serve to love God. The motivation behind our service must be fueled by our gratitude; as it is written: Now which of them will love him more? Simon [the Pharisee] answered, #8220;The one, I suppose, for whom he cancelled the science thesis, larger debt.#8221; And he said to him, #8220;You have judged rightly.#8221; (Luke 7:42b-43) (3) A life troubled by the ravages of essay jobs microsoft a sinful life can become a life of peace devoted to godly service to God . The change of life brought about by a new way of science projects thinking in notes scandal essays light of God’s forgiveness has the science, overwhelming power to transform a person (Acts 2:38; Rom 12:1-2). Experiencing the grace of God, understanding that we who were once dead are now made alive in Christ brings tremendous peace, for our Lord never leaves us (Heb 13:5-6; 1 John 1:7). Indeed, Paul writes, “if anyone is in Christ, he is beauty of mother a new creation. The old has passed away; behold, the thesis, new has come” (2 Cor 5:17). This new birth (John 3:4-5) brings with it the notes scandal essays, “the peace of God, which surpasses all comprehension” (Phil 4:7); moreover, this peace guards our hearts and minds. In this new life, in true appreciation of the grace of God we are qualified not only to experience a heavenly reward (Col 1:12) but are also sanctified for science thesis service (Eph 2:10; 1 Cor 6:19-20). There is no person that God cannot use in holy service, especially his children whom he has “delivered… from the thesis, domain of darkness and transferred us to the kingdom of his beloved son” (Col 1:13). I remember seeing an article entitled, “Sluggish Slumbering Saints”, and the essence of the piece was to wake up Christians and call them to their responsibilities as servants of God to serve their Lord (Rom 6:16-18). Indeed, perhaps one of the more critical questions we must ask is this: if the lack of science service is the symptom, then what is the notes on a essays, infection?

The sad answer is: lack of love and ingratitude for all of God’s demonstrations of thesis projects love . This spiritual malignancy will only go into remission once we see afresh the short, great debt we owe our Lord. Should it be that a renewal of this kind is needed in the Christian’s life, then we are to seek Him in repentance and faith knowing that He will receive us and reward us (Heb 11:6; Acts 8:22). You can be a servant like this wonderful woman, who despite her sin-filled past has been immortalized in the pages of God’s book for posterity so that all may see their own story of salvation and love, and be moved to faithfully serve Him from whom all blessings flow. Science? Wayne Jackson, The Parables in on a scandal essays Profile: Exegetical Outlines of the Parables of Christ , rev. ed. (Stockton, CA: Christian Courier Publications, 1998), 70. A Matter of science Public Record (1 Tim 3:7) Moreover, he [the guardian/overseer (3:1)] must be well thought of by outsiders, so that he may not fall into disgrace, into a snare of the devil. (1 Timothy 3:7 ESV) One of the qualifications for notes on a scandal essays the “guardians” (overseers) in Ephesus listed above concerns the Christian man’s reputation among non-Christians. In 1 Tim 3:7, the church is science projects called to about jobs about evaluate this testimony as a preventive measure in thesis projects the selection process of a “guardian.” It has been asked, “what will happen to a leader who is not so regarded by those outside the church”? [1] The answer is about about clear: it becomes a trap set by the Devil to science bring about disgrace in the church. The man’s public record must weigh in as to thesis whether or not he should have the responsibility of a guardian. Let us explore this verse in science thesis projects some greater detail by looking at three aspects of the text. Thesis Song? After exploring thirteen qualifications designed to add details to the broad concept of projects being “above reproach” (1 Tim 3:2), the final detail is the beauty of mother essay, measure of his character as reflected by thesis “outsiders.” The nature of his public record must be “morally excellent.” The ESV has “well thought of,” but the text literally reads, “have a good testimony.” It covers the positive moral ideas of good, noble, praiseworthy, a quality that is “favorably valued.” [2] His character and standing in the community (3:7) must be equal to the “good work” as a guardian (3:2). The “source” of information which is supposed to help the church examine a “guardian’s” candidacy comes from non-Christians (literally, “from those on the outside”).

At first glance, this may appear to be strange. Why would public opinion matter when addressing the leadership role of nursing stroke a church “guardian”? The short answer is science thesis his public reputation either brings glory to God or it brings disgrace to His Kingdom. This qualification of the quality of an overseer#8217;s reputation must not be ignored. The middle of the beauty of mother nature essay, verse reads, “so that he may not fall into disgrace, into a snare of the science thesis, devil.” The emphasis is placed upon protecting the church from those who have a bad reputation in the community; such a scenario would play “into the devil’s trap.” Are there any longstanding frictions with the community which are detrimental not only to the guardian’s service but also to the mission of the church? Is he “known” for having improper relationships, or do rumors circulate about about jobs him which would be reproachable to science thesis projects him?

These questions must be asked and answered. However, despite the importance of public record, the stroke, community is not the final say. It is an important part of the appraisal process designed to prevent disgraceful men from entering the eldership. Projects? It is short essay much easier to get a man in, than it is to get an unqualified elder out. (3) The Ever Present Danger of the Devil. There are no sinless guardians; however, pretense and hypocrisy are subject to slander and thesis accusations. Such is the main objectives of “the Slanderer” (i.e., the Devil). Short? The man’s public record should not be a prized trophy captured by the Devil (i.e., the implied hunter#8217;s snare). Consequently, “Christian men who bring widespread scandal upon thesis, the church of God have a heavy burden to bear.” [3] If one#8217;s character is something which has been built brick by brick, then so is one’s reputation. Good character does not have to be perfect, but according to this verse, one#8217;s reputation does need to be well thought of. This, then, is not a role where one develops their good reputation; quite to the contrary, the role is for the person who already possesses an excellent reputation.

Contextually, further, they must already possess such a reputation from the community. One#8217;s public record is a general guide to anticipating the trajectory of a person#8217;s character: where does it point toward? We must allow for imperfect people having imperfect records; furthermore, not all concerns are of the critical on utopia, same weight and worth. Nevertheless, if there is no longstanding trajectory towards godliness in projects non-Christian circles then it is adequately apparent such a prospect cannot serve in such an iconic and spiritual role as shepherd, elder, and thesis song overseer in the church of God, which is projects God#8217;s house (1 Tim 3:15). Essay About Steve Jobs About Microsoft? I was recently told of a congregation that was in the process of selecting new elders. In keeping with the tenor of this character requirement, the congregation placed a notice in a local newspaper seeking public input as to the character and public record of the proposed elders. I am unaware of the outcome, but their action is powerful as it upholds the importance placed upon an elder#8217;s public record. George W. Knight, III, The Pastoral Epistles (1992; repr., Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2013), 165.

Bauer, Walter, Frederick W. Danker, W. F. Arndt, and F. Thesis? W. Gingrich, eds. A Greek-English Lexicon of the nature essay, New Testament and projects Other Early Christian Literature , 3rd ed. (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2000), BDAG 504; Johannes P. Master? Louw and Eugene A. Nida, Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament Based on Semantic Domains , 2d ed. (New York, NY: United Bible Society, 1989), LN 88.4. Wayne Jackson, Before I Die: Paul’s Letters to Timothy and thesis projects Titus (Stockton, CA: Christian Courier Publications, 2007), 94. Three Blessings for Every Christian (Eph 1:4-5, 13-14) Much of the New Testament speaks to the blessings of God’s divine goodness and mercy. When God is in covenant He blesses those who are His in a uniquely different fashion. Instead of the everyday blessing such as are fitting in His providential care of all humanity (Matt 5:44-45), to those who are His through Christ there are extended “every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ” (Eph 1:3). Let us consider some of these particular blessings as developed in the Ephesian letter which are uniquely given to the Christian. In Ephesians 1:4, Paul describes that kind of people that God chose to be his, those who would be “in him” (i.e., in Christ). As a consequence of being united with Christ, we experience the working of God to master be made “holy and without blemish.” These two terms showcase an important implication of thesis projects union with Christ: in coming in contact with the redemptive Christ, His holiness and purity has been transferred to us. This may seem to be a difficult concept to accept, but there is biblical precedent. In Exodus 29:37 the statement is made that “whatever touches the jobs about, altar shall become holy” (Lev 6:18).

This is in keeping with atonement. In the science projects, New Testament, Jesus is study stroke patient referred to as the “propitiation for our sins” (1 John 2:2), which reflects the fact that Jesus “is the personal means by thesis whom God shows mercy to about about microsoft the sinner.” [1] Union with Christ, and his holiness, implies that we have been identified with a righteousness that is not our own (Phil 3:8-9). In Ephesians 1:5, the apostle continues to enumerate another blessing which comes from union with Christ (i.e., “in Christ”). Paul declares God intended that through Christ the science, Christian has been included into the “family” of critical essay God.

Adoption implies a change of relationship; in fact, “sonship” is extended and forged in Christ. The apostle uses this language in critical moments to establish the science projects, intimate union with the Heavenly Father through Christ. In Galatians 4:5-6, he speaks of redemption. This is not simply a matter of emancipation, it is the critical essay on utopia, act to incorporate an outsider and make them an intimate member of the family with all the rights with which such an thesis projects effort comes. As a result of being integrated into the family of God, fear of spiritual slavery is removed by critical essay “the spirit of adoption as sons, by whom we cry, ‘Abba! Father!’” (ESV). Christians have membership in science thesis projects the family of God. The Blessing of short Being Sealed with the Holy Spirit. In Ephesians 1:13-14, the Apostle stresses the blessing of science thesis projects God’s faithfulness by using the essays, language of “seals” and science projects “pledges” used to mark that Christians are His. The words of a Stevie Wonder song, “signed, sealed, delivered, I’m yours” would be right in keeping with the words of these verses.

Much discussion has been brought to on utopia the nature of the thesis projects, Holy Spirit as this seal and pledge, but it seems that the best way to appreciate the language is in the following view: The Holy Spirit is beauty of mother metaphorically the anointing (1 John 2:26f.), the sealing, and the first installment of science thesis projects eternal life. Full payment is of mother nature made in the resurrection of life and consummated at the” coming of Christ. [2] God dwells with the Christian, and this is an exclusive blessing which demonstrates the Lord’s faithfulness. This blessing was extended to us in science thesis projects order to stress that we are under the Lord’s protection. [3] Forgiveness is a vast subject and is the result of the atonement made on behalf of sin. The Bible develops a rich concept of all that is needed to experience forgiveness, and it also outlines tremendous blessings. And while we have not exhaustively considered the subject of forgiveness, enough of the concept has been surveyed to master thesis appreciate the projects, blessing forgiveness actually is and short my hometown the blessings which are available to the Christian. Consecration, “sonship,#8221; and thesis projects the faithfulness of God’s provision to keep us in His care are all tremendous blessings owing to our union with Christ. They should make any curious soul searching for God, move towards union with His Son in immersion so that they may realize “every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ” (Eph 1:3). Essay My Hometown? William E. Vine, et al., Vine’s Complete Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words (Nashville, TN: Nelson, 1986), 2:494. George Goldman, “The Spirit Within: A Seal and Guarantee – Ephesians 1.13-14; 3.16,? Exalting Christ in projects the Church: Unsearchable Riches in Ephesians and Colossians , ed.

David L. Lipe (Henderson, TN: Freed-Hardeman University, 2002), 129. Bruce Morton, Deceiving Winds: Christians Navigating the notes essays, Storm of Mysticism, Leadership Struggles and Sensational Worship (Nashville, TN: 21st Century Christian, 2009), 22. Morton has an science excellent discussion on this section of Paul’s letter to the Ephesians, explaining rather well the background of the seal common to critical essay this part of the ancient world (21-25). In the Beginning was the thesis, Word (John 1:1) It is a staggering idea to contemplate God choosing self-sacrifice in nursing case order to create the opportunity for reconciliation between Himself and his rebellious creation. Projects? In fact, Paul would word the matter in beauty of mother nature essay the following way: “God was reconciling the world to himself, not counting their trespasses against them” (2 Cor 5:19).

The agent through whom this is accomplished is Jesus Christ in His death so that we (humanity “us”) may potentially experience the reconciliation of God (2 Cor 5:14-21). The Gospel of John provides a fuller detail as to how God was reconciling the world to himself. The record of John is, however, unlike Matthew’s Gospel which begins with the Hebrew genealogical table which emphasizes the science projects, Lord’s lineage from David and Abraham (Matt 1:1-17). It is unlike Mark’s abrupt mention of short essay my hometown “the beginning” of the gospel, which is marked by Jesus’ ministry inaugurated by the baptism by science projects John (Mark 1:1-14). It is on a even unlike Luke’s historically grounded retelling, beginning from Jesus’ birth announcements to science thesis the unfolding of the universal gospel call as seen in Luke’s second volume Acts (Luke 1:1-4; Acts 1:1-9). John begins the my hometown, narration of his Gospel Account from the very beginning. In this way John stands upon unique footing. Science? Although not being distinct in its message and general outline, John’s Gospel Account is a maverick of sorts, focusing upon the cosmic drama mentioned above which grounds the gospel message. To provide his readers the needed perspective in order to of mother essay appreciate all that proceeds, John pens the first line of his account with the following words: In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and science the Word was God.

He was in the beginning with God. Nursing Study? All things were made through him, and without him was not any thing made that was made. (John 1:1-3 ESV) [1] This eternal “Word” is explicitly identified as the Father’s son – Jesus – who indeed “became flesh and dwelt among us” (1:14). Science Projects? John further affirms, “and we have seen his glory, glory as of the only Son from the Father, full of grace and truth” (1:14; As an essay important side note stands the fact that the term “Father” is used approximately 107 times as the name for “God” in John’s Gospel). This is a profound truth regarding Jesus’ nature and science projects ought to inform our understanding of the Gospel message as well. Let us consider a few ideas from John 1:1, as expressed in three clauses: (a) “In the beginning was the Word,” (b) “the Word was with God,” and (c) “the Word was God.” The rich language of the first verse of essay John’s Gospel conveys the divine nature of “the Word” (Grk. logos ), who in fact is the pre-incarnate Jesus (i.e. before he put on his human identity).

Many times the “beginnings” of Jesus of Nazareth are only considered from the standpoint of science thesis his birth and baptism; however, the implications of John 1:1 demonstrate that His beginnings are from eternity (Micah 5.2). As Jack Cottrell succinctly writes: Each of these clauses affirms the about steve jobs microsoft, divine nature of the Logos. The first asserts his eternity, since he was already there when everything else had its beginning (see vv. 2-3). Thesis? The second asserts his eternal coordination with God. He is critical on utopia distinguished from God, yet placed alongside God.

The third clause declares his identity or equality with God. [2] In order to truly appreciate the gospel proclamation, it is a vital matter to understand that Jesus had an science thesis projects existence before he walked the rocky soil of Palestine in case patient the 1st Century A.D. In fact, Jesus was/is an eternal divine being, namely God. For this reason, the science projects, Gospel of John continuously makes reference to Jesus’ divine nature (5:16-17, 25-27, 6:41, 8:58), Jesus’ claims to divine authority and commission (2:16, 4:34), plus the difficulty held by those who heard Jesus make these claims (5:18, 6:42), and the rejection experienced because of this inability to accept both the human nature of Jesus and his claims to #8220;God-hood#8221; (2:16, 8:59). Notes On A Scandal Essays? Nevertheless, it is clear from the very beginning of the Gospel of John, that his inspired Apostles believed and taught that Jesus was/is an eternal being who predates time and our universe, and has entered into His creation (John 1:2-3, 17:5). It is thesis projects a tragedy that there are groups which claim allegiance to Jesus and yet they deny the biblical doctrine of the eternal deity of Christ.

One such group, the Jehovah Witnesses, offer the translation for John 1:1 in the following way: In [the] beginning the Word was, and the Word was the God, and the Word was a god. Steve About Microsoft? (brackets original) [3] In the footnote to this passage, they refer to Appendix 6A which sets forth their justification for the translation “the Word was a god.” The essential thrust of the thesis, argument is, according to them, a grammatical one. It is here, however, that the theological bias of the Watchtower New World Translation is evident. They argue that in New Testament Greek ( koine ) a noun with the article “points to an identity, a personality”, but a predicate noun without the essay on utopia, article “preceding the verb points to a quality about thesis someone.” [4] Accordingly, it is argued that “it does not identify him [Jesus] as one and essay the same as God himself.” The Watchtower followers are determined to maintain the science thesis projects, “oneness” of God as is master traditionally understood as monotheism (Deut 6:4-5); however, they affirm the “oneness” of Jehovah at the expense of robbing Jesus of His eternal divine nature – His #8220;God-hood.#8221; They go so far as to affirm that the Word (Jesus) is a creation of God: “The Word’s preeminent position among God’s creatures as the Firstborn, the one through whom God created all things.” [5] This is but a primer of their teaching on projects, Jesus. While an exhaustive response cannot be given here, the following two responses are enlisted which demonstrate the weakness – even blasphemy – of the Watchtower “reasoning”. First , the “no-article-a-god” argument based upon grammar is faulty at best, if not theologically biased at worst. As Frank Pack writes, when John writes “the Word was God” he is steve microsoft expressing “the quality or nature” of the Word/Logos. [6] John was not affirming that Jesus is the same person as the science, Father (“the Word was with God”), but that the essay about jobs about microsoft, Word was distinct in person, and yet shares the thesis, same Divine nature (Grk. theos ; cf. John 20:28; Phil 2:5-8). Second , the Gospel of John explicitly sets the “Word” as the agent through which “all things were made” (1:3). In fact, the Watchtower’s New World Translation words the critical, last clause of verse 3 this way: “and apart from science thesis him not even one thing came into existence.” It ought to go without saying that Jesus did not self-create himself.

Moreover, John expands our understanding of the about steve jobs, creation story and is purposeful in echoing Genesis 1:1, “In the beginning, God created the science, heavens and the earth” (ESV). It is God (Heb. ’elohim ) who said, “Let us make man in our image, after our likeness” (Gen 1:26). Denying John’s placement of Jesus in eternity and at the beginning is a tragic failure to accept basic bible teaching. John 1:1 is a powerful passage serving as a gateway to understanding Jesus and the gospel story. Of Mother Nature? The Eternal Divine Agent of creation (John 1:1-3) put upon himself the nature of “flesh” (1:14) and became “the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world!” (1:30). May we, unlike those who deny the Lord’s deity, respond to Jesus as Thomas did and herald Him as our Lord and our God (John 20:28). Unless otherwise noted the translation employed is the English Standard Version (ESV) of the projects, The Holy Bible (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2001). Jack Cottrell, The Faith Once for All (Joplin, MO: College Press, 2002), 236. (NWT) New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures with References , rev. Short Essay My Hometown? ed. (Brooklyn, NY: Watchtower Bible and Tract Society of New York, 1984) . Recently , the science thesis, 2013 revision of the Watchtower#8217;s New World Translation still maintains the following rendition of verse 1: #8220; In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was a god.#8221; The editors have removed the brackets; however, the online edition the footnote (*) on #8220;was a god#8221; reads: #8220;Or #8216;was divine.'#8221; This is nursing patient not a shift in their Christology, but it is a better translation than #8220;a god#8221;; furthermore, it is a step in the right direction by deriving understanding of Jesus based upon the language of the thesis projects, text first. “Appendix 6A,” NWT , 1579. The pages for these notes have been reproduced here for those wishing to notes on a see the actual Watchtower source. Aid to Bible Understanding , 919. Frank Pack, Gospel of John 1:29; cf.

Dana and Mantey, Manual Grammar of the Greek New Testament , 139-40. This is a reformatted and slightly expanded version of the science, article which originally published in The Glendale Gleaner (Newbern, TN: Glendale church of notes scandal Christ). Learn more and preach better one word at a time. Error: Twitter did not respond. Please wait a few minutes and refresh this page.

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Ecological Problems Of Kazakhstan Essays and science thesis projects, Research Papers. Ecological Problems Chapter 1 Ecology is a very popular word today. But what does it mean? Ecology is a since which studies the . relationship between all forms of life on our planet and the environment. This word came from Greek “oikos” which means home. The idea of home includes our whole planet, its population, Nature, animals, birds, fish, insets and all other living beings and even the atmosphere around our planet. Since ancient times Nature has served Man giving everything he needs: air. Atmosphere , Carbon dioxide , Climate change 1927 Words | 5 Pages. Kazakhstan Kazakhstan , a country in Central Asia (south of Russia and thesis, northwest of China), home of the science projects, Kazakhstanis, is a . largely populated country with a rich history that has begun to decline because of contamination by infections and critical essay, disease during the shrinking of the Aral Sea and nuclear contamination, which has led to numerous diseases.

They are home to science projects, a very famous rocket launch site and it has a rich cultural and my hometown, religious diversity amongst its people. The Kazakh people are more than. Aral Sea , Caspian Sea , Central Asia 2078 Words | 6 Pages. Tuberculosis in Kazakhstan Nowadays in our country tuberculosis became one of the most widespread diseases. . Tuberculosis belongs to group of socially significant diseases and it is the thesis projects, important medico-social problem , causing considerable material loss because of disability and premature death of the most productive population. Deterioration of an ecological situation, migratory processes, and master thesis song, decrease in a standard of living of the population, insufficient financing of. Commonwealth of Independent States , Epidemiology , Health care 902 Words | 3 Pages.

?Solutions to science, ecological problems Ecology is song, a very important and urgent issue today. This word means the relation of science, plants . and living creatures to each other and to their environment. Short? Nowadays, this relation is damaged. Our environment suffers from ecological problems ,such as: air and water pollution, rainforest destruction, extinction of plants and animals.If there is a problem – there should be some solutions as well. To begin with, one of the biggest ecological problem is water pollution. Air pollution , Ecology , Environment 1059 Words | 2 Pages.

? Kazakhstan Kazakhstan is a vast, sparsely populated area (more than twice the size of Texas) with huge deposits of science thesis, oil, natural . gas, gold, copper, uranium and many other minerals. The Kazakhs were the beauty of mother nature essay, ?rst of all the Central Asian Muslims to acquire a national, purely Kazakh consciousness in the middle of the nineteenth century. Thus, they have a strong national consciousness, which is a result of science thesis projects, several factors: pride and a feeling of superiority over the sedentary groups on the part of the nomads;. Central Asia , Kazakh language , Kazakhs 1290 Words | 4 Pages. Kazakhstan Kazakhstan is located in Central Asia and Eastern Europe. With an essay my hometown area of about 2,717,300 square kilometers, . Kazakhstan is more than twice the combined size of the other four Central Asian states, or about twice the size of Alaska. The country borders Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Kyrgyzstan to the south; Russia to the north; Russia and the Caspian Sea to the west; and China's Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region to the east. Science Thesis Projects? Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan is master, a small, mountainous, landlocked country. Aral Sea , Azerbaijan , Caspian Sea 839 Words | 3 Pages.

Ecological Crisis Caused by thesis, Overconsumption and Environmental Problems. Ecological Crisis Caused by Overconsumption and master song, Environmental Problems Ecological Crisis Caused by . Overconsumption and Environmental Problems Table of contents Introduction 1 Main body 1 Environmental Problems in Rachel Carson’s Article 1 Overconsumption in David Suzuki’s Article 2 Solutions of the thesis projects, Problems 4 Conclusion 5 References 6 Introduction In this essay, the author will discuss on of mother nature essay, the theme of thesis, ecological crisis caused by over consumption. Air pollution , DDT , Environmental movement 1235 Words | 5 Pages. our lessons we amused about Earth, environment and essay, many environmental problems ( global warming, ozone houl, waste production, etc. Thesis? ). . Nevertheless some of big environmental problems we are omited. I would like describe this phenomenons in this work. First problem is notes on a essays, deforestation of Amazon rainforest and second is poluting of science projects, seas and oceans.

At the end of this work I would like write somethink about my hometown, The Czech Republic and problems what we have here. AMAZON FOREST This forest is very importatnt. Amazon Rainforest , Amazon River , Brazil 496 Words | 2 Pages. I. Introduction General information about the problem (survey results) In 1920-1990s, during decades of science thesis projects, Soviet cultural and political . domination, almost all people in the Republic had to speak Russian whether they are Russians or not. It wasn’t forbidden to of mother, speak Kazakh, but if people did not know Russian language well, they would not succeed and projects, couldn’t get good paid jobs; they belonged to steve about, uneducated and to a lower social class. Since that time, most families sent their children to Russian schools.

Central Asia , Kazakhstan , Russia 831 Words | 3 Pages. Water resources of Kazakhstan Written by: Muhtarhanova Aidana (accounting and audit) English group ?Water is the pivot of life on Earth. . There is no substance that can substitute for it. Although over ?70% of the projects, earth is covered with water, fresh water accounts for only 1% of water resources on the planet. Case Study Patient? ?The world’s population and production volume grow every year, and so, irrevocably, does water ?consumption, giving a particular edge to the worldwide water supply problem . ?Water deficit has. Central Asia , Hydrology , Millennium Development Goals 582 Words | 12 Pages. Oil and Gas Problems in Kazakhstan. Kazakhstan's Oil Supply Chain Management Challenges Kazakhstan is thesis projects, endowed with rich oil reserves, which provide an important source of . revenues for short essay, stable economic growth and science thesis, improvement of the country's living standard. This paper addresses the challenge the Republic of short, Kazakhstan faces in science projects managing its oil supply chain. The country's capacity for refining crude oil is critical, minimal and a substantial portion of that refining capacity is outside the Republic; added to that, most of the pipelines and refineries. Caspian Sea , Kazakhstan , Natural gas 3620 Words | 12 Pages. countries by ecological footprint. This table is based on 2007 data from the Global Footprint Network published in 2010.

Data is given as . global hectares per science projects capita. Essay About? The world-average ecological footprint in 2007 was 2.7 global hectares per person (18.0 billion in total). Science Thesis Projects? With a world-average biocapacity of my hometown, 1.8 global hectares per person (12 billion in total), this leads to an ecological deficit of 0.9 global hectares per person (6 billion in total). Science Thesis? If a country does not have enough ecological resources. Democratic Republic of the Congo , Ecological footprint , Ecology 1612 Words | 5 Pages. studying at university everything seemed so easy: “Graduate, find a good job, become rich”. However, in scandal reality, getting a job came out to science, be not as easy as . he expected. Of Mother? Youth unemployment is one of the problems in the world nowadays. The percentage of unemployed young people in thesis Kazakhstan is master song, equal to science projects, 28.6% (“ ”, 2006). This means that the big portion of youth cannot find proper jobs. Essay About Steve Jobs About? It is a recognized fact that unemployment is thesis, one of the dynamics through which.

Economy of Kazakhstan , Federal government of the United States , Government 1050 Words | 3 Pages. Theory Overview Santucee Bell Case Western Reserve University Theory Overview Ecological Systems Theory Introduction Just like most . professions, Social Work is a profession that relies heavenly on theory to determine what approach to nature, take when working to achieve specific goals. One of the most challenging roles of a social worker is learning how to determine what theory to apply when dealing with certain aspects of the profession. Science? This is especially true when it comes to understanding. Human , Natural environment , Science 935 Words | 3 Pages. the ending of 20 century many government objects, manufactures and notes on a scandal, public sectors in Kazakhstan are begun to thesis, privatize. Privatization means the . changing property from public to private.

Of course, privatization is concerned education system too. Government is interested in well-educated population, because it is one of the beauty essay, main factors that create economy development country. Education in Kazakhstan has some problems such as quality of education children received in science schools, colleges and universities. Education , Education in the United States , Independent school 1056 Words | 3 Pages. History of Kazakhstan Important milestones in notes essays the history of Kazakhstan An old coin. Kazakhstan history . Kazakhstan has a long and fascinating history, going back thousands of science thesis, years. Some remnants are still visible today such as Great Silk Road monuments, petroglyphs and sometimes even mysterious archaeological sites. The Amazons might have originated from Kazakhstan , the essay, first steppe nomads are supposed to have emerged from here and it is very likely that Genghis Khan was buried in Eastern Kazakhstan. Bronze Age , Central Asia , History of Kazakhstan 1384 Words | 5 Pages. interconnected in them as they development into adulthood. If you put good in, good will come out, as the old saying goes. . The ecological model formulated by Bronfenbrenner suggests that personal human development transpires surrounded by the interrelated and entrenched ecological systems (McWhirter, 2013).

This ecological model aids individuals in projects comprehending the influence of way of life, political affairs, personal interactions, social relations and life events has on. Adolescence , Education , Life 1032 Words | 6 Pages. ?Republic of Kazakhstan , which is situated in central Asia, has the population of 15,186,000 people and territory 2,719,500 sq. km,. The . country is bordered by Siberian Russia in the north, China in the east, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan in the south, and microsoft, the Caspian Sea and European Russia in thesis projects the west. Astana is the capital and on utopia, Almaty (Alma-Ata) is known as the science, largest city of the Kazakhstan . Furthermore, Kazakhstan consists of a vast flatland, bordered by a high mountain belt in. Aral Sea , Caspian Sea , Central Asia 690 Words | 3 Pages.

available and fast, friendly service. This first store is being used to test the layout and operating procedures for a large chain of superstores that Sue . expects to build. The first store has been open for six months, and Sue is still having a problem staffing the checkout counters during peak times, which occur from 2 PM to 10 PM. Master Thesis? She has received many customer complaints about the long lines in front of the checkout counters. She has 20 checkouts that she can use, but has not been able to develop. 1848 Words | 6 Pages. the article “ Ecological Literacy: Education and the Transition to a Postmodern World,” David Orr (1992) presents his argument about the lack of . Science? emphasis on ecological literacy by our education system and how this discrepancy can be bad for society as a whole. Orr (1992) precedes his argument with an explanation of ecological literacy, and its importance in critical essay on utopia the lives of all people. He claims that just as regular literacy and mathematical skills are vital to science projects, everyday life, so is ecological literacy, the.

Earth , Ecology , Education 1277 Words | 4 Pages. Implementation of E-commerce Assignment # 1 12/26/2012 Anum javaid BDDS-III Essay: Problems Regarding Implementation of thesis song, E commerce in . Pakistan The buying and selling of products and services by businesses and consumers through an electronic medium, without using any paper documents. E-commerce is widely considered the buying and selling of products over science thesis, the internet, but any transaction that is completed solely through electronic measures can be considered e-commerce. E-commerce is subdivided. Business process , Business process modeling , Business-to-business 1984 Words | 6 Pages. Reduce your Ecological Footprint Essay You may not realize it, but having a large ecological footprint can cause a vast effect . on our earth. We may not see an immediate affect but slowly we are becoming the big reason for the earth’s loss of case study stroke patient, natural resources. Science Thesis Projects? The ecological footprint measures human impact on the earth. The ecological footprint calculates how much land and study stroke patient, water area we use. This includes the science projects, areas for producing the resources we consume, the space for our buildings and roads, and.

Carbon dioxide , Eating , Ecological footprint 1275 Words | 3 Pages. E-Health and M-Health in Kazakhstan. Faculty of Information Technology Department of Computer Engineering Researching analysis report E-health and m-health in Kazakhstan . Prepared by: Duisenbayeva Assemgul Baimuhanova Moldir Abisheva Aizhan Satybaldy Aidyn Almaty 2013 Table of contents Executive Summary. Beauty? 3 Study Objectives. 4 Methodology. EHealth , Health , Health care 1579 Words | 6 Pages. 84134750 Bronfenbrenner Ecological Theory.

Bronfenbrenner Ecological Theory Yukti Ahuja Introduction One of the projects, well known scholars in the field of developmental psychology, Urie . Bronfenbrenner has been the primary contributor to the ecological systems theory. The ecological theory defines four types of systems which contain roles, norms and rules that shape development. The systems include a microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, and macrosystem. The microsystem is the family, classroom, or systems in the immediate environment in which. Childhood , Developmental psychology , Ecological Systems Theory 2027 Words | 9 Pages. Ecological niche From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Black smokers create ecological niches with . their unusual environment In ecology, a niche (CanE, UK /?ni??/ or US /?n?t?/)[1] is critical on utopia, a term describing the way of life of a species. Each species is thought to thesis, have a separate, unique niche.

The ecological niche describes how an on utopia organism or population responds to the distribution of resources and competitors (e.g., by growing when resources are abundant, and science thesis, when predators. Adaptation , Charles Sutherland Elton , Ecological niche 1283 Words | 4 Pages. Emerging Ecological Crisis in Nagaland. INTRODUCTION Ecological crisis are indeed a true crisis of . humanity. Whenever man tried to progress and advance further, crisis inevitably took place. It has been seen that man always had to pay very dearly when he make some progress. About? When the Industrial revolution hit Europe in the 19th century, the science thesis, world hailed the advent of the glorious new age.

It was a brave new world-a world of steam engines and motor cars. Short My Hometown? Then came. Biodiversity , Climate , Climate change 2363 Words | 7 Pages. The Ecological footprint is a method to compute the support to human life from nature and thesis projects, calculate the effect of human on natural environment . such as use of resources, the critical essay on utopia, consequence of the resource use and balance the demand of resources and supply from the nature (Global Footprint Network, 2012). Projects? In the 21st century, there is the increasing trend of population cause the growing demand of resource. Therefore, sustainable resource use is becoming crucial for people who are living currently and. Australia , Carrying capacity , Demographic economics 666 Words | 3 Pages. Culture of Kazakhstan Heart, imagination and nursing case, intellect - this is the environment of emerging that we call culture. . Paustovsky K.G. Science Projects? As far as I am concerned, today, the culture of Kazakhstan represents a complex of aesthetic values of the nursing study stroke, Kazakh people, conveyed in original and science thesis, different spiritual and material forms. As a result of short, its nature, the culture provides. Central Asia , Kazakh language , Kazakhs 685 Words | 3 Pages.

the earth.” These intelligent words said by Henry David Thoreau are extremely relevant today when we consider our current environmental state. Unless we . take the time to better protect our environment, global warming will take over science, and cause our ecological situation to worsen by killing off our own species’, by human error destroying habitats, and by disease eventually spreading and killing off organisms that are no longer strong enough to fight it. Polar bears are among the steve jobs about microsoft, most beloved animals. Arctic , Climate change , Earth 1058 Words | 3 Pages. Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Theory of Development. BRONFENBRENNER'S ECOLOGICAL THEORY OF DEVELOPMENT Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Theory of Development Jermor Simmons Capella . University #8195; Table of thesis projects, Contents Table of Contents 2 Abstract 3 Method 4 Results 4 References 5 #8195; Abstract The development and growth of an essay individual is within the constraints of the social environment (Jordan 183). Bronfenbrenner's theory that development is influenced by experiences arising from broader social and cultural systems as well. Developmental psychology , Ecological Systems Theory , Ecology 1544 Words | 5 Pages. Ecological Footprint 9 F Ecological Footprint What is an Ecological Footprint? An . ecological footprint is the science projects, measurement system that helps us calculate the nursing case stroke, human pressure(the human demand) on science, Earth's ecosystems.It calculates what percentage and part of the world we use individually or in groups. Ecological footprint is calculated by looking over all of the biological products/materials consumed and all of the biological waste produced,by a person during a specific year.All of these.

Carbon footprint , Carrying capacity , Ecological footprint 1045 Words | 4 Pages. Ecological BacklashI IntroductionA Ecological Backlash1 counterresponses. ? Ecological Backlash I. Essay? Introduction A. Ecological Backlash 1. counter-responses of pest populations or other biotic factors in . the environment that diminish the effectiveness of management tactics 2. resistance, resurgence, and thesis, replacement B. Ecology and Evolution 1. Master Song? ecological backlash is one expression of science thesis, genetic responses of a population to a selection pressure (resistance) and of variable impact of nature, a mortality factor on different species (resurgence and replacement) 2. for resistance, contributing. Antibiotic resistance , Bacillus thuringiensis , Beetle 1196 Words | 8 Pages. ?In this day and science thesis, age, we are facing (and denying/ignoring) many ecological issues. Many people say that these issues aren’t really there and . that everyone is being dramatic about it. Every century, the short, United States alone rises 1.3 degrees Fahrenheit.

That may not seem like a big deal but just that little bit is concerning and just might cause our world to science thesis projects, go downhill. About About? As our temperatures rise, so do the oceans. According to, if our sea level were to rise just a mere seven meters. Atmosphere , Carbon dioxide , Climate change 1773 Words | 4 Pages. ?Your Ecological Footprint Due February 10, 2014 Step 1. Do some background reading The Ecological Footprint is a measure of . the human impact on nature. Take some time to get to science thesis, know about the Ecological Footprint and what it measures: Next, read through the Ecological Footprint Quiz’s Frequently Asked Questions at Critical Essay? You never know what others have asked that may be of interest to you.

Ecological footprint , Ecology , Family 741 Words | 2 Pages. ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS • If we arrange the thesis, organisms in essay my hometown a food chain according to their trophic levels, we . Science Thesis? often form a pyramid with a broad base representing primary produces only a few individuals in the higher trophic level. • This pyramid arrangement is master, especially true if we look at the E content of an ecosystem. • Following the 2nd law of thermodynamics, less food E is thesis, available to the top trophic level than is critical, available to science, the preceding level. • For example, it takes. Apex predator , Biomass , Ecology 1287 Words | 24 Pages. Trillions of dollars are given away freely every year in nursing case stroke patient the form of ecological services. Most people take for granted the services that our . ecosystems provide at no cost. These services are essential to our way of life and science projects, happen behind-the-scenes on a daily basis. Protection from the sun’s harmful ultraviolet rays is one such service that we take for granted. Support and growth of plants, wildlife, and bacteria that supply the majority of medicines is another important service.

Unfortunately many. Biodiversity , Electromagnetic spectrum , Human 846 Words | 3 Pages. People's Republic of China and Kazakhstan. Outline Topic: Kazakhstan General Purpose: To inform Specific Purpose: To inform my audience about the beauty of mother nature, geography of Kazakhstan . and its two biggest cities Almaty and science, Astana. Main points: I. Geography of Kazakhstan II.

Almaty city III. Astana city Organizational pattern: Topical order Introduction I. What is the first thought that comes to your mind when you hear a word Kazakhstan ? A. Master? How many of science thesis projects, you know where Kazakhstan is located? II. Almaty , Astana , Caspian Sea 748 Words | 3 Pages. Running Head: BRONFENBRENNER ECOLOGICAL THEORY Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory Analysis Abstract Bronfenbrenner's . Ecological Theory focuses on essay, the individuals’ development in thesis projects the context of internal and external layers of of mother nature, development.

The theory illustrates how environmental influences affect the development of an individual. Apart from the external environment influences, the person’s biological characteristics are also part of the primary environment that affects his/her growth. Developmental psychology , Ecological Systems Theory , Ecosystem 1533 Words | 5 Pages. purchased an earlier edition of the Parrillo text, be advised that the material will in places be on different pages from the science, 9th edition and you are . responsible for the material as it appears in case patient the 9th Edition. Raymond Krech. The Ecological Indian. The Ecological Indian Book Review: For this assignment you will be required to answer five questions (20 points each) and integrate concepts, theories and projects, ideas from your textbook (chapters 1-4) that help explain the issues you encounter in song this.

Allyn Bacon , Amerigo Vespucci , Answer 805 Words | 3 Pages. Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory. Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological . System’s theory explores the different relationships influencing a child’s development, formed in his or her environment. Science? His theory is devised into notes on a essays, complex ‘layers’ based on different settings, each impacting on the child in some way. The development of a child is science projects, heavily influenced by a number of factors in the child’s maturing biology, including, his immediate family. Developmental psychology , Ecological Systems Theory , Ecology 881 Words | 3 Pages. Environment and its Problems Introduction Environment is defined as the surroundings in which the organism lives. The environment may be . the physical environment, the chemical environment or the biological environment.

Thus, the environment has two components - abiotic and about about microsoft, biotic. Classification of Natural Resources The things that man derives from the environment are called natural resources. Science Projects? Natural resources are thus stores of supplies that are needed by man. The resources include. Biodiversity , Ecology , Natural environment 981 Words | 4 Pages. There have been many ongoing debates over the definition of ecological restoration. While there are still many definitions that people use to on a, . define this term, ecological restoration is generally defined as “the process of returning, as nearly as possible, a biotic community to a condition of biological integrity” (Callicott, 577). This term, however, means different things to different people. Science Thesis? It not only encompasses the environmental aspects, but the cultural, social, historical, political aspects. Coastal sage scrub , Marsh , Riparian zone 939 Words | 3 Pages. Urie Bronfenbrenner was the man behind the study patient, ecological theory of development which is compiled of five levels of influence including the micro-, . meso-, exo-, macro-, and chronosystem.

Each level has influenced this learner’s personal development as well as her professional development in science thesis one way or another. Master? She then analyzed how each level affected her and described situations in her life that led her to these conclusions. Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory of Development Darling (2007) concluded. Developmental psychology , Ecological Systems Theory , Extended family 1574 Words | 5 Pages. Ecological Patterns and thesis projects, Processes in Mangrove Ecosystems Ii Problem Set. PRACTICAL 3 ECOLOGICAL PATTERNS AND PROCESSES IN MANGROVE ECOSYSTEMS II PROBLEM SET 1. BIOLOGICAL INTERACTION During . our Field Trip to the Cairns Airport Mangrove Boardwalk on 7th August, 2013, I observed a distinct distribution pattern in the locations of the Orange-Clawed Fiddler Crabs (Uca coarctata). Upon further investigation, I noticed that the larger males of the species (easily identifiable as those with one large claw) colonised the open areas located beside the Middle Creek viewing. Crab , Fiddler crab , Intertidal zone 2182 Words | 7 Pages. ? Ecological Succession Worksheet Name __________________________________ Date ________ Period _______ Succession, a series of environmental . changes, occurs in all ecosystems. The stages that any ecosystem passes through are predictable. In this activity, you will place the stages of about steve microsoft, succession of two ecosystems into sequence.

You will also describe changes in science thesis an ecosystem and make predictions about changes that will take place from one stage of succession to another. The evolution of a body. Algae , Body of water , Climax community 561 Words | 3 Pages. distinguishes one person or thing from others (Landau, 364 Ed). A person's environment as a whole: an interaction with others, experiences, and time, makes a . collage of traits that distinguishes someone as an individual. David Sibley's theory of the Ecological Self or Identity is bound by his determents of social, cultural, and spatial context. Sibley believes that class, race, gender, and nation shapes our identity, it is a single concept that is molded by our experiences from the world.

I do not agree. Identity , Individual , Person 753 Words | 3 Pages. Public Policy Problems in my hometown the Environment. Government has many policies in thesis projects the area of the environment. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was created in 1970 to help identify environmental . problems in our nation, and to set policy on how to deal with those problems . Yet, with so much money spent by the government to deal with problems with the patient, environment, it must be noted that problems still exist, even within the science, bureaucracy that was meant to help in the first place. br brDuring the presidential campaign of the critical, last election, an. Al Gore , Bill Clinton , Environment 856 Words | 3 Pages. INVESTIGATING THE ECOLOGICAL NICHE OF THE CRAB USING A FAIR TEST INTRODUCTION: The ecological niche of the crab Hemigrapsus . edwardsi. The crab is a member of the Crustacea phylum and is in the family Grapsidae. This crab species is found only in New Zealand on rocky shores. Science Thesis? The rocky shore, where the crabs studied in short essay my hometown this investigation were found is quite exposed. There is a large rock platform that provides small crevices and small rocks which help to protect them from wave action and science thesis projects, predators.

Crab , Crab louse , Ecology 1443 Words | 7 Pages. Executive Summary The problem , objective and strategy tree analysis is one participatory tool of mapping out main problems , . along with their causes and effects, supporting project planners to identify clear and manageable goals and the strategy of how to achieve them. Short My Hometown? There are three stages in this analytic process: (1) the identification of the negative aspects of an existing situation with their “causes and effects” in a problem tree, (2) the inversion of the problems into objectives leading into. European Commission , European Union , Problem 1558 Words | 5 Pages. Problems of thesis, Cultural Development in Kazakhstan Could Be Solved. Problems of essay steve about, cultural development in Kazakhstan could be solved . Outline Title: I Introduction Thesis statement: Due to decline of the cultural development in Kazakhstan the government and thesis, the society should take definite and urgent measures to scandal essays, improve the situation.

II Background of the Problem A. History . Cultural studies , Culture , Education 1701 Words | 12 Pages. HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD: THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN A Thesis by MADINA KENZHEGARANOVA Submitted to science projects, the . Master Song? Office of Graduate Studies of Texas AM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 2008 Major Subject: Educational Human Resource Development NATIONAL Office of. Developing country , Development , Historiography 27410 Words | 123 Pages. ?Title : Ecological Sampling Objectives : 1. To learn the projects, method of constructing a quadrate on nursing case, an area of grassland in science . Biodiversity Park. Notes On A? 2. To estimate the population sizes of thesis, Species A using the quadrate sampling method. 3. Essay On Utopia? To observe how abiotic factors affect the population of Species A. Introduction : Since there is an abundance of populations in a forest, it is impossible for us to study all of the populations due to financial constraints, time consuming and. Acid , Base , Light 1699 Words | 6 Pages. 1. Choose an overpopulated country in the world. Describe its situation (use some statistics) and then find out if that country (or perhaps a United Nations . program, or NGO program, is in place to the help in the resolution of the problems associated with the science, overcrowding.

Rapid population growth during the 20th century helped shaped China’s society in a myriad of ways as China struggled with the master, breakdown of projects, its dynastic structures, world wars, civil wars and the founding of nursing study patient, a new. Carrying capacity , Demography , Famine 1122 Words | 4 Pages. The Republic of Kazakhstan. Constitution and Government. The Republic of Kazakhstan . Constitution and Government. The Republic of Kazakhstan declared its independence on the 16th of science projects, . December in 1992 and the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic was renamed and essay, became the Republic of Kazakhstan . The first constitution was adopted on the 28th of January in 1993. The Current constitution became strong and was accepted on the 30th of August in 1995. Based on the Constitution Kazakhstan is a unitary state with a presidential form of government, which has three. Communist state , Executive , Law 773 Words | 3 Pages.

Ecological and Natural Environment tech. ? Ecological and Natural Environment Ecological environment: Ecology is the science of dealing with living things and their . environment. All living things are related to each other and also related to their environment. In order to understand their effect of marketing ecology on marketing environment. Let us group the science, earth’s material into 3 categories: 1. Infinite resources – air and water 2. Renewable resources – forest and thesis song, food 3. Non-renewable resources – coal , oil and minerals The deterioration. Biodiversity , Ecology , Environment 722 Words | 4 Pages. ?African Problems 2 As it is known, human history began in Africa from appearance of first human dated to 3.000.000 years. Science? Nowadays humanity . has made a huge progress in case patient social, technical, scientific spheres.

But unfortunately, human society has digressed in some cases of social development and there are lots of science, poor examples. For 3.000.000 year history, a human being still has many problems beginning from physical solution of many problems such as fights, murders, wars ending by many types of discriminations. Africa , Atlantic slave trade , Continent 1796 Words | 6 Pages. An Ecological Theory Applied to Aging. Ecological theories of human development consider the complex interactions between humans and their changing social and physical environments. . Beauty Of Mother Nature Essay? Every member of society experiences these interactions in a different manner, depending on factors such as the amount of resources available to them or the interconnectedness of their support system at birth. As people age and as the macrosystem itself changes in response to thesis projects, events, people within the system shift to occupy different positions in society. Critical Essay On Utopia? People's. Ageing , Elderly care , Gerontology 1361 Words | 4 Pages. proven to thesis, be widely applicable to thesis, systems that have highly moving organisms not in relation to the type of science, landscape that they are living in.

CRITIQUE . The big urge to my hometown, convey such a model that Death and thesis projects, Tonkin formulated was a big breakthrough in short essay ecological science. The model was well proven to be effective in habitats wherein organisms immensely move in the area. This may be of good help especially to ecologists studying succession, diversity and behavior of plants and animals. How the methods were. Das Model , Ecology , Limit superior and science thesis, limit inferior 913 Words | 3 Pages. Ecological Succession Abstract: To be able to effectively determine and differentiate the various types of bacteria present during a two . week fermentation process of case patient, both cabbage and cucumber using a variety of selective media. If fermentation is performed, then the science thesis projects, CFU/ml of the bacteria should decrease along with the pH. Introduction: The fermentation of foods has been a long standing tradition and on a, practice among many civilizations, as it was once a means to keep foods fresh and thesis projects, or edible over. Bacteria , Bacteriology , Enzyme 762 Words | 3 Pages.

Impact of Custom Union to Kazakhstan. custom uniMurat Serikbayev 20123402 Iimpact of customs union between Belarus, Russia and Kazakhstan ' to the car market in essay our country I . want to start my Tethys from the thesis, history of Kazakhstan's car market, what are the notes essays, prospects for the future and how it is influenced by the customs union. Before the financial crisis Kazakhstan’s car market demonstrated impressive growth, more than 25% annually, which is thesis, higher than in notes on a scandal essays most developed countries. Used car market also was developed because it was. Automobile , Automotive industry , Chevrolet 939 Words | 3 Pages.